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Full text of "Farmer's magazine (October 1910-May 1911)"

Library 

of the 

University of Toronto 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of Toronto 









http://archive.org/details/farmersmagoctmay1911toro 



Twenty Cents a Copy 



Two Dollars Per Year 

7^ — . J Y 







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THE-MACLEAN-PDBLISHING-COLTD-TORONTO-MONTREAlrWINNIPEG 




DAY BY DAY the public press tells us of 
new wonders of science — of new discov- 
eries — of new forces harnessed for the 
quicker performance of the world's work, — for 
the greater crowding of results into a brief per- 
iod. The farmer and the business man alike are 
constantly striving: to do still more. 

Wonders may never cease, but greater won- 
der than all else is that man, with all his attain- 
ments, can never reach the point where he can 
declare himself independent of Nature's laws 
and Nature's own remedies. 

Usually the first organs of the body to call a 
halt to unnatural haste are the stomach and 
liver. When overworked and distressed they 
demand relief and nothing but Nature's specifics 



will restore them. Dandelion and mandrake 
have proved for generations to be most pot- 
ent remedies for the overworked and harassed 
digestive system, and it is largely to these two 
great remedial agents of Nature that the great 
success is due of Parmelee's Vegetable Pills, 
which are known and valued everywhere. 

Under the quiet but sure influence of Par- 
melee's, the best of all pills, the fermentation of 
food in the stomach is effectually checked, the 
liver is regulated and the bowels are toned and 
strengthened. A clear eye and mind result and 
the whole system responds promptly. 

Parmelee's Vegetable Pills are sold every- 
where in 25-cent boxes. Prepared by Northrop 
& Lyman Co., Limited, Toronto. 




New Hired Man: "Ere. 
Boss, blimey if I ever 
'eard tell o' dippin' a 
sheep wiv a bloomin' 
rag ! Over 'ome we alius 
uses a propah dippin' 
tank an' bally well dips 
'em ! 

The Boss : Well, you see, Duke. 
Mary's little lamb here can't get en- 
ough of it— Ever since we dipped 
last spring she comes pestering me 
all the time for more 



French's Sheep Dip 

Other good things to have on 
the shelf are : 

French's HARNESS OlL 
French s 

RuBYEtiB Metal Polish 

French's P ANO POLISH 
French's FURNITURE POLISH 

Your dealer sells all these things 
— Ask him. 



J. A. FRENCH & CO., LTD., 




Toronto and Delhi 



FARMER'S— ADVERTISING SECTION 




The Canadian Serial Rights on 
SERVICE'S FIRST NOVEL 

THE TRAIL 
OF '98 

Have been secured for 

Farmer's Magazine 

ROBERT W. SERVICE 

^■^^^^^^H^^^HBIHHBHBHi^^H^^^B The Canadian Kipling, of whose books. " The 

Songs of a Sourdough " and " Ballads of a Chee- 
chako," over 100.000 copies have been sold. 

From an almost obscure bank-clerk in a remote corner of Canada, 
Robert VV. Service sprang into the favor of thousands of Cana- 
dians and readers all over the world, as the author of "The 
Songs of a Sourdough," and later, of "Ballads of a Cheechako." 
This young painter of the colors of the Yukon had to pay to 
have his first book brought out, but since then one hundred 
thousand copies of his poems alone have been sold in Canada. 

Now— he has ventured into the field of novel-writing. Dropping the 
limitations of the poet for the time being, he tells of one of the 
romances of the rush to the Yukon in '98. With a free, bold 
pen, yet with all the skill of the poet, he unfolds his story. He 
tells it as though he had his readers gathered around him at 
the club, or as though they were with him in the office — "after 
hours." 

It is not a problem novel. It has nothing to do with abstruse specu- 
lations. In its virility it seems primarily a man's book, yet it 
cannot fail but interest the woman who likes to hear of strong, 
brave men and fair women in a rugged land. 

Those whose fancy was stirred by Service's poetry will find him 
in this novel, still the poet. Those who have not read his poems 
yet will look for them after reading the serial. These coming 
winter nights, beside a fire—or the radiator, the Farmer's 
Magazine reader will have a wonderful source of refreshing 
entertainment. 

This intensely interesting story commences with the November is- 
sue. It will interest you more than any other story you have 
ever read. Don't overlook having your subscription commence 
with the November number. 



Maclean Publishing Co., Limited 



Toronto, Montreal, Winnipeg 



FARMER'S— ADVERTISING SECTION 



1 % Interest on Your Savings 



A 



FEW years ago a man with limited capital commenced the manufacture of sanitary^steel'tanks, 
troughs, etc., in the town of Tweed, Ontario. 



By producing goods that satisfied every requirement of careful buyers, he made his business a 
pronounced success from the start. 

A year or two later the business was incorporated under the name of The Steel Trough & 
Machine Co., Ltd., with an authorized capital of $25,000. It was determined, however, not to offer any 
stock to the public until the business reached a point where the demand for the Company's goods was 
greater than could be supplied without an increase of capital, 

That time has arrived. 

Among the goods now being manufactured by the Company are the famous "Rowe" Sanitary 
Lavatory and the " All-Steel" Sanitary Cheese Vat. On both which they have exclusive rights for 
Canada. 

The former, a picture of which is shown here, is a city convenience that will soon be in every 
country home in the land. While costing less than a washstand and accessories, it is infinitely more 
convenient, sanitary, handsome and durable. 



The demand for this lavatory, the Ail-Steel Cheese 
Vat and the Company's other lines is now so great that 
an increase of capital is imperative. The factory must be 
enlarged and the selling organization greatly extended if 
the money-making opportunities open to the Company are 
to be grasped. 

Accordingly, $6,000 of the Capital Stock of the Com- 
pany is now offered at $10 a share, the dividends upon 
which will not be less than ten per cent, per annum, 
judging by the Company's past record — a greater return 
than can be made any other way with small investments. 

The Company claim the right to buy back all stock 
issued in ten years. 

While we are open to consider applications for small 
blocks of stock, we prefer, if possible, to interest a few 
farmers who desire to take an active interest in the busi- 
ness, and who could act as agents of the Company in their 
localities, thus earning dividends on their investment and 
commissions on their sales. 

If you have any money lying idle it will pay you to 
investigate this. Write for full particulars to 



The Steel Trough and Machine Co., Limited 

TWEED ONTARIO 




The advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement — tell him. 



Voi.i. Contents; for October, 1910 

EDITORIAL. 
Why We Are Here — Our Position — Farm Accounting — Canada's Sheep 

— The Weed Problem — Farmers' Institutes — Grading Cheese — Egg 
Investigations — Farmers' Clubs — Railway Cattle Guards — The Western 
Drouth — Hog Values — Express Company's Rates — Good Roads 

— Woman's Responsibility — We Must Buy - - - 7 

AGRICULTURAL SPECIALS. 

60,000,000 Sheep or None ? - - - A. L. McCredie 23 

The Electric Farm - 'Don. C. Shaefer 33 

Pouring Grain Through the Big Funnel - - T. M. Ralston 49 

Plowing By Dynamite - - - C. B. Edwaids 64 

A Jolt From Australia - Lervis Austin 91 

An Irish Revolution - - - - - F. E. Green 1 1 

Texas Fever and the Tick - - - S. M. Evans 1 1 3 

Does the East Need Reclaiming? - Agnes C. Laut 123 

POLITICAL AND SOCIAL. 

The Government and the Sheep Question - - 29 

Do the Railways Own Canada ? - - -H.J. Pettypiece 67 

Conditions in the States - - - - /. /. Hill 7 1 

BUSINESS AND FINANCIAL. 

Farm Costs ----- Van Vliet Addling 82 

SHORT STORIES. 

The Haunting of Mr. Vanner - - - - J- J- Bell 38 

The Booming of Silver Miss ... - Victor Lauriston 57 

Pigs is Pigs ..... Ellis Parker Butler 73 

By Special License - - - - L. G. Moberly 94 

The Mammoth Tusk .... Wm. A tftryce 1 1 7 

OF INTEREST TO THE HOME. 

Fruit an Agreeable Medicine ... Lottie Shuttleworth ^ 1 

Tasty Lunches for Rural Scholars - - Caroline L. Hunt 109 

Household Hints - - - - - - - 1 1 6 

Home Helps for Health ... - Marjory MacMurchy 126 

Rural Insanitation .... <D r . A- W. Freeman 107 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

All That is Required of Us - - - - - - 37 

Tact ------- Edgar Gardner 48 

Readiness ----- 5. Baring Gould 56 

Money ------ J no. Acku)orth 63 

The Inspiration of Work Well Done - - Orison S. Marden 81 

The Pursuit of Happiness ...... 90 

Issued monthly by The MacLean Publishing Company. Limited : John Bayne MacLean. President. 
Publication Office. 143-149 University Ave.. Toronto. Montreal Office: Eastern Townships Bank Building. 



FARMER'S— ADVERTISING SECTION 



A Sane 
and 



INVESTMENT 




A complete business training (by correspondence, if 
desired), at an up-to-date and well-equipped school, 
will prove of inestimable benefit to every farmer's son 
and daughter, and the 



British American Business College 

course of instruction is thoroughly practical, and 
teaches along just those lines that will benefit you in 
after life. 



Up-to-date farming methods call for business abil 
ity of no mean order, and the farmer who is well 
equipped in this respect will, of a surety, be the most 
successful man. 

School open all-year-round. Students may enroll 
at any time. 

Many of our most successful graduates have been 
boys and girls from the farm. 




Tbe 

BRITISH 

AMERICAN 

BUSINESS 

COLLEGE 



Y.M.C.A. 

Building 

Yonge Street 

TORONTO, ONT. 



POTASH MEANS PROFIT 

TO THE PROGRESSIVE FARMER, MARKET GARDENER and 0RCHARD1ST 



The judicious use of Commercial Fertilizers, either alone or prefer- 
ably as a supplement to barnyard manure, ensures 

PAYING CROPS 

POTASH must form one of the ingredients of a "COMPLETE 
FERTILIZER," and can be obtained from all leading fertilizer 
dealers and seedsmen in the highly concentrated forms of MURIATE 
and SULPHATE OF POTASH. 

INCREASE YOUR CROPS AND IMPROVE THEIR QUALITY by using a fertilizer 
containing a high percentage of POTASH next season. Write us for full particulars 
and copies of our free bulletins, including: "Artificial Fertilizers, their Nature and 
Use"; "Potato Crop in Canada"; "Farmer's Companion," etc., etc. 

Dominion Agricultural Offices of the Potash Syndicate 

1105 TEMPLE BLDG., TORONTO 



The advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement — tell him. 



"ARMER'S— ADVERTISING SECTION 



"""Wouldn't you just love 
to be a good photographer ? 

Certainly you would ! You've made up 
your mind to buy a camera lots of times, 
but have hesitated because you thought 
you might fail to make good pictures. 

But there's a simple way you can learn 
in a few weeks to take pictures as good as 
the best photographer in the world — take 
a short course under Canada's ablest photo- 
grapher in 

Home Photography 




There's a picture well worth taking in every ^m^^^m^mt^ 
nook and corner of your farm, not only because of its artistic 
merit, but because of its home associations, and winter indoor 
pictures can be quite successfully made if you know how ! 

It's possible, moreover, for you to earn quite a bit doing a 
a little photographic work for your neighbors. Why not 
combine business and pleasure in your slack season ? 

Write to-day for details of our course. You won't com- 
mit yourself in any way by doing so! Underline on accom- 
panying coupon the course you desire, fill in name and ad- 
■MB^HHaMMMMMa^ dress, cut out the coupon and mail 



Shaw Correspondence School 

Yonge and Gerrard Sts.. Toronto. Canada 



Chartered Accountancy 


Art 


Higher Accounting 


Illustrating 


Commercial Specialist 


Designing 


Bookkeeping 


Art Specialist 


Shorthand 


Teachers' Art 


Typewriting 


Story Writing 


Matriculation 


Journalism 


Commercial Law 


Show Card Writing 


Penmanship 


Photography 


English 


Ad-Wrltlng 



name - - 
Address 



to us for particulars. 

THE 

Shaw Correspondence School 

YONGE STREET 

TORONTO, : : ONTARIO 



The advertiser would like to know where jou saw his advertisement — tell him. 




SCIENTIFIC COON HUNTING - DOING AWAY WITH THE OLD-FASHTONED GUNS, DOGS, ETC 

RULES — First locate your coon in the cornfield. Then send invitations to all your neighbors to assist you. Do 
not let the coon know you are approaching. Therefore, disguise each man behind a cornstalk. You may 
then cut the corn away from the stalk on which thee K>t) is " breed," without danger. When near enough, place with 
oare a ohargff of dynamite beneath the coon. Most modern-hunters prefer the use of a fuse also. Next place your 
best man— preferably your father, if wealthy under the coon with a net, to catch the coon when he comes down. 
There is now no escape. Light the fuse. The quarry is dislodged ami it is all over sonic say all over the township. 
Everybody departs immediately. 



Why We Are Here 

HE FARMER'S MAGAZINE is established to advo- 
cate the special interests of the farmers in economic, 
social and political questions; to provide a variety of 
information and entertainment; to show what the 
world is doing and saying; and, in brief, to be the 
home magazine of the farmer and his family. 

The two great factors in the upbuilding of Canada are the 
farmer and the manufacturer. The farmer is the more important. 
He has shared least in parliamentary protection of rights and pro- 
motion of interests. He has had no general or special organizations 
to influence public opinion or legislative action. He has had no 
great representative publication to voice his needs, defend his inter- 
ests or lead him in organized activity. Those organizations and 
papers promoted to supply his needs, have been captured by extrem- 
ists. They have appealed to prejudice rather than to good judg- 
ment, and have therefore failed to secure the endorsement of think- 




ing farmers. 



The logical tendency of the age is toward organization of 
classes for promotion of common interests. Like the farmers of 
other countries, like the manufacturers and laboring classes in his 
own, the Canadian farmer must recognize this inevitable tendency 
and prepare to fulfil it. 

In advance of action must come discussion and the widening 
of knowledge. A national, rational farmer's publication, with 
broad aims and fundamental power, is the first essential to success 
in the development of the farmer's greatest good. There is great 
need and ample room for such a magazine in Canada. It should 
deal aggressively and fairly in a broad way with the many vital 
questions which concern the whole life of the farmer, yet without 
overlapping the technical field now so well covered by Canadian 
agricultural papers. Such a publication can wield a tremendous 
influence for good. 

To fill such a place in the making of Canada, and to serve such 
a purpose in the progression of the Canadian farmer, is the hope 
and determination of The Farmer's Magazine. . Besides its own 
special editorial staff, it will have behind it the entire organization 
of the MacLean Publishing Company, which was established nearly 
quarter of a century ago, and whose staff now covers every part of 
Canada. 

The management of the paper will be in the hands of the follow- 
ing staff: — 

J. McGoey, B.A., Manager; A. L. McCredie, B.A., B.S.A.. 
Assistant Manager; T. Binnie, B.S.A., Editorial Writer; W. A. 
Craick, M.A., Literary Editor; M. I. Cameron, (Honor Graduate 
Macdonald Institute), Woman's Department; R. G. Dingman, 
B.A., Investment Topics; W. P. Levack, C.A., Business Topics. 

1 





MALEFACTORS 



"Every man for himself" is a phrase that, once regarded as a 
hase principle, has become honored of all men. It represents with- 
out doubt the attitude of most men in every walk of life to-day, and 
when properly held is without reproach. It is only the ignorant 
man, without foresight and common sense, who believes that utter 
ruthless selfishness will prove the best policy in his own interests; 
but it is clear that one must mind one's own business carefully in 
order that one may do his duty to himself, his family, his community 
and his country, in the way the true man and citizen should. 

"No man liveth unto himself alone." We are constantly re- 
minded that our own interests are inseparably associated with the 
interests of our neighbors. It is because of this truth that we have 
nations and governments. The ideal which we have in mind in the 
election, if not in the selection, of those we decide shall protect and 
administer our common interests, is that the one so selected shall act 
unselfishly in the common interest. Unfortunately our past history 
and present experience teach us that in the attainment of this ideal 
our institutions fall somewhat short. 

It is always with a sense of shock that the people discover 
treachery on the part of their representatives or betrayal of their 
interest by specially privileged individuals or corporations. Yet no 
democracy, in its development, has been free from instances of this 
kind for any appreciable length of time in its history. It would 
seem that the spirits of the ancient barons, with their haughty dis- 
dain for the rights of the many, had effected! a successful trans- 
migration of souls, to re-appear in the form of captains of industry, 
finance and transportation. 

We Canadians have many problems in which the interests of 
the many conflict with the interests of the few, and where the few 
apparently have the advantage of the many somehow ; just how, it 
is not so easy for the many to see clearly. Just as our modern 
barons, each diligently helping himself, have evolved a highly 
efficient system of so doing, so must the great majority of the 
people, who are thus exploited, develop efficient means of protect- 
ing themselves from exploitation. This is, we repeat, a matter in 
which every citizen of Canada is personally and vitally concerned. 

The United States has in its industrial and colonization develop- 
ments acted as pioneer for us in these respects. The enormous pro- 
portions of all activities in the United States make these examples 
to us the more noteworthy, and there is no example which we can 
more wisely follow than that of the great general awakening of the 
people of that great democracy in rebellion against the system of 
exploitation that has thriven so amazingly there. 

Farmer's Magazine shall stand for full ventilation of all 
questions affecting the interests of the majority of the people of 
Canada, wherever those interests are assailed. We do not claim for 

8 



EDITORIAL 

this intention of ours any originality, excepting possibly so far as 
Canada is concerned. We shall be happy to perform such service 
in Canada as has been given with splendid results to the people of 
the United States by the leading magazines of recent years. To 
give our readers, in brief, a conception of what such service means, 
and to convince them of the necessity of reading with close 
attention, the press of the country, we wish to cite a case. 
At a time in the history of the Southern Pacific Railway, 
when that system was confronted with the necessity of repay- 
ing to the people of the United States a debt of nearly sixty million 
dollars, a scheme was set on foot by that system to avoid such settle- 
ment by a species of juggling, in which the members of Congress 
were the assistants. The people of the United States would, with- 
out doubt, have lost sixty million dollars in one lump, had not one 
man, a journalist, named Ambrose Bierce, in a series of 
articles written steadily during one year, exposed the whole 
iniquitous deal. Result : The Southern Pacific paid its debt. 

If one man could do such splendid service for his fellows 
as that, Farmer's Magazine has confidence that some day its 
opportunity will likewise come for service of an equally important 
nature. 




The day has come when the farmer feels that he is engaged 
in a real business. He should not be satisfied with merely a bare 
living, when it is possible to so develop the farm by adopting 
modern methods, that profits can be made which will compare 
favourably with mercantile operations. 

In Ontario, especially, the high price of land, wages, and mater- 
ials renders it imperative that grey matter, energy, and system must 
be combined with muscular labor to obtain the best results — and 
nothing but the very best results should be acceptable to Canadian 
farmers. 

The need of cost accounting is a question with which the tiller 
of the soil is face to face. Cost accounting simply means "How 
much did I gain or lose,?" and "zvhere did I gain or lose?" Such 
accounts are not difficult to keep. It just requires system and care 
in recording the transactions as they occur. 

Intensive farming requires science and business ability. In fact 
if a -man is not a good business man he cannot be a good farmer. 
Farming should be studied as carefully as a well organized manu- 

9 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 

facturing business and every detail must be familiarized before 
success can be assured. The means to make a thorough analysis of 
the operations can be obtained only through an accounting system. 
Estimates arc worse than useless, about as workable as an oxcart 
on a railway. 

Frequently the particulars of dealings are simply jotted down 
on the wall of the barn or perhaps entered in a memo book. The 
book is carried in the pocket of the "every day" coat. The coat is 
thrown about, possibly on a hay stack, or left in a field. The result 
is the coat and the little book soon part company. Carelessness of 
this nature is absent in England, where the crowded condition of 
the country has compelled the farmers to make every dollar count. 
This point is illustrated by a wealthy English farmer who came to 
America to get statistics to compare with costs of operations in the 
old country, but failed to get the information he wanted, because 
proper records were not kept on this side. 

There are too many instances where the husbandman orders on 
credit from the storekeeper whatever supplies that are required, 
agreeing to settle in the fall, making no record of what is ordered, 
nor the prices. When he harvests his crop he cashes with pride a 
cheque for a handsome amount. Upon settling for his groceries, 
dry goods and so forth, he is astonished at the amount of the bills, 
disputes them, but is unable to prove he is correct. Finally arrives 
home disheartened and disgusted, with little or no money left and 
possibly not all the bills yet paid. This unfortunate experience does 
not always teach its lesson. It is still "too much trouble" to keep 
accounts, and perhaps the victim of his own carelessness remains in 
this condition, only too likely to lose faith in himself, in his fellow- 
men, and in his business. 

The pioneer farmers of Canada could not have been asked to be 
thorough in keeping track of their business dealings, but present 
day methods are moving fast and they have caught up to the 
farmer of to-day. We believe he will be quick to adopt a system 
that will be a moneymaker for him. 

In this issue we publish an article which illustrates the policy the 
progressive farmer should follow. The effect of carrying out the 
plans advocated is to divide the farm into departments, such as, 
fields, live stock, poultry, machines, etc. The object is to substitute 
actual figures in black and white in place of rule of thumb calcu- 
lations. It would be difficult, indeed, to discover to-day a capably 
managed industrial company that does not have accounts on its 
books showing precisely what every department is doing, somewha' 
as indicated for the farm. 

The farm has now reached a stage where it must be put on the 
same level as other industries and made to pay a dividend on the 
capital invested. It should also pay a good salary to the farmer and 
the members of the family who assist him in the house or field. All 
loopholes for waste caused by neglect, carelessness, or indifference 
.should be stopped. 

It is well known, for example, how the milk-giving qualities of 
cows of a similar breed and in the same herd will differ. Why 
should a cow be kept that is a source of expense instead of profit? 
Cost accounting will show up the poor cows. The same principle 
applies to each field sown. Why grow crops at a loss? Yet if you 

10 



EDITORIAL 

are making a return above expense of $7 an acre, when with added 
labor, change of methods of cultivation, special fertilizer or drain- 
ing you might clear $12.00 an acre, you are losing $5.00 for every 
acre. 

A few simple accounts will show what kind of crop pays best or 
what to do to make bigger profits. The same principle applies to 
every department of your business. Cost accounting for various 
departments of farm work will be explained in later issues of the 
FARMER'S MAGAZINE by our experts. 




- - vu*. „ u~ i^. — 




On another page in this issue is an article on the sheep question 
by A. L. McCredie, B.A., B.S.A., formerly lecturer in economics 
at the Agricultural College for Ontario. We are taking further 
advantage of the wide-spread interest in and discussion of this 
subject by giving reviews of articles which have appeared in othet 
papers and magazines, in Canada, the United States and England, 
on the same subject. We believe every farmer with an eye to in- 
creased profits will be glad to read and to preserve for reference 
such a collection of useful information upon this nationally im- 
portant industry and its possibilities. 

There seems no doubt that the majority of farmers who have 
had experience with sheep are satisfied that they are at least as 
profitable as other branches of live stock, not considering the fact 
that sheep are more economical feeders. When we bear in mind 
that in summer, feeding sheep, unlike other animals, make profits 
out of weeds and other coarse and waste growth, and in winter 
thrive better 6n coarse fodder, with less care, than other animals, we 
must regard any farm as incompletely stocked without them. 

What are the real reasons for the scarcity of sheep in Canada? 
The figures given in Mr. McCredie's article are startling. Why 
have so many farmers got rid of their flocks? Why have these 
and others hesitated to take up sheep-raising, in view of the tempt- 
ing prices of recent years? Reasons are given — such as the losses, 
and the fear of losses, by dog-worrying; the fact that sheep spoil 
the pastures for cattle ; the losses of sheep, or of profits in sheep, 
from disease or vermin, and other reasons less worth considering. 

We have done a little figuring on the profits in sheep, taking the 
revenue of $12.00 per sheep quoted from Mr. Drury, and the sheep 
we should have in five and fifteen years, respectively, according to 
Mr. McCredie. 

In five years we should have 21,000,000 sheep. At $12.00 each, 
these would yield a revenue of $252,000,000 — in the year 1916, say. 
In say fifteen years, we would by the same calculation sell our sur- 
plus annuallv for $720,000,000! 

11 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 

This is "big talk." But everyone who has publicly spoken or 
written to the subject evidently feels the feasibility of it. 

We believe sheep are a necessity to good farming. This belief 
is shared by all farmers who keep them, as well as by all of our 
great advance-guard in agricultural development, the agriculturists 
and scientists of our experiment stations and colleges. We believe 
further that most farmers themselves are willing to accept the same 
view, at least when they are fully informed. For this reason we 
ask our readers to write us. Give us your opinion. If you have 
tried sheep and dropped them, tell us, and tell us why. Tell us 
what changes or improvements in conditions would induce you to 
start a flock again. If you have been keeping sheep and are satisfied 
to continue, tell us. Tell us what your troubles have been, how you 
have overcome them, or what you still need to make your flock a 
more satisfactory part of your business. 

We hope to see the rapid development of a national sheep indus- 
try. It is inevitably sure to come. To help it, we some time ago 
wrote the Dominion Department of Agriculture, urging the im- 
portance and the backwardness of the industry, and strongly recom- 
mending that the Government investigate the whole situation. We 
suggested that, since the woolen manufacturers had been aided by 
a commission, which some years ago investigated the conditions 
affecting that industry, at home and abroad, so should a commission 
of investigation be appointed to go to the sheep and wool countries 
of the world to procure all useful information for the benefit of the 
farmers of Canada. 

We are glad to be able already to announce that the Govern- 
ment has endorsed this suggestion. Dr. Rutherford, the live stock 
commissioner, who had been studying the question for himself, has 
appointed two men of undoubtedly exceptional ability for this work. 
The announcement of the commission and the explanation of its 
plan of work is given, in the words of the departmental memor- 
andum, in another part of this issue. 

This action of the commissioner deserves the practical support 
of everyone interested. Let all who can do so be prepared to at- 
tend the sittings of this commission, when studying conditions in 
Canada, and see that no useful information be withheld from them. 
Meantime, we will do well to study the subject on our own account. 





.cAsVdll 



How shall we solve our weed problem ? In spite of the persistent 
work and dissatisfaction of good farmers everywhere, we find this 
nuisance in every section, with apparently no diminution anywhere. 
The question has been the theme of discussion wherever farmers 
meet. It has been called "the great disgrace" of the Canadian 
farmer by visitors from our towns and from abroad, seeing our 
bounteous crops of weed's from train window, motor car or buggy. 

12 



EDITORIAL 

No farmer wants weeds. Every farmer agrees that they are 
objectionable. It may be, however, that we do not sufficiently realize 
what a loss of actual money they are, whether they grow on the 
farm or in front of it, on the king's highway. Possibly our laws 
requiring the cutting of weeds would be better fulfilled if farmers 
realized that every sweep of the scythe, every prod of the spud, was 
not only a saving, but an investment of dollars. The old story of 
the prodigious profits in breeding the prolific rabbit is beaten in the 
actual reproducing power of the mustard and the thistle. A field 
of thistles can in one season seed down a township. A single plant 
will seed a field. Cut that plant at the right time, and you save 
the field and the township — provided the rest of the township does 
the same ! 

There is the whole trouble. So many of us are polite enough 
to allow the other fellow to mend his ways first ! Weed-cutting 
costs much labor when labor is scarce, expensive and sorely needed 
at "more urgent" work. Besides, "what's the use?" The careless 
farmer — a three-year renter, perhaps, half a mile away, can make my 
labor useless, by leaving his weeds to grow and go to seed. 

This is not a local matter. It is more than the affair of a town- 
ship, of a county. At the least, it is provincial. We believe there 
is a practical remedy. We shall have it discussed in a future num- 
ber of Farmer's Magazine. Meantime, if you will write us and 
say what you are thinking about it right now, we will thank you. 





Is there anything wrong with the Farmers' Institute system in 
Canada? When we consider that only one farmer in every nine is 
a member of the Institute we feel that there is something that is not 
exactly right about it. But what is it? The men who founded the 
Farmers' Institutes did their work well for there is not, nor ever 
has been, an organization which has spread so much good amongst 
the farmers as has the Institute. The present Superintendent of 
Ontario Institutes, Mr. Geo. A. Putnam, is certainly sending out the 
best speakers he can get ; is taking great pains to see that all the 
literature is sent to every member ; has been and is trying to get the 
farmers' clubs going in every locality in the province ; is providing 
judges and lecturers for the different short judging courses which 
are held at different places in the province and in fact has seen to 
all the details of the work which should make it a success. Mr. Geo. 
C. Creelman kept everything humming while he was superintendent 
and now while at the head of the Agricultural College is still help- 
ing the good cause along with the same vigour. What then is the 
matter? Is it the speakers? Scarcely, for they have been reported 
to the superintendent as good speakers, knowing their special sub- 
jects. Is it the farmers? Some sections always have large meetings, 
while in others there is a bare handful of men to hear the speaker 

is 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 

and to help on the discussion. It is possible that the farmers believe 
the speakers to be theoretical men instead of good practical farmers. 
Let us correct this opinion wherever we encounter it. 

The paltry sum of 25 cents does not begin to cover the expense 
of mailing the literature which is sent out every year. This alone, 
without the addresses which are heard at the meetings, is invaluable 
to each farmer who reads. There are the bulletins which are pub- 
lished by the Ontario Agricultural College ; the yearly reports of the 
same College containing results of experiments which are alone 
worth many large dollars to the farmer ; there are the reports of all 
the annual meetings of the different societies which have to do with 
the improvement of stock and agricultural conditions, such as the 
Dairymen's Associations, the Poultrymen's Association, the Entomo- 
logical Society, the Fruit Growers' Association, and several others. 

We should have time to read. The business man will stay up 
nights reading to find out how to increase his sales and where to buy 
to better advantage. True, there are times of the year when the 
farmer has not much reading time. But why should he throw use- 
ful Reports and Bulletins away? Try keeping them for the winter. 
You will surely value a few of the hundreds of things which are 
told in these pamphlets. Twenty-five cents is a lot of money, but it 
buys several dollars' worth and is a good investment. 

Have you been a member of the Farmers' Institute and discon- 
tinued? If so, you had a reason — Write and tell us what it was. 
Criticize the Institutes if you feel they deserve it, but do it in words 
that will suggest improvement. 

Have you always refused to become a member of the Institutes? 
Why? Write us and explain your reasons for staying out. We wish 
to get the opinions of all interested in better farming. We shall pub- 
lish the meat of all letters sent in for the benefit of all. Write now. 




When cheese and butter were sold direct to the buyers, the buy- 
ers allowed to score these products and set the prices for the differ- 
ent grades, there was always a kick if the goods did not receive the 
highest price or were "cut" in any way. To overcome this, the 
cheese boards were started with the hope that the buyers would buy 
the cheese on its merits. This has been a big step in the right 
direction bur even with that system there is considerable kick and 
discontent. Several who have been out of harmony with the cheese 
and butter boards advocate car inspection and pay before the cheese 
or the butter leaves the owners' hands. This has received consider- 
able prominence in Eastern Ontario where factories are most 
numerous. However, this has not been favored by all the buyers 
and makers alike ; the latter claiming that it placed them too much 
in the power of the buyers. What is wanted is a system by means 

14 



EDITORIAL 

of which the cheese will be sold on its merits no matter to which 
buyer it goes or from which factory it comes. 

In this matter -the province of Quebec has taken the lead. The 
system started there this year is to send the cheese to a central cold 
storage and while there a government inspector grades the goods 
according to score. These are then sold at auction according to 
score and regardless of the factory from which they came. This is 
the only system that has yet been promoted which sells butter and 
cheese on their merits. There can be no bribing, for the buyers are 
buying the cheese according to quality as decided by an expert. Il 
is of no benefit to this man to "slam" any one factory nor is it to 
the benefit of the buyer to see any factory get "cut" on quality ; 
therefore all parties get a square deal. There are several excellent 
cold storages in Canada at the present time and we would like to 
see these made use of in an effort of this kind to get cheese and 
butter sold on its proper basis. We have been agitating for a long 
time that dairy products, and in fact all other products, be sold with 
some regard to quality. Now this is a chance for the Department 
to make a move of some kind. They can give these storages over 
for the storing of cheese until they are scored ; they can provide the 
instructor to do the scoring and have the cheese sold by auction as 
at our cheese boards, but by quality instead of by factory. It might 
be a good plan to charge the factory with some of the cost of stor- 
ing but these details could be worked out later. This is a good 
movement and we believe the Government should help it. It 
does not matter whether it is the Dominion or the Provincial author- 
ities that keep it going; the first to step in and take charge will do a 
great good for the dairy industry. 





What is the egg trade of Canada worth? This is a question 
which has been troubling the poultrymen for some time but they 
have been unable to get the Dominion Government to act. Some 
few years ago there was a Dominion Poultry Department, but that 
has been discontinued, and now the poultry raisers do not know 
where they are at. It was with the intention of finding out this 
latter point, if possible, that a deputation of poultrymen from all 
parts of the Dominion waited upon the Minister of Agriculture 
recently. They asked that a department be established to find the 
true statistical conditions of the industry ; they asked that some cap- 
able man be placed in charge of the department to direct the work 
for the whole Dominion; they asked that a poultry pathological 
branch be started for the investigation of all poultry diseases ; in 
short, they asked that something be done and done at once to place 
the industry on the good foundation which its importance demands. 

Such work as this has been done in the United States, and it is 
known that in 1899 there were produced in that country 43,122,000 

15 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 

cases of eggs, each case containing 30 dozen eggs. The figures 
for every year since then are known, and it is estimated from these 
figures that the egg production in 1909 would amount to 80,000,000 
cases, which were valued at $528,000,000. To put it in another way, 
if there were 400 of these 30-dozen cases placed in each car, 
of thirty-six feet in length, and the cars placed end to end, a train 
would be had which would reach for 2,653 miles, or practically 
two-thirds of the way across the continent! It is money we are all 
after, and the poultry industry has been shown to be one of the 
most profitable and extensive industries in the United States. What 
has been done in Canada ? Have not our Governments been negli- 
gent in their duty in the promotion of this great industry? We are 
making it a boast in Canada that we are not followers of the country 
to the south of us, but why should we allow them to get so far ahead 
of us in this respect? It is now time for the Dominion Government 
to act, and to act in such a manner that we will soon be as far ahead 
of our neighbors as they are ahead of us at present. 

The question is, what should the Government do? Considerable 
progress has been made in the classification and grading of eggs. 
The Eastern Canada Poultry Producers' Association commenced this 
good work and many have taken it up. During the summer months 
the farmers in one section of Ontario will be receiving 12 cents per 
dozen for their eggs while at the same time the farmers in other 
sections will be receiving as high as 18 or 20 cents per dozen. Why 
should this be ? Is the market for eggs in Canada in the hands of a 
few cold-storage men ? Possibly this variation in price is due to the 
difference in the quality of the eggs or again, perhaps, it is due to 
the lack of competition amongst the buyers. Let us ask ourselves 
this question — Does the market end of poultry-keeping need an 
investigation? If so, then let us have it. 



It is not true that the farmers of Canada as a class are ignorant, 
unthinking or unable to express themselves, as is occasionally said. 
No class enjoys more or is more capable of shrewd discussions of 
interesting topics. The isolation of the farm house, the dislike of 
the "limelight," and the lack of convenient place and time for 
threshing out such questions as have real interest, have united to 
conceal the ability so many possess. 

To provide both time and place for these discussions, the Farm- 
ers' Clubs have been designed. At the club meetings topics of real 
interest to all members are presented by one or another, and dis- 
cussed by all. Plant 'breeding, and the best methods of grain-grow- 
ing are taken up; stock breeding, feeding and care form valuable 
discussions at these weekly or bi-weekly meetings. The discussions 
bring out the different methods used by each member. Good idea^ 
are exchanged, and this means a saving of time and money, which 
each man would spend in working these out for himself, or in keep- 
ing up less profitable methods. 

There are also the social benefits to be considered. It does man 
good to mix with his fellow men. The mind is broadened, life is 
made brighter, for man cannot live unto himself. The public-speak- 

16 



EDITORIAL 

ing qualities of the members are brought out and every man should 
be able to express himself on the platform. There are too few 
farmers in the Parliaments of Canada. This is largely because the 
farmers are not familiar with the art of expressing themselves in 
public. Farmers' Clubs will help us to cultivate this art more, so 
that we will be able to hold our own when it comes to separating 
money from the Government treasury. 



Wanted: A statement showing the use made of the evidence 
which was gathered by the Railway Guard Commission, which was 
appointed by the Government a few years ago to investigate the 
efficiency of the guard) which is now used by the railway companies. 
As far as we know, there has been no use made of it. Why? Almost 
every witness showed by examples that these guards were useless. 
One witness stated that he knew where a baker's horse had run 
away with the outfit and taking to the tracks had run a mile or 
more, crossed three guards, and had neither hurt itself nor upset 
the rig. Surely this alone was enough to convict the guard. What 
became of all this evidence? It was all printed in pamphlet form 
and that was the last of it ! Parliament never acted upon it, and all 
the money spent in gathering this valuable information has so far 
been wasted. 

As the law now stands, the 
farmer must prove that his stock 
which has been killed gained access 
to the tracks through the neglect 
of the company and not through 
any of his carelessness. We know- 
that the guards are useless and 
very often the fences are not kept 
in the repair in which they should. 
Proof is often very hard to 
find, and by means of this loophole 
the companies get out of paying 
for the stock which their trains have killed, on land which the 
farmers have granted them. The railways have a right by law 
to buy land wherever they want it, without regard to the wishes of 
the owner of the land. Is it right, then, that this farmer should have 
to prove that the companies do no! properly guard the land which 
they have taken? A petition, asking that the killing of stock on 
the tracks be prima facie evidence that the fences or guards were 
defective, and that where disputes arose as to how the stock gained 
access to the tracks, the companies should bear the onus of proof, 
was presented to the Prime Minister on his recent tour of the west. 
Now is the time to act, and every member of the House of Commons 
should be approached and made to promise that he will ask at the 
next session that this petition be heeded, and that the evidence 
already mentioned be acted upon. Make the companies responsible 
for their fences and guards and they will see that they are kept in 
good state of repair. They will also have a greater tendency to 
search for a guard which will keep the stock off the tracks. 

n 






It is a recognized fact that salaries for rural and village teach- 
ers are not large enough. The Government of Ontario recognizee 
this fact when they urged the trustees of the different sections to 
pay higher rates. We believe that the minimum salary for teachers 
should be $1,000 per year, and that the greater part of this money 
should come from provincial or Dominion revenues. The providing 
of these funds would be an easy matter for the Governments, and 
every citizen and corporation in Canada would second their efforts. 

There is a strong feeling amongst the rural population that 
railways should contribute more to the public treasury than they do. 
This is not because the railways are private corporations, but be- 
cause of the fair play which farmers like to see. So far the rail- 
ways have been able to give sufficient reason to prevent the tax 
being raised beyond 3.6 mills on the dollar. However, if these 
corporations knew that the money which was paid from their treas- 
uries in the form of taxes was going to support education, we be- 
lieve they would willingly submit to the tax. In Canada, railway 
taxes amount to $60 per mile, while in the United States the same 
corporations are taxed $380 per mile on the average. It is our 
contention that railway taxes should be at least 11 mills on the 
dollar for an assessment at least half the value of their rolling stock 
and real estate. This would give a sum of more than $2,448,000 
in Ontario, all of which should be turned over to increasing the 
salaries of rural teachers. For the year ending June 30, 1910, the 
Canadian Pacific Railway had a surplus of $26,250,000. Out of 
this they could easily pay their share of the taxes which would be 
imposed on them under the proposed arrangement. If this money 
were turned over to education, the railways would receive great 
benefit from it. The greatest difficulty they experience every year 
is in finding educated and conscientious employes. A thousand-dol- 
lar teacher would do much to increase the moral standing of the 
youth of this country. This salary would encourage the successful 
teacher from looking elsewhere to find a position which would better 
himself financially. Teaching is the highest profession in Canada to- 
day, and it is too bad that the good teachers have to look to other 
professions in order that they may lay a little by for their old age. 
Farmers have done, and are doing, their share towards the educa- 
tion of the young. Surely the railways will second their efforts 
and help to pay the teachers a salary which will keep the best men 
in the schools. 

18 



EDITORIAL 

This is not the only source of revenue which is available, or 
which should be available, for paying teachers $1,000. During the 
past year succession duties in Ontario amounted to over $1,000,000. 
Of this amount the universities received $500,000. The other half 
of these duties should be turned to the Education Department for 
the purpose of increasing teachers' salaries. Much of this money 
was made from the farms, yet little or none of it goes back. This 
is only fair. Governments have been at work devising systems 
of education till they have these in good form. During this time 
they have allowed the teachers to look out for themselves, and now 
there is a scarcity of teachers, both good and bad. The next move 
for the Educations Departments is to see that teachers receive a 
salary which will appropriately recompense them for the work they 
do and for the great responsibility they assume. 



THIS LITTLE pn, 

went TO MAPKET 




CAME HOME 



With hogs ranging around the nine and ten dollar mark, as they 
have been for the past six or eight months, there should be some in- 
ducement to raise more hogs than are at present finding their way to 
the market. At these prices hogs are big money-makers. At much 
smaller prices they pay handsomely. Hogs are good mortgage 
lifters. It is true that many are afraid to go into hog-raising for fear 
they may lose, as they have done before when hogs were high 
in price. Many farmers have gone in for hog-raising to find appar- 
ently a surplus on the market which made prices drop. Neverthe- 
less the "little pig" has been going to market ever since and every 
time has (brought money to the pocket of the owner. Quietly but 
surely the man who has steadily refused to go out of hog-raising, 
just because hogs were low in price, has been making good money 
out of them. There are many farmers who lack the stick-to-it quali- 
ties to make any one branch of farming pay. They shift from one 
thing to another as the price shifts and they always have the wrong 
article for sale in quantities when prices are high. If they would 
stay with the one line they would find the high figures and would 
have more money in the end. 

In the States of Iowa and Kansas last year over half of all auto- 
mobiles were bought by farmers; and these states bought the lion's 
share of the autos of the whole country. It was the little pig that 
did it! The pig is the bank balance over there. Yet pigs bring fair 
— yes, fair prices, right here in Canada. Just now you can trade 
about seventy pigs for one perfectly good automobile — but perhaps 
you don't want a $1,000 automobile ! 

19 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 

( )ne express company in the United Slates gave its shareholders 
in 1907 a present out of«profits, of bonds equal to 200 per cent, on 
the company's stock. In 1898, a similar slice of the melon netted 
them 100 par cent. These were in addition to handsome regular 
dividends. 

Yes, bonds — not cash. The difference is that the public must 
forever continue to pay interest on the dividend, as well as on the 
principal capital. 

Another express company, this year, gave its shareholders even 
a nicer thing! In cash, 100 per cent, on total capital and 200 per 
cent, in paid-up stock, were given as reward for being owners of 
that particular public-service concern. Of course, these concerns 
do not do much business in Canada. But forgive us if we should 
allow ourselves to suspect for one unguarded moment the possibility 
— merely the possibility' — of such a state of things existing in the 
Dominion ! 

In the evidence which was presented to the Canadian Railway 
Commission on the express rates in this country we find some 
startling statements. Express companies have been collecting rates 
for carrying fruit and other kindred products equal to the amount 
received by the growers for producing it. At the same time they 
were making profits all the way from 26 to 100 per cent. ! You 
should be interested. Who pays it? The Railway Commission 
have not yet delivered their judgment on this matter, but we hope 
they will soon do so. This profit is altogether too great. Perhaps 
the Commission would like a little more light on the subject. If so 
we will try and see that they get it. 



The less it costs us to place our goods on the market the more 
we will have for ourselves. This is a self-evident fact, that it seems 
useless to repeat it. However, we fear that it needs repeating many 
times before some of us will realize its full value. In the earlier 
days in Canada we had to build in a hurry, and the permanency 
of the work was not thought of. Time and materials are too valu- 
able now for us to continue in this manner. Some places are so 
blessed that roads have natural drainage, and are easily kept in 
repair. People in these sections can fill their wagons to the top 
and may be sure of reaching the market with the minimum amount 
of energy on the part of their team. In other places small loads 
must be taken and the trip made oftener. This is a waste of time 
and money. The railways spend many millions of dollars trying 
to lower the grades on their roads so that they may be able to haul 
big trains with less energy than they do at present. They are build- 
ing for the future. Farmers must do the same. If it costs us 
$5,000 to build a mile of road so that it will last for fifty or more 
years, with little or no repair, why should we keep spending one 
or two hundred dollars every year on the same road, and, besides, 
lose money when we market our goods? Many states of the Union 
have taken over a portion, if not all, of the roads, and are building 
them so that they will stay built. Ontario has made arrangements 
20 



EDITORIAL 

to pay half the cost of all country roads which are built in a per- 
manent manner. This has not been taken advantage of to the full. 
Why? Are we still content to rattle through the ruts and mud- 
holes as of yore? 



Speaking of losses in farming, there is another way of insuring 
yourself. Don't put all your eggs in one incubator! 

It is very pleasant, when your wheat and flax and oats run a 
half crop, to go over to the cheese factory and pull down a cheque 
or two just the same; or to walk around that bunch of fifty steers 
on Sunday afternoon and size 'em up in dollars and cents! For 
that matter, there is nothing much easier or more certain than that 
sheep will bring home the cash, dry weather or wet. This old 
world has taught its children many things, but the great universal 
and shrewd lesson has always been that animals make the surest 
and the most money for the tiller of the soil. Of course, it isn't 
as easy to stock up as to talk about it — but it pays, that's all. 



Although THE FARMER'S MAGAZINE is not in active sym- 
pathy with the militant suffragette movement of the present day, it 
is very much interested, and prepared to take deep concern, in all 
matters relative to the daily needs of the farmer's wife. All that 
claims her attention will be met and duly considered by THE 
FARMER'S MAGAZINE; recognizing, as it does, not only the 
important role she plays, but realizing how wide is the influence she 
extends, not only on the farm, but throughout the country. We 
do not hear a great deal, as a rule, not as much as we should, about 
the farmer's wife. It is usually the farmer only who receives the 
lion's share of attention — it may be for his vote, it may be for his 
acres. It is not, perhaps, understood fully, how enormously the 
value of both is increased iby the judicious influence of the wife. 
Hers it is whose governing power is felt throughout the whole 
scheme of the farm — no matter how large, no matter how small. 

To lay out the system for the daily routine, apart from the work 
in the fields, falls almost entirely to her regulation. Nearly all 
questions of economy, both inside and out, are submitted to her for 
her careful consideration. A good portion of the stock very fre- 
quently comes under her tending, calling for both knowledge and 
skill. Above all, and most important, she has the planning for the 
education and up-bringing of her children, to which no time, thought 
or management that lies within the power to bestow, is too much to 
give. Always to the well-being and future of the chii '' must ve 
look to the future and well-being of the farm, else will \i. swallow 
up only years of wasted toil and capital of profit to none. To the 
mother must we go for the disposition towards discipline, manners 
and helpfulness, three attributes to character which wil' make much 
for success on the farm, and happiness in the home. 

21 



F\RMER'S MAGAZINE. 

Bearing on these matters, and in many ofcho ■ subjects relative 
to farm life, we feel confident the farmer's wife will find much 
valuable advice and assistance in the forthcoming numbers of THE 
FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



Why do we strive to make money? And why MORE money? 
Because money buys for us the things which make our lives worth 
living. 

Why do we buy more of every sort of goods than our fathers 
did? Because we have more money to buy with. Because we see 
more clearly, that money alone saved and unused is truly wasted. 
Because, too, most of our purchases, if not all, are directly useful 
in increasing the net profits upon our toil. 

We must buy. Labor is scarce and we must buy implements 
to do the work of men. The more we spend in implements, the less 
we need to spend in labor. The binder and mower are now necessi- 
ties on every farm, and it will not be long till the shocker is as 
common as these two are at present. In the stable we need better 
fittings, both for the sake of convenience and for the beauty and 
attractiveness which they add to the place. The good wife could 
not get along without the sewing machine or the modern, economical 
range ; whereas our mothers did their sewing by hand and cooked 
on the open fireplace. All these new things are labor-savers and 
go to make our lives pleasanter and our homes more comfortable. 

The shrewd buyer is he who studies all goods before he buys. 
But in practice the only way we can study goods, to pick the best, is 
to get in touch with all who by advertising in magazines and papers 
offer their wares. We must see that they supply full information. 
This they are all willing to do by sending their catalogues. Now 
when you have all these catalogues, classify them in your desk or 
bookcase, and when you are in need of any class of goods you will 
not need to spend much time in deciding which line to follow up. 

Advertisements and catalogues are written with the sole purpose 
of informing the public as to the qualities of the goods offered, not 
the personal qualities of the manufacturer. Do not read advertise- 
ments with the sole idea of looking for bargains. Keep in touch 
with everything that will help to lessen the daily work and will 
give more comfort in the home. 



To make THE FARMER'S MAGAZINE as attractive and as 
helpful as possible to the farmer's wife and daughters, we intend 
devoting a page exclusively to patterns, recipes and household 
hints. Unavoidable delays have prevented us from presenting our 
readers with a fully-worked-out page for this issue. We trust this 
page will be of assistance in making attractive homes and success- 
ful homemakers. 




THERE IS ROOM FOR MANY THOUSAND FLOCKS LIKE THIS 
IN OUR WESTERN PRAIRIES 



60,000,000 Sheep -Or None? 

By A. L. McCredie 

Canadian farmers and manufacturers have for some time 
recognised, by complaints and sundry conflicts, the humiliat- 
ing fact that this country of boasted resources and enterprise 
does not keep itself supplied with either mutton or zvool. 

So far, we have had no fully satisfactory -statement .of the 
real situation, no complete explanation of the facts of com- 
plaint, no suggestion adequately outlining the needed reme- 
dies. The Farmer's Magazine believes this article will supply 
needed information. 



LAST year 300,000 carcases of Aus- 
tralian mutton were imported 
into Canada — Canada, the food- 
supply source for the Empire ! 

Last year 7,683,000 pounds of for- 
eign-grown wool were imported into 



Canada — Canada, whose pure bred 
sheep have for years taken nearly all 
the prizes in international exhibitions ! 
We need mutton. Though we have 
an exportable surplus of cattle, the 
national taste will still for good rea- 

23 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



sons demand mutton as a part of the 
national ration, even if we have to 
bring it thousands of miles to the 
table. 

We need wool. Until we are all 
wealthy enough to indulge in a uni- 
versal use of silk, we must have wool- 
en goods for daily use. Nothing is 
more truly a general necessity to rich 
and poor. 

Yet — we are dependent on other 
parts of the world for both these 
staple and necessary products of the 
farm. More — though yearly our popu- 
lation strides forward our native sheep 
population dwindles. Why? 

This question demands an answer 
from every farmer in Canada who 
has an acre of land upon which a 
lamb might pick a living. But first, 
that we may answer it correctly and 
carefully, let us realize how serious 
is the situation. We will then take 
keener, more personal interest in the 
answer and the remedies to be sug- 
gested. 

DECLINE OF SHEEP-RAISING. 

In 1871 Canada's sheep population 
numbered one for every inhabitant. 
In 1901 (only 30 years later) our 
sheep had decreased until there was 
less than half a sheep for every Cana- 
dian. Again — in the same pei iccl 
the number of sheep decreased, from 
one for every fifteen acres occupied 
to one for every thirty acres. This 
indicates the possibilities of greater 
production of sheep upon our acreage. 

But even in 1 871 Canada was in no 
sense a sheep country. If we go into 
sheep raising, by all means let us go 
into it decently. Let us make it a 
business, as we have made dairy- 
ing and wheat-growing. By supplying 
the demand now, as we did in 1871, 
we would now find on Canadian farms 
6,310,000 sheep, all doing their part 
to put money into our bank accounts. 
The truth is, we find actually less than 
one-third this number. But what are 
six million sheep? Canada can easily 
and profitably carry 60,000,000 sheep. 
If it is hard to believe, we will look 
more carefully into the facts. 

24 



The Present Situation. 

The census statistics of 1901 are in- 
teresting. In that year Canada had 
2,510,000 sheep. Germany, with a to- 
tal area less than one-seventh the size 
of agricultural Canada, had about four 
times as many (9,600,000). Great 
Britain, upon one-twelfth the area of 
our farming belt, carried 38,500,000 
sheep, or fifteen times our little flock. 
In the Argentine Republic, which is 
only two-tii irds the size of our farm- 
ing belt, with only two-thirds our 
population, throve 67,211,000 sheep, 
or twenty-six times our number. 

Lest some one suggests that these 
may be especially sheep-raising coun- 
tries, please note that Germany had 
two cattle and two hogs for every 
sheep; that Great Britain carries on 
all branches of farming in balanced 
proportions ; and that in the Argentine 
there were five cattle for every in- 
habitant, while Canada had scarcely 
one ! 

With the same number of sheep per 
acre as Germany, Canada, in 1901. 
would have had 67,000,000 sheep. 
Compared with the Mother Country 
similarly, we should have had 456,- 
000,000. And compared with the Ar- 
gentine, Canada's flocks would have 
shown 86,000,000 sheep. 

It seems then absolutely certain 
that Canada could carry at least 60,- 
000,000 sheep without lessening her 
other farming activities in the least, 
provided our soil and climate would 
give the sheep a fair show. No one 
doubts this. Sheep thrive in every 
part of Canada. Our sheep supply 
the flocks of the whole continent with 
their sturdiest breeding parents. We 
have not the droughts of Australia, 
which periodically destroy millions of 
sheep and lambs. Unknown in Can- 
ada is the fatal "red-water fever" of 
South Africa, and the other deadly 
enemies of the flocks of the great 
sheep countries. It is simply a ques- 
tion of finding the acres to feed them, 
the farmers to raise them, and the 
proper method of marketing sheep and 
wool. All difficulties in the way of 
sheep-raising in all parts of Canada 



6o,ooo,ooo SHEEP— OR NONE 



may easily be overcome, and the great 
profits that are sure to result should 
make every farmer look diligently for 
his particular interest in the questions 
involved. 

CAN CANADA FEED SIXTY MILLION. 

Where shall we feed our 60,000,000 
sheep ? The land is the first and great- 
est consideration. The agricultural 
belt of Canada possesses a variety of 
soil, climate and other conditions. We 
have the rocky, rough, waste lands of 
Nova Scotia, Northern Quebec, East- 
ern and Northern Ontario and Bri- 
tish Columbia. We have the fertile 
and rolling farms of the Maritime val- 
leys, of the uplands of New Bruns- 
wick, of old Quebec and old Ontario. 
We have the vast prairies of the west. 
Let us see how it looks in figures. 

In Eastern Canada there is the ex- 
ample of Renfrew County, Ontario. 
Two-thirds of the farmers keep sheep, 
each flock averaging twenty-three 
"breeders." The average for the 
farms of the county, therefore, is fif- 
teen sheep per farm. If the farmers 
of the rest of Eastern Canada copied 
these sheep growers and kept twenty- 
three each, using 1901 census figures, 

Sheep. 
Nova Scotia would have .. 1,081,000 
Prince Edward Island .... 170,000 

New Brunswick 805,000 

Quebec 2,990,000 

Ontario 4,255,000 

Eastern Canada 9,231,000 

Yet all Canada has less than a quar- 
ter of that number! 

Nor is Renfrew a solitary case. Five 
Ontario counties — Wellington, Sim- 
coe, Grey, Bruce and Renfrew alone 
possessed in 1907 one-third the sheep 
of the province. We find then that 
we already actually have a sheep in- 
dustry under successful operation. 
What these farmers can do, every 
farmer in Canada can do. 

THE FARM FLOCKS OF CANADA. 

Now consider the occupied farms 
of the west. Of these there are about 
Soo.ooo, according to the authorities, 



each of 160 acres. At say 25 sheep 
per farm, a low average, considering 
the large proportion of unbroken na- 
tural pasture not otherwise used, this 
would give 12,500,000 sheep on the 
occupied farms of the west. 

On the present farms of Canada, 
therefore, at the averages of 23 sheep 
on the eastern farm and 25 sheep on 
the western quarter-section, our sheep 
would reach the total of 21,731,000. 
This is ten times our actual total. 
It is a respectable number for us to 
undertake to possess, yet as easy and 
simple as anything can be, that is so 
well worth while. It simply needs 
that every farmer should start a flock. 
With a beginning, on the average 
farm, of five ewes, the fifth year's end 
would see 21,000,000 sheep in Can- 
ada. 

But five sheep for each farm would 
mean, to start, a sudden demand for 
some five million ewes in Canada, 
whereas our breeding sheep total at 
best about two million. Importation 
must greatly increase, export of 
breeding animals must cease, and na- 
tive breeding be undertaken for this 
purpose especially, in order to see our 
farms each equipped with the foun- 
dation of a flock as suggested, even 
within ten years. In the meantime, 
what will be the increase of demand 
for mutton and wool by our increas- 
ing population? It is safe to say the 
demand will constantly increase and 
prices steadily increase in proportion. 

SHEEP FOR 36o,000,000 ACRES. 

But 21,000,000 sheep are not 60,- 
000,000 sheep. Where could we find 
the feeding ground of the extra 40,- 
000,000? Where shall we get the par- 
ents of that gigantic flock? We shall 
feed them where to-day no useful 
plant or animal feeds — on our vast 
waste lands, that appear in desolate 
stretches from coast to coast. We 
will find their parents upon the aver- 
age farms of Canada, when our farm- 
ers shall have set out to produce the 
21,000,000 stipulated. There lies 
our greatest market for the next gen- 

25 



FARMER'S M \CAXINE 



eration. There lies every farmer's in- 
terest in the national aspect of this 
question. And there is the greatest 
reason why farmers must study sheep 
breeding. Good breeds, good indivi- 
duals, good care, will be demanded of 
us in preparing for this next step in 
Canadian agriculture. 

But let us see if our waste lands 
are adequate to feed so many sheep, 
and if men will be attracted to the 
enterprise proposed. As to extent of 
unoccupied waste lands, useful for 
sheep-raising and less useful for other 
purposes, Canada has in all, of such 
land, in the climatic zone favorable 
to sheep, more than 360,000,000 acres. 
This is now lying undeveloped. Most 
of it is in the west, and may some 
day be largely brought under cultiva- 
tion. Yet, under cultivation, it will 
still carry the same number of sheep 
as we propose that it should carry as 
waste. In the east there are nearly 
100,000,000 acres of land, deforested, 
burned over, or otherwise denuded, 
incapable of profitable farming in the 
modern sense, but providing, with a 
paltry preparation, the best sort of 
range for sheep. The same is true 
of another 60,000,000 acres of land 
in British Columbia, at the same con- 
servative estimate, making a total of 
360,000,000 acres of land readily 
adaptable to sheep-raising. 

We have a good example of the 
usefulness of such lands for sheep. 
Scotland grazes seven million sheep, 
most of them upon 9,500,000 acres of 
rough moor and mountain side. It 
is safe to say that one sheep can read- 
ily be supported by the growth upon 
nine acres, taking good range with 
poor. Thus we have our 40,000,000 
sheep. 

But no matter. Most of us would 
be satisfied if we were ourselves sure 
of an added profit upon our own 
farms. All these figures need do is 
to prove that, whether all farmers un- 
dertake sheep-raising or not, we will 
be safe in going energetically into the 
business. And this assurance is abso- 
lutely clear, so far as future fluctua- 
tions of demand are concerned. 

26 



SHEEP PROFITS SURE PROFITS. 

13 ut before we buy our breeding 
animals, let us be sure that, now or 
at any time, the regular profits will 
be worth the trouble and study in- 
volved. 

By studying the facts we are con- 
vinced that both now and in the un- 
limited future the farmer who raises 
sheep with ordinary care is certain 
of a good net profit, in addition to 
that upon other branches of his in- 
dustry. At present prices of lambs, 
mutton, and wool, taking one year 
with another, an average flock of say 
twenty sheep can be made to yield a 
profit at least as great as with dairy 
cattle, counting investment and cur- 
rent expenses, such as winter feed, 
labor, housing, etc. 

For instance, a careful comparison 
of actual profits from cattle and 
sheep was made recently by the 
Ontario Department of Agriculture. 
The sheep were common scrubs, run- 
ning on the rough farms of north- 
eastern Ontario, ill-bred, and in-bred 
at that, as is too often the case. No 
special care, no fall feeding, were 
given. Compared with stockers and 
dairy cows, the result arrived at was, 
to quote: 

"Allowing the cost of wintering 
five sheep to equal that of one cow, it 
was found that the returns in the fall 
from an average crop of five lambs 
would be $21. Add five fleeces at 
$1.50 each; total would be $28.50, 
against $20 to $22 for the cow." As 
to labor comparisons : "The lamb did 
the milking, and there was no time 
lost or expense incurred in sending 
milk to factory or creamery. The cost 
of 2^2-year-old stockers in the same 
sections included two winterings, the 
expensive feeding time, and they sold 
at $14 to $22 each." 

Such a good, practical farmer as 
E. C. Drury, of Crown Hill, Ont., re- 
cently gave his experiences with sheep 
in a letter to the Farmer's Advocate, 
from which the following quotation 
may be given : 

"My flock is a grade one, well grad- 
ed to good Shropshire stock. It con- 



6o,ooo,ooo SHEEP— OR NONE 



sists of twenty-five breeding ewes, 
with five ewe lambs kept each year 
to replace old ones culled out. The 
lambs arrive in April ; the males are 
castrated, and all except those which 
are used for food, or kept for flock 
maintenance, are fattened the follow- 
ing winter, and sold in February or 
March. In short, my flock is one 
which could be kept on any farm in 
Ontario, in its proper place, as a side- 
line to other live stock farming. There 
is no special equipment or care, other 
than would be given to any other 
form of live stock. Let us see how 
this flock pays. 

"During the year just closed, I have 
sold from my flock $234.80 worth of 
mutton, $39 worth of wool, while five 
lambs, valued at $6 each, have been 
used for food on the farm ; total re- 
turns, $303.80, of which $264.80 has 
been for mutton, and $39 for wool." 

Mr. Drury thus gets a gross rev- 
enue of over $12 per head from his 
flock. 

The farmer with a flock of ewes 
of sturdy character and headed by a 
well-bred, well-formed ram, should 
sell his lambs at not less than $7.50 
each for the next twenty years' aver- 
age. With ordinary care he should 
get a lamb from every ewe on the 
average. Such ewes should yield a 
fleece weighing an average of 7^ lbs. 
fleece weighing an average of yy 2 
pounds. With proper marketing fa- 



er of eastern Canada at least 18 cents, 
the western farmer 17 cents per lb. 
This would total a revenue from each 
ewe of $8.85 at least, each year, or, 
say, $44 for five, $175 for twenty 
sheep. Not counting the value of the 
wool as anything, the annual revenue, 
not counting feed and labor, would 
equal 100 per cent, on the cost of the 
ewe. 

$27,000,000 WORTH OF WEEDS! 

Finally, we have to count in the 
gain to the farmer in the eradication 
of weeds by pasturing sheep. It is 
estimated that not less than $27,000,- 
000 were lost to the farmers of Can- 
ada in 1909 because of weeds. It is 
known by all that the sheep is, as one 
puts in, "the most nearly perfect weed- 
ing machine in the world." If this 
amount of money could be saved to 
Canadian farmers by sheep-raising, it 
would mean practically a credit, "n 
"pennies saved," of one dollar per 
sheep. Add that — or half of it — to the 
revenues given ! And remember that 
weeds grow rapidly more numerous 
and more expensive, if not checked 
and eradicated. 

But, some one will ask, if all the 
farmers of Canada go into sheep-rais- 
ing, will not prices drop below the 
point of profit? Let us see. There 
are in the world now, according tc 
census reports, over 400,000,000 breed- 
ing- sheep. The demand for mutton 



Canada _ 2,510.000. 
Arqentina 67 .21 1 000 




FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



and wool have increased steadily — 
must always increase, in proportion 
to the world's population, yet the 
flocks of the world have not kept pace 
therewith. In consequence, wool and 
mutton have risen in prices. Add 21,- 
000,000 sheep to 400,000,000, and you 
increase that number by 5 per cent. 
Therefore, if it were possible to raise 
our sheep in one year to 21,000,000, 
we could be sure the prices would not 
drop more than 5 per cent. This would 
not affect the argument in favor of 
sheep-raising in any particular. But 
it will take us, try as we may, fifteen 
or twenty years to reach the figure 
given. There can be no fear that 
prices for mutton and wool will drop. 
There can then be no possible doubt 
that the farmer who is looking for 
more sure profits can get them by 
raising sheep. 

"scarce" wool at half price! 

Regarding the prices for wool, the 
duty on wool, and the unorganized 
state of the wool market in Canada, 
much might be said. The market 
price in Australian markets, for un- 
washed wool, is around 18 3-5 cents, 
for washed wool 34 cents, long aver- 
ages. This is range wool, full of 
sand and other 'heavy dirt. The range 
wool of Wyoming and Montana, with 
a common shrinkage of 68 per cent, 
when washed, brought 22 cents per 
pound last year, though this was above 
the average. This is affected by the 
tariff, undoubtedly, though it is clear 
that less than half of the 12-cent duty 
is secured in enhanced price. 

But note that, while our wool is 
priced at 18 cents to 20 cents, 
washed wool brings, in England, 34 
cents and over, by millions of pounds. 
There is no duty upon our wool enter- 
ing England. Why, then, should there 
be this difference in market price? 

THE CAUSE AND THE CURE: WORK FOR 
THE GOVERNMENT. 

The great need in Canada, as re- 
gards wool, is for system, and proper, 
organized system, in getting the wool 
to ;t s market. Until Canadian wool 

28 



can be bought by standards, known 
in the wool markets of the world, 
where every user of wool finds his 
prices set for him, there can be no in- 
crease in price to the wool-grower. 
Until the world's markets know what 
Canadian wools can be used for in 
manufacturing, how it compares with 
other supplies as to length of fibre, 
percentages of shrinkage, percentages 
of inferior grades, etc. ; until a buyer 
is assured that he can get in Canada 
a large quantity of one particular sort 
when he wants it, and get exactly the 
same sort again when it is required; 
until, in short, we can sell wool as the 
wool markets demand it, we cannot 
expect to get the prices we hope for. 
And until we can supply our home 
manufacturers with the wools their 
mills must have, as promptly and as 
satisfactorily as they can buy it in 
England or elsewhere, a duty could 
not well be placed so as to benefit the 
farmer. 

First, then, we must have a stan- 
dardization of our wool. This can be 
got only by grading stations under 
competent supervision by experts. 
These, in turn, are not likely to be ob- 
tained except by the instance of the 
Federal Government. It is high time 
the Dominion Government, so lavish 
in its expenditures upon other depart- 
ments, should devote the modest 
amount necessary to the establishment 
of a national sheep industry. 

The Government has shown how 
capably it can organize the work of 
improving conditions in stock-breed- 
ing, national seed supply, etc. Let us 
hope the same capability will be shown 
in organizing a stable and adequate 
marketing system for wool, and in giv- 
ing us tried remedies for others. Let 
them send, say, two experts, to study 
conditions abroad, the one specializing 
in wool, the other in breeding and 
mutton. Let these men be given full 
opportunity to get information in the 
sheep countries of the world, so that 
mir system may be based upon the 
best practice. Let our Government 
then take energetic steps to assist the 
farmers of Canada in starting aright 



6o,ooo,ooo SHEEP— OR NONE 



upon what is certainly destined to be 
one of the greatest agricultural move- 
ments we shall see — a national sheep 

industry. 

* * * 

In our next issue we will publish 
other articles, discussing the minor 



problems of sheep-raising, as: The 
Dog Question; The Economic Value 
of Proper Care of Sheep, etc. Read- 
ers are asked individually to write the 
editor, giving their views, objections 
and suggestions. We wish to ventilate 
the whole of this subject. — EDITOR. 



The Government and the 
Sheep Question 



THE following is part of a memor- 
andum just issued by the Live 
Stock Commission at Ottawa, 
announcing the investigation of this 
question by a specially appointed com- 
mission. After describing the unsatis- 
factory conditions of sheep-raising in 
Canada, he says: 

As a preliminary to the adoption of 
any settled policy, and in order that 
the Live Stock Commissioner may in- 
form himself thoroughly as to the de- 
tails of the sheep and wool trade in 
Great Britain and the United States, 
and as to conditions as they actually 
prevail in Canada, the Minister of Ag- 
riculture has authorized the appoint- 
ment of a committee of two competent 
men to investigate the sheep situation 
in general in the three countries named. 
At the same time it is the expectation 
that, without an actual visit, they will 
gather as much information as possible 
concerning the trade of the other great 
sheep producing countries, in so far as 
it may be of interest in the develop- 
ment of the industry in Canada. It has 
been thought advisable to have this 
committee consist of, in the first place, 
a wool expert, whose special training 
has made him familiar with all the 
technical and practical phases of wool 
markets and woollen manufacture in the 
United Kingdom and Canada, and in 
the second place, a capable Canadian 
sheep breeder whose experience has 
eriven him a somewhat extended know- 
ledge of sheep farming in this country. 
These erentlemen have already been ap- 
pointed, and are at present pursuing: 



their investigations in Great Britain. 
The personnel of the committee consists 
of Mr. W. T. Ritch of Manchester, Eng- 
land, and of Mr. W. A. Dryden, of 
Brooklin, Ontario. 

Mr. Ritch, though perhaps unknown 
to the members of the Sheep Breeders' 
Association, has had familiar and hon- 
orable relationship with tradespeople in 
Canada for a 'period of years, having: re- 
presented while in this country certain 
English cloth manufacturers, whose in- 
terests he served efficiently and accep- 
tably. Mr. Ritch's experience has made 
him thoroughly familiar with the 
woollen industry in England and Scot- 
land, with the wool markets and man- 
ufacturing districts of that country, and 
has besides given a general knowledge 
of the woollen trade, including: that in 
staple and shoddy articles, and in the 
manufactured product both of England 
and America. He has visited also in a 
business capacity Australia and New 
Zealand, and has made careful observa- 
tions concerning the growing and mar- 
keting of wool in these two countries. 
Combined with his technical knowledg-e. 
Mr. Ritch has acquired a practical un- 
derstanding of the growing and handl- 
ing of wool on the farm and together 
with this has evidenced an enthusiastic 
and intelligent comprehension of what 
may be expected from the development 
of the sheep industry in Canada, thus 
commending: himself to the attention of 
the commissioner in connection with 
the appointment to the committee. It 
is felt that Mr. Ritch will be able to 
place such information at the disposal 
of the Minister, his officers and of all 
interested in sheep breeding in this 
country, as is likely to be particularly 

29 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



valuable in the furtherance of the 
scheme for the upbuilding of the indus- 
try which is now in contemplation. 

The other member of the committee, 
Mr. W. A. Dryden, of Brooklin, Ont., 
is very well known to the Stock Breed- 
ers of Canada. The present owner of 
Maple Shade has fallen heir to many of 
the qualities which gave his father so 
large au influence in his own province 
and, although as yet a comparatively 
young man, has acquired a knowledge 
of the stockman's art which has already 
brought him to the fore amongst Can- 
adian breeders. Mr. Dryden's Collegiate 
and Agricultural education has been 
such as to bring him into demand in a 
more or less public way, and in recent 
years he has been about Canada a 
good deal in connection with judging 
and other work under the supervision of 
the Live Stock Branch. Mr. Dryden's 
judgment is practical and his recogniz- 
ed popularity speaks well for the con- 
fidence which may be expected from his 
fellow breeders in his ability to per- 
form, with credit to himself and them, 
the work which he has now undertaken. 
In combining the services upon this 
Committee of a practical sheen man 
with that of a technical expert the De- 
partment has reason to believe that the 
problems of production and of market- 
in 0- , both as regards wool and mutton, 
will be studied and discussed in such 
close relationship that the results of 
the inquiry will most successfullv serve 
the purpose for which it is undertaken. 

After consultation with the Live 
Stock Commissioner the members of 
the committee have, of course, been al- 
lowed the liberty of denending largely 
upon their own initiative in planning 
their route and in evolving - the details 
of their investigations. The general 
procedure will, however, be somewhat 
as follows. Mr. Bitch preceded Mr. 
Dryden to England in order to attend 
a number of important wool fairs, in 
progress durine Aug-ust and September. 
There he will be in close association 
with wool merchants and with men in- 
terested or engaged in the woollen 
trade in its several branches and will 
thus- be enabled to discuss with them in 
all its phases the various details of the 
industry in connection with loth home 
and foreign markets. 

Both members of the committee are 
arranging to be present at the bic lnte 
summer and autumn sheep sales which 
are annually held in the latter part of 
August, during - September and in Octo- 
ber. They will visit Smithfield and the 
larger meat markets of London, and of 
other important cities. It is possible 
also that they will be present at the 
pnnnal ram sales at Kelso and at one 

30 



or two other leading centres. This will 
bring them into intimate touch with 
sheep breeders, mutton raisers, dealers, 
butchers and provision men in all the 
important localities. It will give them 
an insight into conditions and methods 
as they prevail upon the farms through- 
out the country. It will direct their 
attention to the systems of marketing 
in operation in every stage of the busi- 
ness. It will furnish them with infor- 
mation concerning prices, profits and 
as to the extent and nature of the 
trade, and, in short, give them a know- 
ledge of the great sheep industry of the 
United Kingdom and of the import 
trade in dead mutton and lambs. It is 
hoped that the investigations in Great 
Britain will put the Branch in posses- 
sion of such information and of such 
facts and statistics as may enable it to 
intelligently assist in building up a 
great Canadian business in the raising 
of sheep and also in finding a place for 
the Canadian products of wool and 
mutton in the commerce of the world. 

Returning to Canada, the investiga- 
tors will visit all the provinces and in- 
terview prominent sheep men and man- 
ufacturers in order to familiarize them- 
selves with the difficulties, drawbacks 
and defects in connection with condi- 
tions as they now prevail, and which 
have hitherto operated to retard the 
advancement of the sheep industry in 
the country. It is expected that thev 
will gather information as to the injury 
inflicted on our agriculture through the 
decline of interest in sheep raising, that 
they will take note of the localities 
where the growing of sheep could be 
most easily and profitably encouraged ; 
and that, bringing to bear the sugges- 
tions gleaned from their general inquiry 
uuon the various phases of the situa- 
tion as they find it in Canada, they will 
draft recommendations for the guidance 
of the commissioner in framing, in the 
very near future, such a policy as will 
prove in the best interests of the indus- 
try. 

If time permits, Mr. Ritch and Mr. 
Dryden will also visit the United 
States. In many States of the Union 
as compared with Canada, almost uni- 
form conditions prevail, particularly as 
regards the advantages that are possi- 
ble and which may be derived from an 
extensive sheep trade. Many single 
States own more sheep than are to be 
found in the whole of the Dominion and 
althoug-h to the south of the line there 
may be some discouraging features in 
the general situation, nevertheless there 
may be much in the way of suggestion 
to be learned from that country. Fur- 
ther, trade relationships between the 
two countries must always be more or 



THE GOVERNMENT AND THE SHEEP QUESTION 



less intimate and as the United States, 
notwithstanding a severe duty, imports 
annually from Canada a goodly quantity 
of wool, it would seem to be of direct 
advantage to have some specific infor- 
mation concerning the status of the 
trade in the former country and also 
as to its availability as a future mar- 
ket. 

Canada has, undoubtedly, wonderful 
possibilities and large opportunities in 
connection with the development of its 
sheep population. The present investi- 



gations have been undertaken as pre- 
liminary to the adoption of a perma- 
nent scheme for the encouragement and 
upbuilding of the industry. In the be- 
lief that Canadian agriculture must of 
necessity suffer severely while sheep re- 
main so few in number in the country, 
the Minister and his officers will not be 
satisfied until statistics show a return 
of at least ten times the present esti- 
mate and until sheep raising has estab- 
lished itself as a recognized factor in 
promoting the national prosperity. 



Fruit is an Agreeable 
Medicine 



By Lottie Shuttleworth 



There is much to be learned about the medicinal 
properties of our common fruits. Few are thoroughly 
alive to the real value of fruit as an aid to digestion 
and as a tonic for the system. Nature's remedies are 
the best, and wives and mothers always seek to pro- 
vide the best for the health of those around them. 



IN the future towards which our 
eyes are now directed, more eag- 
erly than at any proceeding per- 
iod, there can he no doubt that 
all things will be noted nearer their 
true worth than they are to-day. 
In cooking, especially, many com- 
pounds now in vogue will sink in- 
to disuse, but their places will be 
filled with foods which are pleas- 
ont to the eye, delicious to the 
taste and yet easy to prepare. In all 
departments of the household, that 
beautiful and harmonious simplicity 
which is evidence of the highest cul- 
ture, must prevail, and it will be 
found that a simple, wholesome, appe- 
tizing dietary, one which can be pre- 



pared with ease and served with eleg- 
ance, is that one in which fruits will 
play a most important part. 

The value of fruit as food is far 
from being generally understood and 
as a rule, we do not pay sufficient at- 
tention to the use of it in our diet. 
The result, both as to health and sat- 
isfaction, would be encouraging. 
There are qualities peculiar to each 
kind of fruit that render it of value 
to the system. The system requires 
that two-thirds of all that daily enters 
the stomach shall be water and nature 
provides us the purest form of dis- 
tilled water in fruits which have an 
added value in that they cool the 
blood and also aid digestion. To 

31 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



woman the increased culture of fruit 
is a peculiar blessing, unless it has be- 
come second nature to provide rich 
puddings and pastry there is no rea- 
son why we may not by the use of 
fruits furnish a large and practical'.} 
endless variety of dishes. 

From the health point of view the 
raw fruit is far better than the 
cooked. The old farmhouse policy of 
keeping a barrel of ripe red apples 
where everyone could help themselves 
was very wise. If it accomplished 
nothing else it at least saved doctor 
bills. The apple holds die same re- 
lation to fruits that wheat holds to 
grain. Chemists tell us that sugar, 
tannic acid, malic acid, albumin, glu- 
ten, pictin fibrin, starch, traces of free 
salts and water go to make up the 
bulk of apples, but rosy-cheeked, 
hardy children, getting half theii 
living from the products of the 
orchard are practical examples of 
their value. In respect to food value, 
scientists rank grapes next to apples. 
There is scarcely a disease accom- 
panied with fever but that the juice 
of the grape may be freely given to 
the patient. 

Nature gave us not only food, but 
medicine. She did not know we were 
going to have so many doctors, drug 
stores and patent medicines so she 
gave us our remedies, but most of us 
do not use them enough. It is a cur- 
ious fact that those who show high 
intelligence in other regards are often 
lamentably deficient in respect to 
physical habits, especially to diet. 
When is it we buy patent medicine ? 
Is it not in the Spring? And why 
In the summer and fall we have lived 
naturally, had fresh fruits in abund- 
ance, sunshine and air, but during the 
winter we have lived unnaturally and 
so when spring comes we need a 
tonic. We make our houses air-tight 
as possible, and feed ourselves on the 
richest, heaviest food we can get. If 
we do not feel well we get still richer 
things to tempt our appetite. There 
is nothing that will take the place of 
fruit in our diet and we should see 

32 



to it that we have a good supply put 
up in the fall. This can be done in a 
cheap and simple way. 

I think many of you will agree with 
me in saying that the most unselfish 
thing we can do is to take such good 
care of ourselves that no one else is 
compelled to do it for us. 

A great many people still cling to 
the old idea that fruit cannot be kept 
without the addition of sugar in the 
process of canning. This is entirely 
a mistake. Sugar, as ordinarily em- 
ployed, takes no part in the preserva- 
tion of the fruit from deterioration. 
If made into a thick syrup it acts as 
an antiseptic, keeping perfectly sound 
fruit from decay, even without heat. 

I have only space to tell you how I ' 
make jelly. For apple jelly I usually 
take snow apples, because they are 
abundant, juicy, of good color and 
not too expensive. When cutting the 
apples, remember to cut the core 
directly across, open the seeds, it will 
give to the apple jelly a delicious 
almond flavor. Add very little water 
when boiling; simmer gently in a 
covered kettle an hour and a half. 
Strain through two-ply of cheese 
cloth and as you get the juice from 
the jelly bag, measure back into kettle 
just half cup of sugar to one cup of 
juice. Boil until it jells. And here I 
must give you my test. Dip a wooden 
spoon into the boiling syrup and hold 
it that you can conveniently watch the 
drops. For about three minutes the 
drops will fall liquid, then you will 
notice the drops slide together on the 
side of the spoon and form one. It 
will hang for an instant, then break 
and fall. Fill jelly jars at once. 

Apple juice is a splendid foundation 
for jellys made from the smaller 
fruits, such as grapes, berries, etc. 
Black currant jelly is delicious when 
made three parts apple juice, one part 
black currant juice and half cup 
sugar. 

Do not let juice for jelly stand over 
night, as it loses some of its true color 
and flavor by being exposed to the 
air so long. 




MILKING COWS BY ELECTRICITY ON THE MINER FARM. 

The Electric Farm 

By 
Don. C. Shaefer 



PROCURING adequate hired help 
for the farm is no longer a seri- 
ous problem for M. H. Miner, 
at Chasey, N.Y., now that his new 
hired man, Electricity, milks the cows, 
cuts the hay and fodder, pumps the 
water, separates and churns the milk, 
turns the grindstone and does all the 
other drudgery on the place. 

"Where in the world do you get 
electricity from so far away from the 
city?" I asked. 

"We have harnessed two streams 
on the farm," laughed the foreman. 
"One does not have to live in the city 
these days to have all the comforts 
and conveniences of electricity." 

The Miner farm comprises five 
thousand acres, of which twelve hun- 



' By courtesy New York Herald. 



dred acres are under cultivation and 
a like number used for pasturage, so 
it is easily seen that the item of pro- 
curing plenty of farm labor for so 
large an estate was a constant source 
of trouble, to say nothing of the enor- 
mous expense involved. 

The old Miner homestead itself is 
now a beautiful park, where elk, deer 
and buffalo enjoy their large pad- 
docks and where a specialty is made 
of the finest stock, the best Durham 
and Guernsey cattle and the finest 
Percheron and Belgian horses. Choice 
fowls are bred and there is a large 
fish hatchery which supplies ponds and 
fine streams with vast schools of brook 
trout. 

Three years ago, when help was so 
very scarce, Mr. Miner conceived the 
idea of harnessing the water power 

B 1 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 




THE ELECTRIFIED LAUNDRY 
Showing motor driven washing machine and centrifugal dryers. 



arm iture of an electric 
generator, producing 
sixty horse-power of 
electricity at 220 volts 
pressure. The power 
of these sixty horses is 
transmitted over a slen- 
der copper wire 1% 
miles to the distributing 
station in the main 
group of farm build- 
ings. 

Imagine, if you can, 
sixty horses running 
away, and conceive of 
this enormous power 
being sub-divided and 
applied to the farm 
machinery. At the 
pressure of a button 
there is light in every 
building and even in 
the yards. A turn of a 
switch and a mysteri- 
ous farm genie stands 
ready to turn the separ- 
ator, milk the cows or 



which ran to waste 
through his estate. So 
successful was the in- 
stalation that the plant 
has been added to from 
time to time until to-day 
it is the best equipped 
and most novel appli- 
cation of electricity to 
be found in the entire 
world. 

Three concrete dams 
were built across the 
Tracy Brook stream, 
giving a reservoir area 
of 170 acres. A con- 
crete penstock 670 feet 
long carries this water 
from the lower dam to 
a tiny powerhouse un- 
der a nineteen-foot 
head, where it is hurled 
against the blades of 
two powerful turbine 
water-wheels. To each 
of the water-wheels 
shafts is fastened the 

34 



•~\ W& mm j - . ji. 

i ■ 


- 


**\ y^\ ■ <f %) 


~ 



—ELECTRICITY HANDLING HAY IN, THElBIGlBARNS.r^: 




ELECTRICITY DRIVING A CHURN IS AN IMPROVEMENT ON OUR MOTHERS' WAY ! 



do any of the hard work about the 
farm buildings. 

This plant worked so well that a 
second was installed on the larger 
stream, known as the Crasey river. 
Two dams were built across this 
stream, giving a thirty-foot fall, for 
it is the weight of water in falling 
which constitutes its power, and this 
water is conducted through a pen- 
stock 630 feet long, to a concrete 
flume. Steel pipes in the bottom of 
this flume conduct the water, under 
enormous pressure, to the water- 
wheels, which, in turn, drive the pow- 
erful electric generators. Two hun- 
dred electrical horse-power is con- 
ducted two and three-quarter miles 
from this power station over copper 
wires to the same little central station. 
These power houses are made almost 
automatic, and require little, if any, 
attention. Powerful governors con- 
trol the water gates and quickly shut 
them down in case of any accident to 
the machinery. The machines are all 
self-oiling and self-regulating. 

From the central distribution sta- 
tion the current is sub-divided and 
sent out along underground wires to 
the various farm buildings, where it 



is put to work. In this station are 
located the electrical apparatus for 
controlling the mysterious current and 
a large storage battery to supply elec- 
tricity in case any accident should hap- 
pen to the generating machinery. This 
battery is merely a storage reservoir 
for electricity for future use. 

In the main dairy barn a ten horse- 
power motor unloads and handles the 
hay, taking care of a large load of 
heavy clover in less than five min- 
utes. On the main floor of this barn 
is* a feed-cutting machine, driven by a 
smaller motor, which chops the fod- 
der for the cattle, and in the main 
dairy section a one and one-half horse- 
power motor operates the vacuum 
pump for the milking machine. 

There are five of these milking ma- 
chines, and it is a delightful sight for 
those who admire cleanliness and sani- 
tation to see these devices milking ten 
cows at once. The suction is applied 
by the vacuum pump, and an auto- 
matic valve imitates to perfection the 
act of hand-milking. The milk does 
not for an instant come in contact with 
the open air. From the rubber discs 
and tubes it flows directly to the reser- 
voir in each device, which, in turn, is 

35 



ARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



sealed against contact with the stable 
air. After this milk is tested in the 
milk room it is run through the motor- 
driven separator and the cream is 
taken to the butter-making section, 
where it is ripened before being churn- 
ed by electric power. Near the dairy 
is the electric ice-making plant and re- 
frigerator, with a capacity of twenty 
tons of ice every twenty-four hours, 
the ammonia and brine pumps being 
operated by electricity. 

There is a large grist mill on the 
premises which grinds feed for the 
stock, and this mill is driven by a 
twenty-five horse power electric mo- 
tor. This motor is so arranged that it 
can be readily mounted on a truck and 
taken to the fields, where it is used for 
threshing purposes or cutting wood. 
There are also numerous motors 
about the sheep sheds for root cut- 
ting and shearing. In the stable elec- 
tric power is used for clipping and 
grooming, as well as for lighting. 
Wherever power is required about the 



.spacious barns there you will find a 
busy little electric motor doing the 
work which formerly had to be done 
by hand, Even the hateful old grind- 
stone, the bane of every farmer boy, 
is now driven by the tireless energy 
of electricity. 

The Miner homestead has also been 
thoroughly electrified, and there you 
will find electricity cooking the meals, 
heating the rooms and doing the 
laundry work. The large electric 
broilers in the kitchen are a feature 
of the cooking apparatus. In the 
basement the laundry has been com- 
pletely electrified with motor driven 
washing machines, wringers, centri- 
fugal dryers, mangles and electric 
flatirons. 

One of the novelties of the place is 
an automatic weather recorder, 
mounted on top of one of the water 
towers, which automatically registers 
in the house the direction and speed 
of the wind, the temperature and all 
the other vagaries of the weather. 







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E\m'nmJtK^ 
















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GRINDING GRAIN BY ELECTRICITY. 



THE ELECTRIC FARM 



The water for the refrigeration tank 
and for household use is obtained by 
a motor driven pump, which forces 
water into a high tank. Water for 
fire protection is forced into tanks one 
hundred feet above the ground by hy- 
draulic rams. 

On this farm is also a complete 
sausage-making plant where the pig 
products of the farm are worked up 
for city trade. The meat grinders 
are run by electric motors as well as 
the mixing machines and a powerful 
motor drives a cutting machine which 
cuts up bones and gristle into poultry 
food. 

"This plant has been in operation for 
more than three years," remarked the 
foreman with just pride, "and the 
saving in time, labor, insured safety 
and sanitation cannot be expressed in 
dollars and cents. We have proven 
that the farm can be electrified as well 
as any other industry, and I see no 
reason why farm labor should be a 
sore trial any longer when electricity 
is ready to step in and do the work 
for its keep. 

"Electrical machinery is now made 
to wear; it will last practically for- 
ever if taken care of and the yearly 
bills for repairs are very slight. In 
the old days we had traction and sta- 
tionary engines, a small army of men 
and horses to do the work on this big 
farm; to-day those two streams do it 



without all that old bother and risk. 
With electricity you can have power 
where you want it, in any quantity de- 
sired, scattered all about the farm, 
always ready and willing." 

The large repair and machine shops 
on this estate are also electrified. An 
electric blacksmith forge has just been 
installed to keep company with the 
motor driven lathe, boring mill, 
planer, drills and saws. There are in 
all twenty-seven electric motors on 
this farm, aggregating 130 horse 
power, and such flexibility of power 
would be entirely out of the question 
with gasoline or steam. 

The electrification of the farm is 
something new, but the success of 
electricity when applied to all the 
other industries warrants the state- 
ment that it will also solve the old 
problem of the farm and result in the 
production of more farm products at 
a less cost, and therefore lower the 
expense of living. Looking into the 
future one can see in the mind's eye 
the electric lines stealing out further 
and further into the country, where 
the large freight cars will be filled 
with delicious sanitary farm produce 
harvested by electricity. Experiments 
have recently been made in obtaining 
nitrogenous fertilizer from the air by 
electricity, and this will also be a 
great stimulant to bigger and better 
crops 



All That is Required of Us 



Do you not know that all that is 
required of you is to do what you can, 
though you fail of perfecting your 
work here? Life is too large, too 
wonderful a thing to be compassed in 
a few short years. Such great things 
to be accomplished and so little time 
— but it is as honorable to leave a 
good work but partly done as it would 
be to be able to stamp it "finished," 
if we have been faithful in our ef- 
forts until the working days ended. 

It is not how much we have done — 



but how well we have done it, that 
counts, and no work well done should 
ever cause us discouragement, no 
matter if it seems incomplete, for, 
after all, no good thing exists but will 
find its perfection in that other life, 
where there will be no heartaches over 
disappointments — no weary hands, no 
lagging feet to take up the daily round 
for the workers will be immortal, and 
the ranks will never be thinned, be- 
cause one by one they fall by the 
way. 

37 



The Haunting of Mr. Vanner 



A Strange Story of Revenge 



By J. J. Bell 



Author of "Wee MacGregor," etc. 



ar> iv 
va ti 



IVE him time, sir ; give him 
time," pleaded the big, black- 
bearded man. "Have pa- 
tience, and he will pay thee all. My 
brother isn't a swindler. He's only 
been a bit unlucky. Now, sir — " 

The smart-looking, middle-aged man 
at the large desk waved his hand. 

"You have gone over that already, 
Mr. Brand. I have never suggested 
that your brother was a swindler. Cer- 
tainly not ! It is simply the case of an 
account becoming so much overdue, 
that we have been compelled to place 
it in the hands of our agents for re- 
covery. I gather from my secretary's 
reports that your brother has made 
many promises, but has kept none. 
The law must — " 

"I know, sir, I know. But the 
circumstances are peculiar." 

"They usually are, when a man can- 
not pay. I must ask you to spare me 
a further recital. I am a busy man, 
and I tell you frankly that I had you 
admitted this afternoon under a mis- 
apprehension. I thought you were 
another Mr. Brand." 

"I know who you mean — the Mr. 
Brand who, taking advantage of his 
similar name, is trying to cut out my 
brother by producing rubbish to look 
like my brother's specialties. Mr. Van- 
ner, do you consider that a fair 
game?" 

Mr. Vanner smiled in a tired fash- 
as 



ion. "I'm afraid I have not time for 
further discussion on the subject of 
your brother's affairs. You must re- 
member that, until to-day, I never 
heard of your brother, Mr. Brand. 
This is a very large business — " 

"But it belongs to you?" 

"Of course. Practically, at any 
rate," said Mr. Vanner, complace- 
ently. 

"A large business — so large that 
you don't know what you're doing!" 

Mr. Vanner was ruffled. "I know 
what I'm doing — to the last ounce of 
metal, and the last farthing of money,*' 
he said, sharply. 

John Brand drew a quick breath. 
"But you don't know what you're do- 
ing to my brother. I ask your par- 
don, sir. I don't want to seem im- 
pertinent. As I told you, my brother 
did not know I was coming to see you 
to-day. He did not dream of such a 
thing. To tell you the truth, sir, he 
had almost given up hope last night. 
That last lawyer's letter fairly crump- 
led him up. You see, he's not a strong 
man, and he's a bit troubled with his 
nerves. But he's honest and clever, 
and—" 

"Really, Mr. Brand, I fear I cannot 
spare you more time. If you insist, 
you had better see my chief clerk — " 

"He's no good, sir. He's just a 
machine. He would take a note of it, 
and give a note of it to someone else, 



THE HAUNTING OF MR. VANNER 



and — and so on. But a word from 
you, Mr. Vanner, a word from you 

Mr. Vanner coughed, and picked up 
a pencil, the copying-ink pencil with 
which in these days he signed his dic- 
tated letters, pen and ink being out 
of the question for so busy a man. 

"That will do," he said, coldly. 
"We have certain principles, and a 
certain system in this business, to 
which we adhere. Your brother has 
received the limit of leniency. The 
law must — " 

"But a little longer, Mr. Vanner," 
cried the big man, writhing in the 
chair that seemed too small for him. 
"Call off your dogs — I mean your 
lawyers. Give him another month — 
one month — to try to get that con- 
tract I told you about. Call off your 
lawyers. I don't say lawyers have no 
souls, but they must surely leave them 
at home when they go out to business 
in the mornings, for their letters are — 
are hell. I'm only a poor man in a 
situation. But my brother may be 
worth thousands any day. Call off 
your lawyers in the meantime, sir, 
and give him a spell of peace." 

Mr. Vanner stretched his hands to- 
wards a bell on his desk. His shaven 
face had hardened, yet he was neither 
an unjust man nor a merciless. Al- 
beit, his patience was exhausted. He 
had listened to a long story, pitiful, 
no doubt, but quite commonplace. It 
was no satisfaction to him to drive a 
debtor into bankruptcy ; but if he did 
not do it, someone else would. Be- 
sides, there was still the possibility of 
the lawyers recovering the debt before 
other creditors fell upon the unfor- 
tunate. It was only business. The 
amount involved — a trifle over a hun- 
dred pounds — was a petty matter to a 
firm such as his, but he might as well 
retire as begin to make bad debts with 
his eyes open. His finger touched the 
button. 

"Man !" cried his visitor, "you don't 
know what you're doing. Wait, wait ! 

You must not break James. I 

I'm afraid of what he might do. 
There's a thing in the papers this 



morning about a poor soul that threw 
himself under a train, and left a note 
saying he'd been driven to it by — law- 
yers. Maybe, he had no right to con- 
tract debts, and you'd be correct in 
saying that the debts were really the 
cause of his madness. But it took 
somebody — somebody among his 
creditors — to push him over the thin 
line betwixt hope and despair. Some- 
body didn't mean it, but somebody did 
it, Mr. Vanner. And though it was 
all in the way of business and perfect- 
ly legal, and all that, I thought this 
morning that I'd rather be the poorest 
devil in the world than the lawyer 
who wrote the last letter received by 
the suicide. I'm telling you this, sir, 
as a last resort Ah !" 

Mr. Vanner's finger had wavered, 
but now it pressed the button firmly. 
His visitor was undoubtedly getting 
maudlin. 

John Brand rose from his chair, 
one great fist aloft. 

"No, no!" he said, passionately, 
"You needn't be afraid. I'll not touch 
you, though I could put the life out of 
your well-dressed body and your 
smart brain with one hand. It was 
your heart I wanted to touch, and I've 
failed. You can't — you won't — break 
your rules of business. You won't 
'phone to your lawyers ordering them 
to let James Brand alone for another 
month. The law, you say, must take 
its course. Well, I say, damn your 
business principles and your law !" 
He dropped his hand to his side, as a 
knock fell on the door, and a clerk 
entered. 

"Show this gentleman out," said 
Vanner, speaking evenly, but looking 
a little pale. 

"One moment !" The big man's 
voice sank almost to a whisper. "I 
have to thank you for seeing me, 
Mr. Vanner. I'm sorry — not for 
anything I've said, but for the way 
I've said some things. I'm glad I 
never so far forgot myself, save once, 
as to quote Scripture. There was a 
certain temptation to do so, because, 
though you may not know it, we both 
attend the same church pretty regu- 

39 




"HE STOOD AS IF FROZEN. 



10 



THE HAUNTING OF MR. VANNER 



larly. But Scripture holds but poor 
arguments for week-days. Perhaps, 
indeed, I had no argument at all for 
what I have said. Business is like 
Nature : it kills off the weak and 
struggling. You are not inhuman — 
and yet, Mr. Vanner, I think you have 
made a mistake this time." Brand 
bowed, picked up his hat and follow- 
ed the wondering clerk. 

On the steps of the great building 
of offices he halted, his hand to his 
head. Was there no earthly possibil- 
ity of his being able to find the money 
himself? To John Brand, who had 
never earned more than thirty-five 
shillings a week, £107 seemed an 
enormous sum. All his savings had 
recently gone in assisting brother 
James, who, in addition to business 
responsibilities, had a wife and three 
children. John was a bachelor of 
nearly forty. He had no one depend- 
ent on him. On the other hand, he 
had no property worth mentioning. 
His business position was that of a 
sub-manager in the furniture depart- 
ment of a well-known firm. He never 
hoped for anything higher, but ful- 
filled his duties in a stolid, methodical 
fashion. 

Out of business hours he devoted 
himself to reading more or less solid 
works, to helping to entertain ragged 
boys at an obscure mission-hall, and 
to admiring his brother James. Apart 
from his rather handsome appearance, 
John Brand was quite an insignificant 
person. And where was such a per- 
son to raise, immediately, at least a 
hundred pounds? His own worldly 
possessions, including watch and 
chain, would not, he reckoned, bring 
more than ten pounds. No ; the thing 
was impossible. And yet there were 
so many men in that great town to 
whom a hundred pounds was of no 
special account ; men who gave away 
that sum, and greater, without think- 
ing of getting anything in return. 
But, of course, he did not know those 
men. In a way, he knew one — but 
that one was impossible. He sighed. 
His faith and hope in humanity had 



suffered a blow, a stunning blow, at 
that recent interview. 

He looked at his watch. A quar- 
ter past two. He had obtaied lib- 
erty for the whole afternoon, an- 
ticipating (simple-minded John!) 
that his mission would be successful, 
and that he would carry the good 
news of a month's grace to his bro- 
ther, and stay awhile to encourage 
him to greater effort. But now — 
well, he had better just go back to 
the furniture department, and see 
James at night. There was nothing 
else he could do. Nevertheless, as 
he passed from one street to an- 
other, he thought of the one man he 
knew to whom a hundred pounds was 
of "no special account." Yet that 
one man was surely unapproachable 
on such a matter. 

But, about an hour later, John 
came face to face with him in the 
furniture department. He was one of 
the junior partners, a young man 
with a reputation for fastness, but 
with a cheerful and kindly manner to 
his employes. 

"Changed your mind about your 
half-holiday? Or didn't she turn 
up?" he said to John. 

"Not exactly, sir," John replied 
with a wan smile. And suddenly a 
sort of desperate courage came to 
him. "Could I speak to you in pri- 
vate, sir?" 

The junior partner looked sur- 
prised. Then he said, pleasantly 
enough : "Surely ! Come along to my 
room." 

Ten minutes later John Brand came 
out of the private room, his eyes full 
of tears, and a qheque for all he re- 
quired in his hand. He did not re- 
member what he had said, how he 
had explained and begged, and prom- 
ised. But to his dying day he would 
not forget the words of his young 
employer, words so carelessly, yet so 
kindly, uttered : "There you are, 
Brand, and good luck to your bro- 
ther. But don't let yourself get run 
in for more responsibility. As to re- 
payment, you have offered a pound a 
week. That will suit me all right, 

41 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



but you needn't begin paying till the 
New Year, when — keep it dark in 
the meantime — you are down for pro- 
motion, with fifty shillings a week. 
Yes, yes. That's all right. You've 
just time to get the cash, before the 
bank closes." 

It was a very different John Brand 
that entered the office of Vanner & 
Co. for the second time that after? 
noon. 

"I wish to pay James Brand's ac- 
count." 

The young clerk, who had attended 
at the counter, went over and whis- 
pered to the cashier. The cashier, 
who took his own importance from 
the importance of the firm he served, 
came leisurely to the counter. 

"The account is now in the hands 
of Messrs. Proudfoot and Bland," he 
said, adding the legal firm's address, 
"and should therefore be paid to 
them." 

"Bother your formalities ! Do you 
want the money or not?" 

The cashier, somewhat taken aback, 
muttered something about "legal ex- 
penses," and departed to "make in- 
quiry." He returned with a state- 
ment of account, which he receipted 
without remark. 

"Here's the cash. Your lawyers can 
whistle to you for their six-and-eight, 
or whatever it is," said John, bright- 
ly. "And now you'll just ring them 
up, and tell them to stop fussing a 
decent man with their ugly letters." 

"We shall advise our agents of the 
payment in due course," said the 
cashier with a chill dignity. 

"Due fiddlesticks !" John smote 
the counter with his clenched fist, so 
that every clerk in the office jumped. 
"Do it now!" 

"That's enough, my man !" said 
the indignant cashier. "You — " 

"Time's precious !" the big man in- 
terrupted him. "Drop your routine 
for once, and — 'phone !" 

It was done. 

"Thank you," said John Brand, 
mildly. "There's no use keeping a 
man on the rack after you've got 
what you wanted out of him. Tell 

42 



your master that the account has 
been paid. Tell him, likewise, from 
John Brand, that he'll be begging or- 
ders from James Brand before six 
months are over." 

Once more John found himself in 
the street. He could have sung aloud 
with elation, with gratitude and 
thanksgiving, as he took a car to his 
brother's place of business. The soli- 
tary clerk, who knew him, pointed 
to the door of a little room inscribed 
"private." 

"Busy?" queried John, to whom 
that little room was a sort of holy 
of holies. 

"He's been there since two o'clock. 
I took him in a letter that came by 
the four post — " 

"Letter— Oh !— Well, I'll just step 
in." 

John took the receipted account 
from his pocket, and entered, smiling. 
He closed the door quietly. 

At a large, table, littered with pa- 
pers, covered with calculations, and 
bearing a pile of ingots of metal of 
various and exquisite shades of color, 
sat James Brand. He leaned forward 
over the table, his hands clenched, and 
with his .face resting on his right arm. 

John's foot touched a small empty 
bottle, and sent it rolling across the 
floor. The receipt fluttered from his 
fingers. He stood as if frozen. 
* * * * 

Mr. Vanner, about to escort his 
wife to the theatre, was getting into 
his overcoat in the hall, when the 
servant, who had just answered the 
door, informed him that a man wished 
to speak to him for a moment. The 
man would not come in. With an 
impatient remark, Vanner went to 
the door. He recognized Brand by 
his beard ; otherwise the man's face 
had changed. 

"Well, what is it, my man? This is 
not my business address. Besides, my 
reply to you to-day was final — abso- 
lutely final." 

"Yes, it was final, Mr. Vanner," 
said Brand, in a hollow voice. "But 
your account is paid." 



THE HAUNTING OF MR. VANNER 



"Oh, indeed. I am glad to hear 
that, for your brother's sake, as well as 
my own." 

"Your clerk did not tell you?" 

"Well, I generally leave such mat- 
ters to the office." 

"I see," said Brand, slowly. "I came 
to tell you that I paid my brother's 
account. He does not know it is paid. 
I hope he may never know — the know- 
ledge would only worry him. He got 
another letter from your lawyers at 
four o'clock to-day. A 'phone from 
you, when I saw you, would have stop- 
ped it, or caused it to be cancelled. It 
finished him. According to the doc- 
tor, he took the poison immediately 
after. At twenty past four I found 
him dead. Don't say anything, Mr. 
Vanner. But, you see, you have made 
a mistake this afternoon — a mistake 
you will never forget. For you shall 
not be allowed to forget." Brand 
paused, breathing heavily, but when 
he spoke again, his voice was still cold 
and hollow. "I say you shall not be 
allowed to forget. I could kill you, 
but that would not satisfy me. I 
could—" 

"I am not responsible for this re- 
grettable affair," Vanner broke in, 
thickly. Then — "Is it money you 
want?" 

"Curse your money ! I want noth- 
ing from you, but your peace of mind. 
And — I will have that. From now un- 
til I die, I shall pray against you. Do 
you see what I mean? Think of it, 
when you sit in church, when you rest 
at home, when you work in your office, 
when you go out pleasure-seeking. 
Think of a man always praying, day 
after day, morning, noon and night — 
praying that your prayers may be un- 
answered, that your hopes may come 
to nothing, that your desires and am- 
bitions may be refused and confound- 
ed. Think of that — and take comfort 
from your business principles ana 
systems, if you can." 

So saying, John Brand, his face con- 
vulsed, turned, and departed swiftly. 



"A madman!" murmured Vanner. 
But his countenance was sickly as he 
closed the door. 



II. 



Now and then we absorb an idea 
that is like to a lusty weed. We cut 
it down, we pull it up; but either the 
new seed has already fallen, or a scrap 
of root remains, for ere long it flour- 
ishes once more, apace. Sometimes 
it proves no worse than an annoyonce, 
or a dread ; at others, it develops into 
a mania or obsession. Vanner was 
not a superstitious man, in the modern 
meaning of the phrase, at least. He 
did not believe in ghosts, goblins, or 
fairies, the evil eye or the power of 
magic, the crystal globe or the dire 
possibilities of walking under a lad- 
der. He did not even believe in luck; 
but that may have been because he 
had never been what we call unlucky. 
The business, which he had inherited, 
had prospered — though not without 
industry and intelligence on his part ; 
his married life was happy; he had 
not a discreditable relation; his own 
life had been straight and clean. No 
man had ever pointed to him as one 
who dealt harshly or unfairly with his 
neighbors ; nor had his conscience ac- 
cused him on that score. He assured 
himself that he was in no wise re- 
sponsible for the suicide of James 
Brand, the inventor and worker in al- 
loys. No one, save a man crazed with 
grief, would even suggest that he was 
responsible. To do so would be utter- 
ly absurd. The debtor's misfortunes 
had, in this case, culminated, without 
a doubt, in a most grevious tragedy, 
but business would soon cease to be 
business if unfortunate debtors were 
all to be treated tenderly as potential 
suicides. No, no ; he was horribly 
shocked at the thing's happening in 
connection with his business, he de- 
plored the position of the hapless wife 
and children ; but, before God and be- 
fore man, he was not responsible. 

And yet the idea of John Brand con- 
tinually praying against him waxed in- 
sistent as the days went on. 

43 




" BRAND HAD CAUGHT SIGHT OF THE TRAVELLER AND HIS MILD COUNTENANCE 
HAD BECOME SAVAGE AND MERCILESS." 



\i 



THE HAUNTING OF MR. VANNER 



On the morning of the fifth Sunday 
following the tragedy, Vanner abrupt- 
ly declared his intention of not g r ing 
to church. His wife looked per- 
trubed. 

"Aren't you feeling well, Fred?" 
"Perfectly well. Em a little tired. 
Don't worry. I may go in the even- 
ing." 

But he did not go in the evenmg. 
The thought of John Brand in yonclei 
corner of the gallery had become too 
much for him. And the following 
Sunday morning he persuaded his wife 
to accompany him to another church, 
where a famous man happened to be 
preaching. There the real blow feil, 
for Vanner realized that it was not 
necessary to see his enemy in order 
to be conscious of the latter's exist- 
ence. Vanner prayed fervently, but 
he began to doubt his power to pray 
successfully against Brand. Perhaps 
Brand had been a much better man 
than he. Perhaps ... A week 
later, to his wife's dismay, he refused 
to go to any church. He had decided, 
he said, to take a walk into the coun- 
try. He had been feeling the need of 
it for some time. So he went into the 
country, to escape the thoughts of 
Brand that now pervaded even his 
home, and returned too exhausted to 
eat his dinner, for he had been trying, 
as it were, to run away from Brana. 

On the morrow he found, among 
the numerous papers on his desk, a 
polite intimation from a firm of char- 
tered accountants to the effect that 
Robert Brand & Co., Fancy Metal 
Manufacturers, were unable to meet 
their liabilities. 

"It's a bad one, sir," said the old 
clerk, "though the account was not 
much behind. They owe us seven 
hundred and thirty-five pounds." 

"Do they?" said Vanner absently, 
and was silent for a space. "Hadn't 
these people something to do with the 
— the misfortunes of the other Brand 
— James Brand?" he asked, tapping 
the letter with his pencil. 

"A good deal, I should say, sir. 
They imitated many of his fine spe- 
cialities in trashy material, and seemed 



likely to spoil his market. But I heard 
that James Brand would have found 
a way of competing with them, and 
maybe beating them, if he had lived 
a little longer." 

"Ah! . . . But you wouldn't 
hold them — er — responsible for James 
Brand's death — would you, Henry?" 

"Ah, well, hardly, sir. Business is 
business, you know. Might as well 
say that we killed the poor fellow, 
sir." 

"Yes, yes ; of course, that would 
be equally absurd. Well, that's all in 
the meantime. You can give instruc- 
tions for lodging our claim." 

The old man went out, wondering. 
"I never saw him take a big bad debt 
so quietly," he said to himself. 

But it was not till he was alone 
that Vanner really considered the bad 
debt in itself. 

"Good God!" he suddenly whispej- 
ed ; "did John Brand pray for this?" 

Later he called himself a fool. The 
thing had happened simply in the 
course of business. He had made 
plenty of bad debts before ever John 
Brand crossed his path. It was a mere 
chance that this particular account 
should be larger than at any previous 
period. And, of course, the name 
Brand had its disagreeable associa- 
tions. Curse the name ! He found 
himself dreading another suicide. He 
was afraid to open the paper that even- 
ing. 

"Fred," said his wife, "I wish you 
would take a holiday. I never saw 
you so nervous. Is business worrying 
you, dear?" 

It was a rare thing for Mrs. Van- 
ner to ask a direct question; as a rule, 
she gained her husband's confidence 
without that. 

He laughed shortly. "We made 
rather a serious bad debt to-day," he 
said. 

"To-day? I am sorry, Fred. But 
you've been worrying for weeks. And 
you've grown thin and lost color. 
Won't you see Dr. Chalmers? I wish 
you would." 

"Nonsense! There's nothing the 
matter, Isobel — . Unless, as you sug- 

45 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



gest, a touch of nerves." He laughed 
again, wishing he could tell her the 
truth. "1 think I'll run up to London 
for the week-end," he continued. 
"There are one or two people I could 
see with advantage at present." 

"The very thing!" she cried, look- 
ing pleased. "London will do you 
good." 

This was on Tuesday, and during 
the next three days he experienced a 
sense of almost cheerful anticipation. 
It was not that a trip to London was 
anything of an event, but the thought 
of putting four hundred miles between 
himself and the disturbing force gave 
him hope. Even wireless telegraphy, 
he had read, might be rendered inef- 
fectual by distance ; moreover, he feit 
that a change of scene and people 
might serve to put his soul out of tune, 
so to speak, with the malign influence 
which he now believed John Brand to 
be exerting upon it. So, about two 
o'clock on Friday, he took his pre-en- 
gaged seat in the first-class dining-car, 
and lay back with a sigh of relief, clos- 
ing his eyes. "Thank God," he said, 
under his breath. 

Just as the train began to move, 
however, he glanced out of the win- 
dow, and experienced a shock. On the 
platform, talking with another man, 
was John Brand. Vanner turned 
away — the fraction of a second too 
late. Brand had looked up, caught 
sight of the traveler, and his mild 
countenance had, in the flash of recog- 
nition, become savage and merciless. 

Vanner ordered a glass of brandy. 
He was not a drinker of spirits, but 
he consumed a number of brandies 
ere he reached his destination that 
night. In his note-book he wrote a 
message to his wife. Until he step- 
ped upon the platform at Euston he 
half-expected an accident. He had 
engaged a room at the station hotel, 
and he retired to bed immediately. He 
slept till three in the morning, when 
he awoke feverish and wretched. 
"That infernal brandy!" he told him- 
self, was the cause. Then he proceed- 
ed to argue that there had been noth- 
ing significant in Brand's being at the 

46 



Central Station ; doubtless the man hac 
been seeing someone off by the busiest 
train of the day ; his look of hatred at 
that sudden encounter was, perhaps, 
natural, though not justified. He, Van- 
ner, hated Brand — and, by heaven, he 
would beat him yet. 

About five o'clock he dropped to 
sleep again, and when called at eight, 
he felt better. He had an important 
appointment for that morning — the 
signing of a contract involving large 
benefits to his firm. As he drove 
through the fresh London air, his 
spirits rose. It would take a lot of 
praying to spoil this bit of business ! 
At the same time he put up a brief 
prayer for himself. A moment later 
the horse fell. 

Vanner was only slightly bruised, 
but he was greatly shaken, and more 
so mentally than physically. The po- 
liceman found him almost incoherent. 
He continued his journey on foot, be- 
having at the crossings like an old 
woman. He found it necessary to take 
some brandy before paying his busi- 
ness call. 

* * * * 

"I am sorry, Mr. Vanner, exceed- 
ingly sorry," said the junior partner 
of the firm. "As you know, I was 
most willing that you should have the 
business, and I thought my uncle was 
in accord with me in the matter. How- 
ever, at the last moment — yesterday 
afternoon, to be precise — he decided 
otherwise, and accepted another offer. 
You understand that, personally, I did 
my best?" 

"I — understand," said Vanner, with 
a pale smile. He was not disappoint- 
ed ; he was overwhelmed. The contract 
had seemed such an absolute cer- 
tainty. 

"I shall hope that we may do busi- 
ness on a future occasion, Mr. Van- 
ner." 

Vanner moistened his lips, but did 
not speak. He drew his hand slowly 
across his forehead. 

"I'm afraid that spill has upset you 
a bit," said the junior partner, sym- 
pathetically. He knew that Vanner 
was too big a man to be much affect- 



THE HAUNTING OF MR. VANNER 



t'd by the loss of the contract. "Will 
you rest here, and lunch with me 
later?" 

Vanner thanked him, and rose. 

"I'm leaving at two o'clock," he 
managed to say, aching with an in- 
tense longing for home. 

"I'm sorry. Let me get you a cab." 

"Thanks, I'll walk." 

The other nodded. "Take care of 

yourself, Mr. Vanner." 

* * * * 

He reached the hotel at noon. The 
hall-porter came forward with a tele- 
gram. 

Vanner was white ere he opened it. 
He sank upon a chair in the lounge, 
and stared at the dancing words: 

"Sorry to ask you come home. 
Harry met with accident. Isobel." 

Harry was his youngest boy. 

Presently he pulled himself together 
and sent a reply : 

"Leaving two train. Wire latest to 
Carlisle seven o'clock. Fred." 

Then he went up to his room, and 
threw himself on the bed. 

This was fear indeed! . . . 

He was on the verge of panic when, 
an hour later, he despatched a tele- 
gram to his confidential clerk : 

"Find out address of John Brand, 
brother of late James Brand. See him 
and ask him to meet me arrival Lon- 
don train ten twenty Central to-night. 
Tell him most important. Vanner." 

Another hour, and the long, hideous 
journey began. Vanner ate nothing; 
he could neither smoke nor read. He 
muttered to himself continually. 

At Carlisle, the conductor, previous-' 
ly instructed, brought him his wife's 
message : 

"Glad you are coming. Harry no 
zvorse." 

"Perhaps," whispered Vanner, alone 
in the compartment, "perhaps he has 
stopped praying for the moment." 



The train slowed into the Central 
Station. Vanner, searching the plat- 
form with wild eyes, at last caught 
sight of a big man with a black beard. 
He almost ran to him. 



"Mr. Brand, it was good of you to 
come," he began. 

"What is it?" Brand asked, coldly. 

"Come out of the crowd," said Van- 
ner, clutching his arm, and well-nigh 
dragging him to a deserted platform. 
"I wanted to see you, Mr. Brand. I've 
been thinking over things," he went on 
with piteous eagerness; "I say, I've 
been thinking over things, and I — I'd 
like to do something for the family 
of your brother. The thought of your 
brother has been — has been very pain- 
ful to me. You understand, Mr. 
Brand?" 

"Conscience?" said Brand. 

"No — no; not conscience. I still 
hold that I was not responsible. It 
was all in — in the course of business. 
You see that now, don't you? Any- 
way, the whole thing is a problem be- 
yond human understanding." 

There was a short pause, broken by 
Brand. 

"In my eyes, you killed my bro- 
ther," he said. "You didn't intend to 
do it, but you did. I do not know 
why I should have been induced to 
meet you here. I must go now." 

"Stay — stay, Mr. Brand. Let me 
do something. I — I thought of two 
thousand pounds. And if I paid that, 
do you think you might be prevailed 
upon to stop — to stop — " 

"Say no more, sir. If my brother's 
family were in want, they would take 
nothing from you. But I am glad to 
say they are not in want. My bro- 
ther's patents have been sold for the 
sum of twenty thousand pounds. He 
didn't know their value,' but I found 
an honest man who did. That is all. 
Kindly let me go." 

But Vanner, desperate, held the 
man's arm. In shame and agony he 
stammered : 

"Is money of no use to you, Mr. 
Brand? What — tell me what I can do 
to induce you to stop praying?" 

Brand stared at him. "Stop pray- 
ing?" 

"Praying against me. You — you 
know what I mean. Ever since we 
last parted things have been going 
wrong with me. And now my little 

47 



Tlll£ HAUNTING OF MR. VANXKK 



boy has met with an accident, and 
God knows what I shall find when I 
get home. Oh, stop it ! I beg yon 
to stop it !" 

Something like pity dawned on the 
big man's face. 

"Is it possible that you're thinking 
of something I said then?'' he asked. 
"I think I remember, and I meant it 
at the time. But — well, that was all. 
It ended there. Go home, Mr. Van- 
ner, and I — I hope you'll find your 
boy better." He shook off Vanner's 
grasp, and turned away. 

"Stay!"' cried Vanner. "Are you 
telling me that you have not been 



praying against me all through the 
last six weeks?" 

"I think you must be crazy," said 
Brand, not altogether unkindly, "to 
have such an idea in your head. No 
man can afford to pray against an- 
other. If you want a straight answer, 
I'll tell you that I'd as soon have pray- 
ed for you. . . . You're ill. Give 
me your bag. I'll get you a cab. You 
and I shan't meet again. 

*t» *K -t» »K 

As Vanner entered his home, the 
doctor met him. 

"Your boy is going to get better," 
said the doctor. And Vanner bowed 
his head — in silence. 



Xact 



By Edgar Gardner 



THE primary mental element in 
tact is the capacity to conceal the 
real motives or inclinations in 
the hope of more certainly obtaining 
one's desires, naturally stimulating 
a curiosity to discover the motives 
and intentions and capacities of the 
person we are in contact with before 
committing one's self in word and 
deed. It is essentially the weapon of 
defence used by the weaker against 
the stronger, for there is not the same 
necessity for its exercise by one in the 
stronger position. There are certain 
simple rules to be first observed in 
cultivating this valuable accomplish- 
ment. The first to suggest itself is the 
effort to control and conceal one's 
temper and annoyance, and to remain 
silent under provocation or impulse 
until the strong feelings and emotions 
have subsided sufficiently to allow 
time for reflection and judgment. To 
do this it is only necessary to control 
the desire to speak at the slightest pro- 
vocation ; it then becomes a good and 
fixed habit. We are all aware of the 
errors of others in talking too much 
48 , i i 



before they have time to think, and 
where they "land" themselves, but do 
we always try to correct the fault in 
ourselves? Therefore, the old maxim 
that "Silence is golden," and to 
"Count six before speaking, and six 
times six before taking action," is 
worth remembering. The art of look- 
ing at one's self from another's point 
of view and encouraging their criti- 
cism is a valuable method of gaining 
knowledge for self-improvement. One 
soon learns that if you have an ex- 
cuse for speaking at all, it is best to 
come to the point quickly, with as few 
words and mannerisms as possible, 
and to be always ready to listen to 
others and cultivate the mind to con- 
centrate itself on what they are say- 
ing, be quick to note their faults and 
weaknesses, and try to avoid them 
yourself, while ready to admire their 
good qualities and imitate the best of 
them. By controlling impulsive and 
selfish thoughts and words your ac- 
tions will reflect keen and well-bal- 
anced judgment, enabling you to in- 
fluence others to respect vour advice 




How the \Vestern Wheat Crop is Handled 
by the Elevators or the Twin Cities 

By T. M. Ralston 



IN the short space of time between 
the commencement of the western 
grain harvest and the sealing up 
of the Great Lakes by King Winter 
last fall, forty three million bushels 
of grain were handled through the 
great terminal elevators at Fort Wil- 
liam and Port Arthur and started on 
their journey oceanward. 

Forty-three million bushels! The 
entire w'heat crop of the Canadian 
West last year was about one hun- 
dred and twenty-five million bushels, 
so that in this short space of about 
eighty days one third of the yield of 
Canada's great granary passed 
through the twin cities at the head of 
the Great Lakes. 

Forty-three million bushels ! The 
words scarcely tell the tale to the un- 
initiated, because it is hard to realize 
just what they mean. But forty-three 
million bushels means just forty-three 
thousand cars, as each freight car has 
a capacity of one thousand bushels. 

Forty-three thousand cars ! What 
does this mean? The average train 
of grain coming to these ports brings 



from sixty to seventy cars, so good 
are the facilities provided for the 
handling of this immense business by 
the railroad companies. Say seventy 
cars for the sake of brevity and it 
will at once be seen that over six 
thousand trains loaded with grain 
came into Fort William and Port 
Arthur in the brief period mentioned. 

At the first opportunity count the 
number of cars of an ordinary freight 
train. There may be fifty, but the 
chances are that thirty will be nearer 
the number. Then figure if you can 
how long a train of seventy cars will 
be. Figure again and see if you can 
by any stretch of the imagination 
determine how far six thousand 
trains of seventy cars each will reach. 
If you can do this you will be able to 
form a faint idea of the magnitude to 
which the grain handling business at 
the head of the lakes has grown. 

Official figures for the past year 
have just been completed and show 
that during the year eighty-nine mil- 
lion bushels of grain have been hand- 
led through the immense terminal ele- 

49 



POURING GRAIN THROUGH THE BIG FUNNEL. 



valors at Fort William and Port 
Arthur. Eighty-nine million bushels 
means eigthy-nine thousand cars, or 
nearly thirteen thousand of those 
trains of seventy cars each. 

The transporting of these almost 
innumerable cars to the head of the 
lakes is only the beginning of the 
story, however. After the grain 
leaves the cars it must be transhipped 
to the lake boats, immense leviathans, 
three, four, five and even six hundred 
feet long, waiting to carry it to the 
ocean and even across the ocean. 

Stepping off the train or boat at 
Fort William or Port Arthur, the 
giant grain elevators are the first sight 
that strikes the eye of the stranger 
and these great storage houses reach- 
ing skyward, bear elequent testimony 
to the important part in the industrial 
life of the Dominion that the wheat 
fields of the west have assumed. 

There are sixteen big elevators at 
Fort William and Port Arthur, six- 
teen big storage and loading houses 
with a total storage capacity of nearly 
thirty million bushels ; sixteen eleva- 
tors that can unload fifteen hundred 
cars of grain every day and that 
could, if the occasion required it and 



if enough boats could be secured, dis- 
charge through their spouts into the 
holds of vessels nearly ten million 
bushels in the same few hours. 

Fort William and Port Arthur, al- 
though in the near west, have the true 
western spirit. Step off the train or 
boat and a dozen citizens are always 
willing to tell you of the present great- 
ness of these cities and the still great- 
er things to come. But the huge ele- 
vators are there now, and one of the 
first things that will be told the visit- 
or will be that, "we have the biggest 
grain elevators in the world." It's 
true, too. Over in Port Arthur the 
Canadian Northern's "A" and "B" 
hold seven million bushels, or a seven- 
teenth part of last year's crop. The 
visitor will be told, "IT" (with special 
emphasis on this word) "is the big- 
gest elevator in the world." 

But go over to Fort William and 
some citizen of that city will have a 
fund of information for your benefit. 
He will take you gently, but firmly 
by the hand and lead you over to the 
Mission where the Grand Trunk Pa- 
cific has ready for the handling of this 
year's crop, an elevator to which he 
will point with pride and will say, 




ASSEMBLY YARDS AT FORT WILLIAM 
Here the Grain is Inspected as it Arrives from the 'West. 



50 




NEW ELEVATOR OF THE G.T.P. AT THE MISSION, FORT WILLIAM 

This is the Largest Single Elevator in the World, now Ready to Store Grain. 
Capacity Four Million Bushels. 



"There is the biggest elevator in the 
world. Hold's four million bushels 
and is the first unit of a string of ten 
which the Grand Trunk Pacific will 
have here in a few years. Their plans 
call for ten of them with a total capa- 
city of forty million bushels. In other 
words one railroad company will have 
storage capacity at Fort William for 
a third of last year's crop. 

If the visitor protests, remembering 
the word of his Port Arthur friend, 
and intimates that the other city has 
a seven million elevator, your guide 
will smile pityingly and say, "Why 
there are two elevators together there 
and they hold three and a half million 
bushels apiece," dismissing with scorn 
the suggestion that a building capable 
of storing thirty-five hundred cars of 
wheat has any claim to distinction. 

The Canadian Pacific also has a 
few elevators in Fort William, no less 
than five, the largest, "D", with a 



three and a half million capacity be- 
ing strung along the harbor front. 

This tells the story of what has been 
provided at the Canadian head of the 
lakes for the storage and tranship- 
ment of grain. But until one goes 
into the figures or visits these cities 
at a busy season the magnitude of the 
business is hard to realize. The busy 
times are the spring and fall when 
anywhere from twenty-five to forty 
of the great lake freighters are either 
in the shadow of the elevators, with 
grain pouring into the holds of each 
from a dozen spouts or awaiting their 
turn at these same elevators. A trip 
down the Kaministiquia, the river on 
which Fort William is situated, at this 
time is a revelation. Right from the 
Consolidated, three miles up, to the 
Empire at the river's mouth will be 
seen a string of boats, all big and all 
waiting for, or already loaded with 
that same commodity, wheat. 

51 




TAKING THE GRAIN FROM ELEVATOR TO BINS. 
A View of the Belt which Carries the Grain 'to the Bins. 




THE CIRCULAR BINS THAT HOLD THE WHEAT 
A Scene in One of the Big Elevators, Looking Down on the Tops of the Bins. 




LOADING A GRAIN BOAT AT ELEVATOR " B." FORT WILLIAM 
Ten Million Bushels Every Ten Hours can be Loaded by Ihe Twin Cities' Elevators. 



In the handling of the grain at the 
head of the lakes, the Canadian Gov- 
ernment plays an important part. At 
the present time there is an increasing 
agitation throughout the west for Gov- 
ernment ownership, or at least Gov- 
ernment operation of terminal eleva- 
tors, and allegations of graft in con- 
nection with the business are flying 
thick and fast. How true these 
charges may be it is not the purpose 
of this article to find out, but it does 
seem as if the Government had taken 
every possible precaution, except per- 
haps the absolute taking over of the 
houses, to secure a square deal for ail 
concerned. 

.The various grades of the grain 
are set by act of Parliament and every- 
where around the yards and elevators 
are Government inspectors and their 
assistants. A train load of grain 
reaches the assembly yard and before 
it goes to the elevator to be unloaded 
the inspectors pass on it. The grain 
has already been through one Gov- 



ernment inspection in the west and a 
car is first examined to see that it has 
not been tampered with since the 
western inspector sealed it. Then 
samples are taken from a dozen dif- 
ferent places and levels in the car and 
inspected and the western grading 
either confirmed or changed, gener- 
ally the former, as it is seldom that 
the officials at this point find it neces- 
sary to diispute the judgment of their 
brothers further west. 

Then the car is resealed and goes 
to the elevator. Here another inspec- 
tor is waiting and the seals are again 
examined and if everything is found 
all right the car is unloaded, its load 
being carried by endless belts, to the 
scales where another inspector is 
waiting to see it weighed and from 
there it is carried on to the top of the 
building and dumped into the storage 
tanks. 

The inspectors are on hand again 
when the grain is shipped out. They 
watch the weighing once more, then 




ELEVATOR " D " OF THE C.P.R. 
Recently Rebuilt, with a Capacity of 3.500,000 Bushels. The Picture Shows Where 
the Cars are Run in to be Unloaded. 




A SECTION OF FORT WILLIAM HARBOR 
In the Foreground is the Deck of a Big Lake Liner. Showing the Length of the Boats 




THE CANADIAN NORTHERN ELEVATORS "JA" AND " B" AT:PORT ARTHUR 
These Elevators Have a Total Capacity of Seven Million Bushels. 



see that the grade is what is called 
for and finally when a boat clears it 
carries a certificate signed by the 
officials of the Canadian Government 
showing the quantity and quality of 
the cargo carried. 

Not a bushel of grain is handled at 
the terminal elevators at the head of 
the lakes except under the direct sup- 
ervision of Government inspectors. 

One tank of these great elevators 
may hold grain belonging to a dozen 
different firms. A buyer in the west 
may ship fifty thousand bushels of 
wheat down to the lake front for stor- 
age, but so soon as it reaches this 
point and is placed in the houses it 
loses its identity. For when the own- 
er delivers it for storage he is given 
a receipt calling for fifty thousand 
bushels of grain of the grade he has 
stored. When the time comes for re- 
shipment and he presents his storage 
receipt he may be given grain from an 
elevator two miles away from the one 
in which his original purchase is 
stored. But it is grain of the same 
grade, "Number one Northern" or 
whatever it may be and alike as to 
quality and value. 

To make this possible the Lake 
Shippers' Clearance Association came 



into being a year or so ago. This is 
simply an organization of the grain 
shippers and they maintain an officer 
in Fort William to look after their 
interests. A shipper sends down a 
quantity of grain and the storage re- 
ceipts go to this association of which 
he is a member. A boat is chartered 
to carry it down the lakes and the 
association designates from what ele- 
vator it shall be taken. 

But this is not the chief value of the 
association to the grain shippers. 
Formerly when a boat received her 
loading orders the captain would 
probably find that he was to take per- 
haps fifty thousand bushels from one 
elevator, five from another, twenty 
from another, and so on, but 
perhaps all of the same grade. 
This meant going to several different 
elevators, two or three miles apart 
likely, perhaps to every elevator in the 
two cities, thus losing much valuable 
time changing berths. But now the 
association, having the storage re- 
ceipts, knows just what is in every 
elevator and directs the boat where to 
go for its load! In consequence it is 
generally the case now that a boat can 
go under the spouts of a single ele- 
vator, receive its full load, whether 

55 






FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



consigned to one or a dozen firms, 
and the captain can proceed on his 
way rejoicing. 

It is a big business the handling of 
the wheat crop of the west at the head 
of the lakes. Its growth marks the 
growth of the west, for one does not 
have to be the "oldest inhabitant" to 
remember when the first elevator was 
built in these two cities. 

The rapid growth is best told by 
the figures given out from the chief 



Government Inspector's office. The 
total for the year just passed, handled 
through these ports, that is from Sep- 
tember ist, 1909, to August 31st, 1910, 
was a few bushels short of eighty- 
nine millions. For the preceding year 
it was sixty-five millions and for the 
year before that, forty-seven millions. 
These are figures that tell of the de- 
velopment of the Canadian West. 

What will another decade show? 



Readiness 



By Rev. S. Baring Gould 



READINESS demands great agil- 
ity of mind, quickness of appre- 
hension, and promptness of re- 
solve; and it is this quality that is not 
largely developed in Englishmen. 

Their maxium is Slow and Sure, 
and too often they stand on the river 
brink waiting for the water to run 
away before venturing to cross over. 
In conversation it is readiness that 
gives sparkle. In modern novels the 
dialogue is full of vivacity and repar- 
tee. But in real life there is little of 
that. The author lays aside his pen 
and thinks, and as a result of thought 
sets down a witticism in the conversa- 
tion he is giving. Actually, how often 
we lie awake at night thinking what a 
bon mot we might have said when the 
occasion offered, but we lacked the 
promptitude to bring it out. 

Readiness enables us to extricate 
ourselves from difficult positions. The 
fifth Earl of Berkeley often declared 
that he would never yield to a single 
highwayman, though he did not pro- 
fess that he could hold his own 
against numbers. One night, when 
crossing Hounslow Heath, his travel- 
ing carriage was stopped by a horse- 
man, who put his head in at the win- 
dow, and said, "I believe you are Lord 
Berkeley?" "I am." "And I have 
heard that you have boasted that you 
would never surrender to a single 

56 



highwayman?" "I have." "Well"— 
presenting a pistol-— "I am a single 
highwayman, and I say: 'Your money 
or your life.' ' "You cowardly 
hound," said Lord Berkeley; "do you 
think I can't see your confederate 
skulking behind you ?" The highway- 
man, who actually was alone, looked 
hurriedly round, and Lord Berkeley 
shot him through the head. That was 
readiness. An Irishman and a French- 
man have much more agile brains than 
the ordinary Englishman ; they are 
able to make a compliment or turn 
aside anger with a happy remark. 
where an English or Scotch man 
would be dumb. The other day a man 
carrying on his shoulder a grand- 
father's clock ran against a French- 
man as he turned a corner, and knock- 
ed him down. The Frenchman pick- 
ed himself up and said, "Monsieur, 
next time you do walk the streets, put 
your watch in your pocket." An Eng- 
lishman would have stormed. 

A couple of Jews were in a rail- 
way accident. Some time afterwards 
they met. "Well," said one, "what 
did you make out of the accident? I 
got a hundred pounds damages." "I," 
replied the other, "made a thousand 
pounds by it." "Why, how did you 
manage that, Nathan?'* "Oh, Samuel, 
I had the presence of mind to jump on 
my wife Rachel's face." 



The Booming of Silver Miss 



By 
Victor Lauriston 



<<F^\ID you hear of my lucky strike 

L/ in Cobalt?" queried Broker 
Jabez Tonson, indolently. 

"You don't attempt to insinuate," 
ejaculated his partner, "that pay silver 
has actually been found on Silver 
Miss?" 

Chewing diligently at the cigar 
which a cruel physician had condemn- 
ed him to leave perpetually unlit, Ton- 
son gazed dreamily through the gilt- 
lettered bucket-shop window across 
the muddy street of the little town for 
many moments before answering. 

"Better still," he rejoined at last. 
"Pay silver has been struck right here 
in Carisford." 

And, turning his head slightly, he 
nodded significantly toward the outer 
regions of the office, where a tall, pale 
clerk was dictating letters to a bright- 
eyed, tawny-headed stenographer. 

"Bertha's inamorata," he chuckled. 
"Harold— Harold— Harold," and he 
lingered spitefully upon the name in 
a fashion that told undying hatred for 
any cognomen less prosaic than his 
own. "He came into money just a 
few days before he came here — " 

"And," commented Moker, with his 
habitual drawl, "you came into him 
and his money just a few days after 
he came here. Ah, he does look as 
though he were from the country. 
How I admire that dried-timothy 
shade in hair. Poor fellow ! And now 
his poverty is accentuated by the pos- 
session of — how much — " 

"Twenty thousand shares of Silver 
Miss at twenty cents a share," re- 
sponded Tonson, choking gleefully on 



his cigar. "An excellent bargain, an 
excellent bargain. Risk of loss strict- 
ly limited, possibilities of gain abso- 
lutely unlimited. The stock may rise 
to the skies, but there are only twenty 
points through which it can fall. But," 
he added, disconsolately, "if it hadn't 
been for that blamed old panic back 
in 1907, just after we floated the com- 
pany down in Toronto, we'd have un- 
loaded the whole thing at forty cents 
a share, or even more." 

The warm interest which Harold 
Wallace took in his new investment 
did not surprise the bucket-shop man 
to whose eye, only a few months be- 
fore, the pastures of the little city of 
Carisford had glimmered appealingly 
green. That Harold should write at 
once a long letter to the engineer in 
charge, Harris P. Hawkins, was only 
natural — and Tonson, surmising an 
anxious but hopeful query on the 
young man's part as to recent ship- 
ments of ore from Silver Miss, gird- 
ed up his loins in anticipation of the 
clerk's wrathful reproaches when 
Hawkins let fly the inevitable response 
that to correctly diagnose Silver Miss, 
one must lay the accent on the "Miss," 
and not on the "Silver." He was fully 
prepared for the inevitable, when, a 
few days later, following the arrival 
of a thin letter bearing the Haileybury 
postmark, the young man's shadow fell 
athwart his office desk. 

"Ah, Wallace," he remarked in dul- 
cet tones. "Anything I can do for 
you?" 

"There's a liar in charge of that 
mine of ours up in Cobalt," remarked 



FARMER'S MAG \ZINR. 



the pale clerk, strenuously. "Hawkins 
is trying to string me with some sort 
of fool story that there isn't any silver 
on it. I've been in Cobalt and I know 
the mine, and what's more, I know 
Hawkins' little game, too. He thinks 
he can freeze me into letting my shares 
go with his stories about nothing do- 
ing. I want a week — a whole week 
— to go up there and put Hawkins' 
feet back on the straight and narrow 
path." 

Tonson heard all this with an as- 
tounded stare. 

"Go, by all means," he muttered, 
mechanically ; and sat for half an 
hour after like one dazed. When he 
organized the Silver Miss Milling & 
Mining Company, Limited, capital 
$100,000, in shares of $1 each, old On- 
tario, and not new Ontario, presented 
the real mine he had in prospect. 
When he unloaded upon Harold the 
20,000 shares which the panic of 1907 
had left unsold, he thought that the 
young man dwelt in a realm ruled over 
by ignorance and bliss. That the pale 
clerk, knowing Cobalt to his finger 
tips and actually acquainted with the 
property itself, had paid twenty cents 
a share for Silver Miss was a fact pos- 
sessing a ghastly significance. 

Tonson imparted his suspicions to 
his partner Moker. Moker shared 
them ; likewise his regrets. They both 
took care to peruse the flood of Co- 
balt picture post cards with which, 
during the week of the clerk's absence, 
the tawny-haired stenographer was 
deluged. Even the delightful pastime 
of selling imaginary wheat and ficti- 
tious Union Pacific to the gullible 
country-side which thought it was in- 
vesting when it was only betting, be- 
gan to pall before this new interest. 

"Maybe we should try to pick up 
some of the first Silver Miss issue be- 
fore the buyers have forgotten the 
sting," suggested Moker, in a far-off' 
way. 

Tonson froze him with a look. 

"Wait," he retorted, "till we're 
sure." 

When Harold Wallace returned 
from Cobalt smiling and cheerful, 

58 



Tonson straightway hailed him into 
his private office and closed the door. 

"How are things looking on Silver 
Miss?" he chirruped joyously, actual- 
ly laying aside his cigar in an excess 
of interest. 

"They look splen — " 

The young man checked his en- 
thusiastic words. 

"Fair," he added, with a frown. "I 
hope you haven't stung me with those 
shares, but — " 

He did not conclude. He had rein- 
ed up his first sentence just a syllable 
too late, and the bucket-shop man 
knew without another word that the 
young man was now racing away 
from the truth. But he sympathized 
judiciously. 

"Gad, I hope the thing pans out," 
he muttered. "I've a lot of my own 
cash tied up in it, and I don't want 
to be left in the hole. People say I've 
got pretty good mining judgment, 
but—" 

Wallace shrugged his shoulders. 

"Even the best judgment goes 
astray now and then," he returned 
with an air of deep sadness and regret. 
"How much are you stung on Silver 
Miss?" 

"A thousand shares," lied Tonson. 

"I'll take them at seventeen," re- 
turned the clerk calmly. "May as 
well be hung for a sheep as for a 
lamb, you know." 

He grinned cynically. Tonson de- 
clined to sell. After Harold's exit he 
pondered long. At first he thought of 
letting Moker in on the ground floor 
of his suspicions. Then he decided 
that he wouldn't. Moker's judgment 
was not always sound, and — well, if 
there were profitable coups to be un- 
dertaken, Tonson preferred to tackle 
them alone. He might invite his 
partner in if a loss seemed imminent. 

He found Moker buttonholing the 
inscrutable Harold a few minutes lat- 
er. Moker, too, he inferred, must sus- 
pect. Tonson was glad now that he 
had let out nothing which might tend 
to confirm Moker's suspicions. 

He kept one eye on the pale clerk 
and a corner of that eye on Moker. 



THE BOOMING OF SILVER MISS 



His surveillance disclosed the fact 
that Moker, too, was keeping an eye 
on Harold, and, more than that, on 
him — Tonson ! "Confounded impu- 
dence of the man," mused Tonson, and 
chewed a cigar to pretty small frag- 
ments in his smouldering wrath, piled 
upon which were ponderings over the 
mysterious circumstance that since his 
return from Cobalt the young man had 
not once written to Hawkins. 

Tonson mused. Hawkins might 
have quit, or Harold might have suc- 
ceeded in summarily deposing him. 
The end of the bucket-shop man's 
musings was that he put through a 
wire to Cobalt, which elicited the in- 
formation that Hawkins was still in 
charge of Silver Miss, coupled with 
the fact — far more astounding — that 
operations, discontinued many months 
before when the panic bowled the pa- 
per mine over like a ninepin, had been 
resumed and were being carried on 
with a secrecy which concealed every 
particular except the incidental energy 
involved. Tonson gasped himself 
white at the prospect thus conjured 
up. Hawkins just before the panic 
had asked and been refused a raise 
in wages. Had Hawkins deliberately 
avenged himself by running down the 
mine, concealing promising develop- 
ments, and driving him — Tonson — to 
unload at twenty cents shares that 
might well be worth par? 

For three days Tonson puzzled over 
the fact that the pale clerk no longer 
wrote to Hawkins. His clue came on 
the fourth day when he heard Wallace 
politely ask the tawny-haired steno- 
grapher to come down in the evening 
and take a few letters. Tonson's greasy 
soul flared up almost to the point of 
intervention at Bertha's pleased as- 
sent — then, sharply, he turned away. 
As he did so, his eyes met those of 
Moker. Moker's face in an instant 
was absolutely bereft of all intelli- 
gence, and he chewed at the head of 
his cane as though that were his sole 
object in life. 

A surreptitious walk past the office 
that night, involving a long detour, as- 
sured him that a light was burning. 



Next morning, immediately on reach- 
ing the office, he summoned the steno- 
grapher. 

"Miss Fossett!" 

Miss Fossett came. There was a 
smile in her blue eyes, a note-book un- 
folded at a clean page in her hand, 
and a freshly-sharpened pencil jabbed 
conveniently into her coiffure. In the 
middle of the third letter the bucket- 
shop man quite casually interrupted 
himself. 

"By the way, Miss Fossett, did Wal- 
lace dictate those letters I told him to 
last night?" 

"About the mine — ?" 

The girl stopped short, a frightened 
look flashing into her face as though 
she had just released from the bag a 
valuable feline which she was expect- 
ed to retain there. The broker, chew- 
ing delightedly at his cigar, hastened 
to reassure her. 

"Silver Miss," he added. "Wallace 
and I are both interested, though, 
since it might otherwise interfere with 
some big deals I now have on hand, 
I had all the stock put in Wallace'? 
name." 

The girl's face shone with a smile 
of relief. 

"Oh, I'm really so glad," she gush- 
ed. "So you know all about it. I was 
afraid perhaps it was some private 
matter of his and that he would be 
angry at me for letting it out — but, 
of course, since you know, it's all 
right, isn't it? And do you think it's 
really going to turn out such a suc- 
cess — ?" 

Again she stopped short, suspicious 
ly. Tonson, rubbing his hands, pre- 
pared to delve further into this mine 
of gladsome information. 

"I really think it is," he declared 
with mock enthusiasm. "I'm tickled, 
too, I can tell you, for I'm deeper in 
Silver Miss than Wallace is, though 
he knows the property better. He 
bought those shares of his for a song 
from some real estate man around 
here — but now — " 

Again he rubbed his hands, and 
waited. Miss Fossett voiced not the 
least word that would throw light on 

59 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



the real situation of affairs at Silver 
Miss. Tonson almost wept that he 
had lied so much. It debarred him 
from open questioning. 

"Why I asked," he added, "was, 
that I believe Wallace overlooked 
something that I especially wanted 
him to put into that letter. Just wait 
a minute." 

Concealing his impatience behind a 
jubilant smile, he finished the letter he 
had been dictating. 

"Now, Miss Fossett, if you'll just 
bring me the letter-book," he mur- 
mured, "I'll run over that letter — " 

"Mr. Wallace copied it in his pri- 
vate letter-book," remarked the steno- 
grapher innocently. "He keeps it 
locked in his desk." 

Tonson corked his mouth with the 
cigar just in time to imprison a 
triumphant and delighted whistle. 

"Glad he thought to lock it up," he 
commented, promptly. "With import- 
ant business letters, it's always safer. 
Now, if you'll just read it of from 
your notes — " 

"But Mr. Wallace dictated to me 
on the typewriter," interrupted the 
girl. "Told me he was in a hurry and 
it was a long letter — and it certainly 
was," she concluded, with a shrug of 
her shoulders. 

"Oh, very well. I'll just speak to 
Wallace." 

And, dismissing the stenographer 
with a curt bow, he sat grouchily an- 
athematizing the too-cautious Harold 
for all time to come. He fathomed 
Wallace through and through — had 
done so from the first — and he began 
now to suspect also the stenographer 
with the blue eyes and the tawny 
locks. Big things manifestly, assur- 
edly, undoubtedly, lay beneath the 
mantle of doubt and disbelief which 
hitherto had garbed the mysterious 
Silver Miss. 

Nor did the dictation by Wallace 
during the ensuing week, always after 
hours, of voluminous letters invariably 
copied in the private letter book and 
mailed by the young man with his own 
hands, tend to alter the bucket-shop 
man's now settled conviction. His ef- 



forts to pump both parties as to the 
contents of the letters failed signally. 
"Tight as clams," he commented, con- 
vinced beyond question that they were 
out-and-out allies. 

Intervention manifestly was the only 
way to discover what he wished to 
know. He dropped into the office 
quite casually one night. A night visit 
was something unprecedented in his 
bucket-shop career. He hoped to sur- 
prise the two conspirators in the midst 
of their dictation. Both were gone. 
Turning on the lights Tonson wan- 
dered aimlessly, disappointedly, to and 
fro about the deserted office. And 
then the lights showed him, what he 
had at first missed, a thin, drab-cover- 
ed letter-book inscribed with the sig- 
nificant initials: "H. W." 

He pounced upon it like an eagle 
upon a lamb, and instantly was im- 
mersed to his neck in wonderful, 
amazing correspondence. Bonanza, 
lucky strike, vein of pure silver, un- 
told millions in sight — of these things 
he read with eyes staring and wide. 
And then: 

"Hawkins, you must keep this quiet 
— otherwise, I'll send a certain mining 
engineer to reside in the cemetery. 
Don't let a single stranger, not even 
a book peddler, set foot on that pro- 
perty. Keep mum — mum — MUM. 
There are 80,000 shares of Silver Miss 
out, and I mean to corral every cent 
on which I can lay my fingers. If 
there's the least leak, if the public just 
gets a suspicion of what this property 
really is, the shares will reach par 
before we know where we're at. Re- 
member, Mum's the slogan of Silver 
Miss. I've soaked in your thousand, 
and send you the certificates." 

Fearful of Harold's return, the 
broker galloped his eye over the en- 
suing letters. All told a like story. 
More shares had been picked up, ship- 
ments were being held back till the 
coup was complete. Mum with a capi- 
tal M still continued the slogan. 

Within twenty minutes the wire was 
busy between Carisford and Toronto, 
carrying to Cosser & Santrell a query 
from Jabez Tonson regarding Silver 



THE BOOMING OF SILVER MISS 



Miss. "Quiet," came the answer. 
"Shares seventeen cents." And then, 
postscript-wise, the significant words : 

"Another party on warpath." 

"Wallace !" ejaculated the broker. 

"Buy at seventeen," he wired back. 

Nocturnal visits to the office, as fre- 
quent as they were resultless, became 
a mania with Tonson. Wallace, how- 
ever, always departing before the buc- 
ket-shop man's arrival, locked the 
books safely in the desk before he 
left. Time and again the broker was 
tempted to break the drawer open, but 
he knew how fatal it would be to alarm 
Harold's suspicions. 

When, one night, he discovered the 
longed-for volume lying forgotten and 
neglected on the top of the desk, he 
stared incredulously at its drab cover, 
rubbing his eyes for many moments 
ere he dared believe his luck. Finally, 
he sat down and eagerly devoured the 
latest letters. 

"Are you playing double?" demand- 
ed Wallace in one heated passage, evi- 
dently written under stress of temper. 
"There's a leak somewhere. Other 
people are getting next to Silver Miss. 
Is this your doing? I'm doing the 
job for both — keep yourself out of the 
game. I've more than money depend- 
ing on the result of this coup — you 
know that well. Let me catch you 
trying to play me double and I'll 
smash you flatter than a pancake, fiat 
ter even than Silver Miss was a few 
months ago. You can't get control. 
Don't let that idea eat into your vitals. 
If this sort of thing continues I'll sim- 
ply pull the strings of the bag, out 
pops pussy, and these people I'm 
working for here and a host of others 
will jump for Silver Miss and your 
chance of picking up stock won't be 
worth a cinder. 

"Maybe I'm mistaken. There's not 
the least doubt, however, that someone 
else is crowding me for this stock. If 
you're not the one, then it's a third 
partv. If so, the leak's at Cobalt, not 
at Carisford." 

Tonson lav back in his chair and 
chuckled delightedly. Then he real- 
ized that Wallace must not be excited. 



If Silver Miss continued to climb — 
it was now 35 — Wallace would let the 
cat out of the bag as he had threaten- 
ed, tell the whole story of the big 
strike, and Silver Miss would jump 
to $2 in twenty-four hours. Tonson 
wired Cosser to sell two hundred 
shares for him at 14. 

The shares were snapped up at once 
and the price climbed to 43 before the 
day was out. 

Then Tonson flung prudence to the 
winds and went in to buy. "Buy — buy 
— buy!" he wired Cosser, and Cosser 
bought. The buying was done quiet- 
ly and raced along neck and neck 
with a steady rise in price. The last 
of his fifty-two thousand three hun- 
dred shares Tonson bought at par. 

Cosser a couple of days later re- 
ported that Silver Miss was absolute- 
ly tight. He had bid $1.10 and found 
no takers. At $1.20 the result was 
the same. Even $1.50 failed to touch 
anyone. 

"I suppose Wallace has the other 
forty-thousand odd." chuckled Ton- 
son gleefully. "Well, I wish him joy 
of his holdings when the time comes 
for a show-down. He may know 
rocks and silver, but yours truly, Jabez 
Tonson, knows how to manipulate 
them." 

Even the stenographer's sudden re- 
signation did not phase his good hu- 
mor. When she announced that she 
must depart that very day, he told 
Wallace to pay over her wages to the 
minute and mechanically telephoned 
the Carisford Commercial Academy 
to send down a successor. 

Force of habit rather than need- — 
for need no longer existed — led him to 
drop into the office late that night, 
and his heart-thumps at sight of the 
drab letter-book with Wallace's ini- 
tials merely echoed those of other 
evenings when the incident meant far 
more than it did not. Still, knowl- 
edge meant power; and he thirsted for 
any knowledge the book had to im- 
part concerning Silver Miss. He hur- 
riedly turned over the flimsy pages, 
catching a word here or there. Ten- 
strike, bonanza, silver unlimited, these 

r.i 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



items were followed by strenuous 
warnings to Hawkins that Mum with 
a capital M was the slogan — then 
again ensuing sharp accusations of 
bad faith, climaxing with the deliber- 
ate, out-and-out charge that the man- 
ager was playing double. 

Tonson heard a key click in the 
lock. Choking down an exultant 
chuckle, he hurriedly jammed the tell- 
tale book into a drawer of the desk. 
Control of the mine he unquestionably 
had, but the fact was one he would 
prefer to impart to Wallace over the 
long-distance telephone. Wallace pos- 
sessed an excitable temper, and, de- 
spite his pallor, a goodly supply of 
muscle. A fat man who smoked 
cigars in a bucket-shop office all day 
would have no chance with him if 
caught with the goods. 

In his haste to close the drawer, the 
book became wedged tightly in plain 
view. Tonson could not push the 
drawer further in, neither could he 
tug it out. He wrestled with it, the 
perspiration rolling in streams down 
his fat, pudgy face. His nervousness 
rendered his struggle all the more un- 
availing. Realizing this, he halted, 
panting, and, trying to calm himself, 
swobbed a big handkerchief over his 
sweat-bedewed brow. As he did so, 
a hand fell sharply upon his shoulder. 
He turned quickly, a shiver coursing 
through him from head to foot. In- 
stead of the hot-tempered Wallace, he 
found himself cowering and shrinking 
beneath the angry gaze of his partner. 
Moker. 

"You !" ejaculated each simultan- 
eously, and hostility, smouldering be- 
neath the surface these many suspici- 
ous days, now blazed into open and 
defiant hate. 

"Why the devil are you mousing 
around my office at night?" roared 
Tonson, with a wrathful choke. 

"Ah — meandering thoughtfully 
through my confidential clerk's pri- 
vate letter-book, I perceive," com- 
mented the sneering Moker. 

"You skunk!" puffed the fat bro- 
ker wrathfully. 



"Alas, my poor brother!" para- 
phrased his thinner and more soft- 
spoken comrade. 

They glowered at each other. Itch- 
ing for another glimpse at the con- 
tents of the letter-book, Tonson wait- 
ed wrathfully for Moker to depart. 
Moker, smiling icily, waited also. Ten 
long minutes dragged past. Then Ton- 
son's curiosity conquered. Still, with 
one angry eye on his partner, by dint 
of a mighty tug that jarred the old 
desk almost to fragments, he wrench- 
ed loose the drawer, and, snatching up 
the book, turned mechanically to the 
last written page. Moker, edging 
around, tried to peer over his shoulder. 
Tonson hitched angrily away. Moker 
patiently accommodated himself to the 
changed position. Tonson surrender- 
ed, and, giving his companion no fur- 
ther heed, hurriedly ran his eye over 
the pale, blurred lines on the sheet be- 
fore him. 

My Dear Hawkins: 

Congratulate me. I am to be wed- 
ded this afternoon to the dearest lit- 
tle girl in the whole wide world. You 
know who — there is only one girl 
answering this description. In our 
confidential correspondence I have re- 
ferred to her quite often — Miss Fos- 
sett, till to-day sharing my unfortun- 
ate imprisonment in this den of 
thieves. We would have been mar- 
ried earlier, immediately I joined Ton- 
son & Moker's banditti, but unfor- 
tunately my money was all tied up in 
Silver Miss. During the past few 
weeks, however, owing to the grow- 
ing demand on the Toronto market, 
my holdings, like yours, have steadily 
diminished, and my Toronto people 
this morning reluctantly parted with 
the last shares to Cosser & Santrell. 
who are buying for some out-of-town 
suckers. 

Thanks for your noble, though sel- 
fish, exemplification of that splendid 
slogan "MUM." Instead of losing my 



THE BOOMING OF SILVER MISS 



$4,000, I clear a little more than that, 
which, especially on the eve of a wed- 
ding tour, isn't to he despised. 

I am leaving this place in an hour 
or so, as I have reason to believe that 
some foolish plunging in worthless 
Cobalt stocks is liable to involve the 
firm in a resounding financial crash. 

Hope your relations with the new 
controlling interests of Silver Miss 
will be as cordial as ours have been. 

Sincerely yours, 

H. WALLACE. 

P. S. — Try and induce the new own- 
ers to take a short cut for that fabu- 
lous streak of pay silver by attacking 
Silver Miss from the South Sea side 
of the globe. W. 



"But who the deuce bought the 
other forty thousand odd shares?" 
growled Tonson, gulping hard. 

"Ah — I wonder what urban green- 
horn allowed this young fiend to un- 
load the remaining fifty thousand odd 
upon him?" murmured Moker, in a 
pained tone. 

"You did!" 

"You did!" 

"We did," chorused the twain, and, 
sinking nervously into their respective 
chairs, they stared blankly at one an- 
other through the dissolving pano- 
rama, their mutual imaginations with- 
out difficulty conjured up of a busted, 
bankrupt bucket shop which Carisford 
would know no more. 



M 



oney 



' T™ 1 HE making of money is the com- 
1 mon lot ; and, though rough and 
harsh and severe, it is for the 
most part blessedly healthy, stiffening, 
widening, and enriching, and it pro- 
vides the common foundations indis- 
pensable to all character-building — 
foundations on which some of the love- 
liest types of man and womanhood the 
world has seen have been erected. And 
that is not all. Money is a handmaid 
of virtue, and under its softening in- 
fluence many a man has developed 
strange, beauteous, fragrant forms of 
character, which neither he nor the 
world ever dreamed he had in him. 
Money is a great elevator, caster-out 
of ignorance, coarseness, and stupid- 
ity. Money is a wonderful sensitiser, 
giving a new delicacy and gentleness, 
and producing high susceptibility to 
sympathetic impluses. Money is a great 
civiliser, a great socialiser, a great ed- 
ucator, a great inventor — in fact, a 



mighty earthly saviour. Oh, if we only 
knew it ! if we only understood ! If our 
power to use money were only equal 
to its abundance, what a paradise 
could we bring again to this poor 
earth ! What wrongs could be right- 
ed, what misery and pain and darkness 
done away ! and how soon might this 
weary, struggling, heat-broken race of 
man go swinging in his planet through 
space, the happiest thing that God has 
made! 

Fly, happy sails, and bear the press ; 

Fly, happy with the mission of the 
cross, 

Knit land to land, and, blowing 
heavenward, 

Enrich the markets of the Golden 
Year. 

— John Ackworth. 



w 




By 
C. B. Edwards 



J HENRY CALDWELL, of Spar- 
• tanburg, N.C., is the first man to 
utilize commercial dynamite in 
plowing land. 

Up to the present time the soil has 
been stirred or "broken" by means of 
a turn plow. This common imple- 
ment, drawn by one or two horses, 
breaks the land only to a depth of 
four or five inches and this is insuffi- 
cient for the clay soil of the compact 
sticky character which exists on the 
large farm of Mr. Caldwell. The toe 
of the plow, moreover, acts upon the 
substrata of clay just as a plane does 
on a plank. It smooths or dresses 
the clay and packs it so that it will 
hold water. When seasons of heavy 
or excessive rains are encountered the 
plowed top soil floats off and leaves 
the land devoid of the necessary plant 
food which the crop to be grown must 
have. The result is that more money 
must be spent in fertilizing the field, 
else by a plentiful use of manure the 



By courtesy of Technical World Magazine. 

i- 1 



land must in some way be brought 
back to its former condition of fertil- 
ity. It has been demonstrated that a 
farm such as Mr. Caldwell's, which 
is located largely over hard pan, can- 
not be fertilized to the extent that it 
should be. At every unusual fall of 
moisture the costly fertilizer will be 
washed off the land on to that of a 
lucky neighbor. In any event the 
fertilizer on such land will only pene- 
trate to a depth of four or five inches, 
the hard pan effectually preventing 
the further ingress of fertilizer and 
making the plant food available only 
to the surface roots of the crop 
grown. In order to overcome this 
difficulty and allow the fertilizer to 
sink far in and become a permanent 
reserve of plant food' in the soil it is 
at once apparent that the land must 
be broken to much greater depths 
than is possible with the ordinary 
plow. This is nothing new, it is true. 
for the subsoil plow has been used for 
many years back and is a direct re- 
sult of reasoning along these lines. 




The dynamite is " planted," as shown by projecting fuses, at intervals in trenches. 



But Mr. Caldwell has used a sub- 
soil plow on his land and declares it 
totally unfit for use on clay or hard- 
pan land. The subsoil plow is a 
heavy T-shaped steel implement. In 
use, the top part of the T goes along 
at the intersection of the surface soil 
with the subsoil and cuts the soil at a 
distance of about a foot from the sur- 
face. The subsoil plow gives no 
mixing improvement to the under 
strata, nor does it do more than 
simply give the soil a alight ventila- 
tion. The subsoil plow, on account 
of the depth at which it works, is also 
very hard on men and horses and it 
is impossible to plow over two acres 
a day in the clay land on Mr. Cald- 
well's farm. While the effects of sub- 
soil plowing were beneficial in a way 
and showed results in a slight increase 



in crop production, the result as a 
whole was not satisfactory. When 
the subsoiling was done on clay land 
Mr. Caldwell found that the subsoil 
plow broke up the capillary attraction 
that allowed plants to draw on the 
subsoil in times of drought, and in 
times of rain the rainwater would not 
penetrate the clay land beyond the 
depth of the subsoil plowing. 

In view of these facts Mr. Caldwell 
drew the conclusion that the land 
must be broken to a depth of four or 
five feet to permit of the doing away 
with terraces to prevent the washing 
of the surface soil. He had observed 
that where stumps are pulled or any 
deep excavation made and filled the 
land where such excavation has been 
made grew much better crops than 
the surrounding soil. The crops over 




The explosion loosens the ground to half the height of a man. 

c 



65 



F \KMKR'S MAGAZINE. 



such spots did not wither with 
drought and in time of rain the sur- 
face soil with its valuable plant food 
was not washed about. The experi- 
menter says : 

"I have had occasion to open 
graves that have been dug for fifty 
years and the earth is soft and perme- 
able to the bottom. I have opened old 
wells that have been filled and could 
follow the sides all the way down by 
the difference in the density of the 
soil. My conclusions from these ob- 
servations were that clay once dis- 
turbed to a depth of four feet will 
never pack to its original condition 
and for that reason will always hold 
its moisture and plant food for the 
growth of crops. 

"The cost of breaking land to this 
depth has been the question, horse 
power cannot be considered, the cost 
of digging is prohibitive. It seemed 
to me that the only key to the diffi- 
culty lay in the use of dynamite. I 
began by exploding a stick of dyna- 
mite in each of my watermelon hills 
and the resulting increase amounting 
to thirty-three per cent, of the crop 
allowed me to pay for the dynamite 
and have an increased profit besides. 
I next tried plowing a cotton field in 
the usual manner, and after plowing, 
harrowed it thoroughly and charged 
two acres of it with seventy-five 
pounds of dynamite to the acre. The 
dynamite cartridges were put two 
feet apart in rows marked with a 
single shovel plow. The method of 
planting the cartridges was simple : 
one man walked ahead with a crowbar 
and stuck it into the ground about 
three feet ; the man following affixed 
a percussion cap to the stick of dyna- 
mite and two feet of fuse and tamped 
it into the hole with a rake handle, 
finally leaving only the white fuse 
protruding. Incidentally the dyna- 
mite used was of the strength ordin- 
arily used for blasting stumps and is 
not as costly as that used in rock 
quarries. 

After the planting of the dynamite 
charges a large crowd of the native 

66 



population gathered near the field of 
operations to witness what they re- 
garded as the novel whim of one of 
their most progressive farmers. The 
negroes of the locality did not know 
what to make of the proceedings and 
looked with awe upon the operations 
calculated to wrench from nature the 
productive crops she refused to yield 
to their simple methods. The explod- 
ing of the charged field was not with- 
out its amusing side. Many of the 
nearby neighbors hearing that several 
hundred pounds of dynamite were to 
be exploded removed household be- 
longings and adjourned to their far- 
thest premises, window frames were 
taken out and the sheriff instructed to 
hold up the exploding of the charged 
field, made a formal call upon Mr. 
Caldwell to come to an agreement in 
regard to the inevitable damages 
which the neighbors felt sure would 
ensue. 

In exploding the field, four rows 
were set off at a time, one man going 
rapidly down each row lighting fuses 
w^ith a red hot iron as he went. The 
result was not unlike the setting off 
of a great bunch of firecrackers. The 
explosions came thick and fast and 
both the sub and surface soils were 
sent into the air in clouds, again fall- 
ing on the land in a powdery mist and 
leaving periodical holes where the 
cartridges were planted about four 
and a half feet deep. In one case 
where twelve rows were set off at the 
same time the effect was quite awe- 
inspiring, the reports were blended 
into a continuous roar and the row of 
a dozen men lighting 'fuses was pur- 
sued by an ever rising wave of soil. 
The danger to the men lighting the 
fuses is trifling as is shown by the 
photographs of the operations. 

After the charges are exploded the 
field looks not unlike a great colander 
set with innumerable holes where the 
charges of dynamite were set, and 
the soil is broken up into unusually 
fine particles and well aerated. 



Do the Railways Own 
Canada ? 



By 
H. J. Pettypiece 

Late Member Ontario Legislative Assembly 

British Railway Tax, $1,000 per Mile; Canadian, only $67. 
Railroad Earnings in Canada go to pay U.S. Taxes ! Farm 
Tax 11.6 Mills on the Dollar; Railways Pay 3.6 Mills 



THE question of "Railway Taxa- 
tion" has been before the peo- 
ple of Canada more or less 
during the past ten years, principal- 
ly owing to the introduction in 
the Legislature of what was known 
as the "Pettypiece Bill." In brief, 
this bill proposed to put railway 
property on an equal footing with 
other property in the province, in re- 
gard to the rate of taxation it should 
bear. Up to that time the 6,6oo 
miles of railway in the province paid 
less than $50 per mile in taxes. In 
1899, when the Legislature passed the 
Supplementary Revenue Act, a pro- 
vincial tax of $5 per mile was impos- 
ed ; in 1904, owing to the agitation in 
the House and through the press, in 
support of the Pettypiece Bill, the rate 
was increased to $30 per mile, and in 
1906, for the same reasons, the rate 
was increased to $60 per mile, but no 
further increase has since been made. 
At the same time the powei of the 
local municipalities to impose taxes 
fur municipal purposes was somewhat 
curtailed, so that the average rate of 
taxation now paid by the railways of 
the province amounts to about $100 
per mile, yielding a total revenue of 
about $823,000 annually. 

While it is generally conceded that 
there is no valid reason why railway 
property should not be taxed at the 
same rate as other property, the in- 
fluence of the railway corporations is 



so great that neither the Liberal Gov- 
ernment, which went out of power in 
1905, nor the Conservative Govern- 
ment, which has since been in power, 
have been willing to pass a measure 
that would bring about this equality 
of taxation. A vote of the people on 
this question alone, apart from and 
unclouded by other issues, would un- 
doubtedly result in an overwhelming 
majority in favor of such legislation. 

The question that naturally arises 
is : "Should the railways in Ontario 
be taxed at the same rate as other 
property?" 

In order to arrive at a satisfactory 
answer let us consider the question 
from three standpoints : First, Why is 
property taxed? Second, On .what 
basis is railway property taxed in 
other countries? Third, Are the rail- 
ways of the province able to bear an 
equal rate of taxation with other pro- 
perty? 

The first question is easily disposed 
of. Property is taxed to enable the 
provincial and municipal governments 
to properly carry on the affairs that 
come under their respective jurisdic- 
tions, and to safeguard the property 
of individuals and corporations alike. 
As railway property enjoys all the 
safeguards and protection of both the 
provincial and municipal governments 
it should bear its fair share of the 
cost. Besides, the railway corpora- 
tions have many privileges that are 

67 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



denied the owners of other property, 
such as, the right to expropriate land, 
etc. 

According to the Government re- 
port the total amount of taxes paid 
by the railways of Canada in 1909 
was $1,594,880, or $67 per mile. This 
sum includes both provincial and 
municipal taxes. 

Railway Taxation Elsewhere. 

The taxation of railways in other 
countries shows that we in Canada 
are far behind in the equalization of 
taxation, and that Canada is the only 
country in which the railways are al- 
lowed to go practically untaxed. 

In Great Britain and Ireland for 
over thirty years there has been a 
heavy tax on railways, and that tax 
has been increased at a much greater 
rate than has been the increase in 
mileage, capital or earnings. The 
amount collected now is about 5,000,- 
000 pounds sterling, on 24,000 miles 
of road (which is less than the mile- 
age in Canada), or more than 200 
pounds per mile. During the last fif- 
teen years, in Great Britain and Ire- 
land, railway mileage has increased 
10 per cent. ; capital, 30 per cent. ; 
gross earnings, 30 per cent. ; net earn- 
ings, 6 per cent. ; taxation, 70 per 
cent. 

Reduced to dollars, railway taxa- 
tion in the United Kingdom amounts 
to over $24,000,000 annually. It re- 
presents a tax of over $1,000 per mile, 
a rate of three and one-half mills on 
the capital, a rate of nearly 4 per cent, 
on the gross earnings, and over 11 
per cent, on the net earnings. 

In France a large revenue is raised 
by a tax on both freight and passen- 
ger earnings, and all railways reveri 
to the Government, without compen- 
sation, at the expiration of their char- 
ters, which run not more than fifty 
years. 

In the United States the latest re- 
turns, for 1908, show that $84,563,- 
565 in railway taxation, was collected 
that year, an average of $382 per mile. 
The increase in three years was $76 
per mile, which is $11 per mile more 
than the total amount collected in 

68 



Canada. The highest rate in the 
States was $1,926 per mile in New 
Jersey, and the lowest was $148 per 
mile in Arizona. In the States ad- 
joining Ontario the rates per mile 
were:' New York, $672; Ohio, $576; 
Pennsylvania, $554; Wisconsin, $409; 
Michigan, $396; Minnesota, $388. 

A comparison of the taxes paid by 
the railways and subsidiary properties 
in Ontario and Michigan shows in a 
most startling manner how very much 
we are behind the age in regard to 
this most important of the many du- 
ties of a government — the equaliza- 
tion of the burdens of taxation. On- 
tario and Michigan are about equal 
in population and wealth, the advan- 
tage, if any, being in favor of On- 
tario, and with similar conditions in 
many respects. They have nearly the 
same railway mileage, that of On- 
tario being 8,230, and that of Michi- 
gan, 8,640. In 1909 the taxes paid 
by the railway, express, Pullman and 
car-loaning companies in the province 
and state were as follows : 



Companies. 
Railway . . 
Express . . 

Pullman . . 
Car-loaning 



Ontario. Michigan. 

.$823,000 $4,377,873 

6,500 26,606 

1,838 10,336 

Nil 23,386 



Totals $831,338 $4,438,201 

This show's a difference in favor of 
Michigan of $3,606,863. 

It may be also mentioned here that 
the telegraph and telephone companies 
in Michigan paid in taxes in 1909 the 
sum of $433,072, as compared with 
$11,504 paid in Ontario by the same 
companies. 

The Michigan figures are furnished 
by Mr. Geo. Lord, the secretary of 
the State Board of Tax Commission- 
ers. 

The passenger and freight charges 
in Michigan are lower than in On- 
tario, and express charges are no 
higher. 

Several of the through railway lines, 
amongst the most important, operate 
through both Ontario and Michigan. 
Hundreds of passenger and freight 



DO THE RAILWAYS OWN CANADA? 



cars run daily through both, from the 
west to the east and from east to 
west, over an almost equal mileage. 
The Grand Trunk runs 220 miles from 
the Indiana boundary to the St. Clair 
river, and 182 mites from the St. Clair 
to the Niagara river. The Michigan 
Central runs 220 miles through Michi- 
gan and 228 miles through Ontario — 
this being the main line mileage in 
both cases. The bulk of the freight 
traffic over these two lines consists 
of through freight, which goes 
through unbroken. It may, therefore, 
be assumed that the earnings and 
working expenses are about equal, and 
the ability to pay taxes equal. What 
do they pay in the two countries ? Ac- 
cording to the returns for 1907, the 
latest year for which detailed returns 
are at present available, the taxes 
paid by these two stretches of lines 
are as follows: The G.T.R. (Grand 
Trunk Western) paid in Michigan, 
on 220 miles, $206,181, or $920 per 
mile, and in Ontario $100 per mile. 
The M.C.R. paid in Michigan $564,- 
000, on 270 miles, or over $2,000 per 
mile, and in Ontario $100 per mile. 

In the same year the St. Clair tun- 
nel, with equal mileage, and equal 
earnings and expenses in Michigan 
and Ontario, paid in taxes in Michi- 
gan $22,909, and in Ontario $730. The 
Ontario end received a subsidy of 
$285,000, the Michigan end nothing. 

When it is remembered that the 
principal freight business of these two 
lines is to haul the products of the 
western States through Ontario to the 
seaboard, to enter into competition 
with the products of Ontario, the in- 
justice done to the people of this pro- 
vince is far worse than the mere fig- 
ures show. That the thousands of 
cars owned by car-loaning companies, 
which pay over $23,000 in Michigan, 
are allowed to escape taxation in On- 
tario, is a gross outrage on the tax- 
payers of this province. This class of 
property includes all the refrigerator 
cars, for the transit of which local 
traffic, paying higher rates, is daily 
side-tracked every day in Ontario. 
Similar contrasts could be given in re- 



gard to the Pere Marquette and the 
Soo lines of the C.P.R. 

Take the case of a G.T.R. train 
running from Chicago to Portland, 
Maine, a distance of 1,138 miles. It 
runs 30 miles through Illinois, where 
the rate of taxation is $441 per mile ; 
83 miles through Indiana, $490 per 
mile; 220 miles through Michigan, 
$396 per mile ; through the Michigan 
end of the St. Clair tunnel, $22,909 ; 
across the boundary and through the 
Ontario end of the tunnel, $760; then 
511 miles through Ontario, $100 per 
mile; 129 miles through Quebec, $90 
per mile ; 35 miles through Vermont, 
$205 per mile ; 63 miles through New 
Hampshire, $379 per mile ; 70 miles 
through Maine, $314 per mile. There- 
fore, the trains run over 500 miles of 
lines in the States, with an average 
taxation of $371 per mile, or $185,500, 
and over 638 miles in Canada, with 
an average taxation of $95 per mile, 
or a total of $60,610. Add the St. 
Clair tunnel figures, and the totals are 
$208,409 paid in the States, and $61,- 
340 paid in Canada. It may be well 
said that these railway lines collect 
earnings in Canada to pay taxes in the 
States. 

A comparison of the taxes paid in 
Ontario on farm property and on rail- 
way property shows how great is the 
discrimination in favor of the latter 
class of property. Farm property is 
taken for the purposes of comparison 
because the taxes paid on that class 
of property do not include charges 
for water, light, street railways, etc., 
as is often the case in cities and towns. 

In 1908 the total assessment of farm 
property in the province amounted to 
$601,758,322, on which the total taxes 
paid amounted to $7,001,102, a rate of 
11.63 mills on the dollar, and a rate 
of $6.69 per head of the population. 
In nine years, although the rural 
population decreased by 60,000, the as- 
sessment increased $51,000,000, the 
taxes increased $2,383,899, the rate on 
the dollar increased 1.39 mills, and 
the rate of taxation per head 'increased 
$2-53- 



I- VOMER'S MAGAZINE. 



In the Dominion there are, exclusive 
of Government and uncompleted lines. 
21,965 miles of railway, capitalized at 
$55,638 per mile. The 8,000 miles 
(excluding Government lines) in On- 
tario, therefore, represent a capital of 
at least $445,000,000. Assessed at one- 
half that amount, which is less than the 
basis of assessment of farm property, 
and taxed at 11 mills, which is less 
than the rate on farm property, the 
result would be a taxation of $2,448,- 
072, or $306 per mile. This is $76 
less than the average rate per mile 
paid in the United States, and $90 
less than the Michigan rate per mile. 

In addition to the municipal taxes 
on farm property, as given above, the 
rural population of the province paid 
in the same year their share of the 
$73,325,963 customs and excise taxes 
collected by the Dominion Govern- 
ment, which, at the lowest calculation, 
amounted to $12,000,000. This brings 
the total taxation on the township pro- 
perty in the province up to $19,000,- 
000, on an assessed value of $601,- 
000,000, equal to a rate of over 31 
mills on the dollar. 

Under present conditions (leaving 
out customs and excise taxes alto- 
gether) the taxes paid on railway pro- 
perty in Ontario (at an assessment 
basis of one-half value) is equal to 
3.6 mills on the dollar, compared with 
the 11.63 mills on farm property. In 
other words, $1,000 worth of farm 
property pays $11.63 m taxes, and 
$1,000 worth of railway property pays 
$1.80 in taxes. Compared with city 
and town property, the difference is 
very much greater. 

Another point to be taken into con- 
sideration in discussing the question 
of railway taxation is the fact that the 
people of Canada have practically built 
every mile of railway in the country; 
and with the exception of the com- 
paratively small mileage still owned 
by Dominion and Provincial Govern- 
ments, have handed over free to the 
various railway corporations the lines, 
some 22,000 miles, which they own 
and operate. The Dominion official 

70 



report for the year ending June 30th, 
[909, discloses the following facts: 

The amount of cash subsidies given 
in aid of railways is as follows: 

By the Dominion . $77,028,080 

By the provinces 32,538,496 

By the municipalities .... 12,580,825 

Total $122,147,401 

The value of the lines handed over 
to the C. P. R. by the Dominion Gov- 
ernment is placed at $37,785,320. 

Subscriptions to shares by the pro- 
vinces and municipalities have amount- 
ed to $3,139,500. 

Lands to the extent of 55,116,017 
acres have also been given in aid to 
railways, which, valued at $5 per acre 
(a low valuation), is equal to $275,- 
580,085. 

In addition to all the above, the Do- 
minion, the provinces and the muni- 
cipalities have made loans to the rail- 
ways to the amount of $10,314,581. 

The grand total given in railway 
aid, in cash, partly completed lines, 
subscriptions, land and loans, amounts 
to $452,966,887. 

Leaving out the loans, (which may 
have been repaid), the amount of aid 
given is $442,894,666. or more than 
$20,000 per mile to the 22,000 miles 
owned by the various railway cor- 
porations. This sum exceeds the na- 
tional debt of Canada by over $119,- 
000,000. 

Guarantees on bonds, which are also 
substantial aid, have been given by the 
Dominion and Provincial Govern- 
ments to the extent of over $95,500,- 
000. 

The official report from which the 
above information is taken, says. "It 
would be misleading to assume that 
the above statements represent all that 
has been done by the Dominion and the 
several provinces in aid of railway con- 
struction. The Dominion, for exam- 
ple, is building the eastern section of 
the Transcontinental Railway between 
Moncton and Winnipeg, the western 
division of which is known as the 



DO THE RAILWAYS OWN CANADA? 



Grand Trunk Pacific, on which the ex- 
penditure up to June 30 was $33,301,- 
342." 

Arguments of all kinds have been 
used against any proposition to com- 
pel the railways to pay taxes. At the 
time the "Petty-piece Bill" was before 
the Ontario Legislature, able lawyers, 
employed by the railway corporations, 
resorted to all the schemes of the 
"tax dodger" to prevent its passing. 

One stock argument was that the 
railways "developed the country." So 
they do, and so does every other busi- 
ness enterprise, agricultural, manufac- 
turing, mercantile, and so forth. It 
is the development of these enter- 
prises that gives the railways their 
traffic, and as these enterprises de- 
velop and increase in importance and 
value, the taxes imposed on them in- 
creases correspondingly, and a large 
part of the revenue thus raised goes 
in aid to railways. For instance, the 
Counties of Essex, Kent and Lamb- 
ton, in western Ontario, have spent 
over $8,000,000 in local drainage. This 
is a development in which the railways 
have had a large share of the benefit, 
owing to the increase in the produc- 
tion of commodities which furnish the 
railways with traffic. As those coun- 
ties were improved, or developed, by 
the expenditure of millions, the in- 
creased values were taxed according- 
ly. In twelve years, from 1896 to 1908. 
the population of these three counties 



increased only 6,006, or 3.8 per cent.; 
the total taxation increased by $66,- 
115, or 61.5 per cent.; the increase of 
taxes per head was $5.40, and the rate 
of taxation on the dollar increased 7 
mills. The railways get a large traffic 
from these counties, and are allowed to 
escape with a trifling rate of taxation. 

Another argument used is that the 
railways have- to pay duty on some 
of the coal "they use. Granted. They 
do so because it is cheaper than haul- 
ing coal from the Canadian mines. 
The U. S. railways do the same thing. 
Last year we imported bituminous 
coal to the value of $11,800,000, on 
which the duty was $6,000,000, only 
a small proportion of which was borne 
by the railways, but the other con- 
sumers of coal are paying their full 
share of other taxes, as well as their 
share of the coal duties. They would 
be laughed at if they asked exemption 
on that score. At the same time we 
exported to the States over $4,000.- 
000 worth of coal, of which the U. S. 
railways took their share, and paid 
the duty thereon, but that does not 
exempt them from taxation. 

All things considered, there is no 
reason in the world why the rail- 
way corporations should not bear their 
share in the cost of carrying on "he 
affairs of the country, as they share, 
to a greater extent than many other 
industries, in the prosperity that the 
country is enjoying. 



Conditions in the States 



By J. J. Hill 



We are spending millions on top 
of millions for the army, for the navy, 
when we need neither. For Congress 
to appropriate the several hundred 
millions annually, as it does, for the 
guns of the ships is encouragement 
for the individual to talk about war- 
fare when there isn't any war cloud 
apparent anywhere. 



What reason have we to combat, 
except commercially, any foreign 
power? And yet, speaking soberly, I 
will say that we must do something 
quickly toward regaining our trade 
with other countries. 

Germany, England and France are 
advancing and pre-empting territory 
that naturally belongs to us. We can 

71 



ARMER'S M \GAZINE. 



recover that trade only by encourag- 
ing shipping industries, by more mark- 
ed methods of inviting trade, by sys- 
tems of reciprocity, by competition, 
the latter, after all, being the real key- 
note of commerce. 

Were I in control of the finances 
of this Government I should spend 
more for the development of the farm 
and less for the fineness of firearms. 

Think of the congestion in the cities. 
How long can this nation survive un- 
der present conditions? We have few 
producers, a multitude of consumers. 
I have forgotten the figures, but some- 
where I have read that 70 per cent, of 
the people live in city houses, steam- 
heated flats, in homes unsuited for 
health, unequipped for the sturdiness 
necessary for the development of our 
manhood. 

I should like to see the Government 
spend millions in the encouragement 
of men and women going to the coun- 
try — there to live as God intended they 
should live — to raise children, produce 
grain, meat and milk. 









^H 




*7J 










■ 



J. J. HILL 

Canadian farmer's son. railroader, multi 

millionaire and philosopher. 



72 



We must get out of the notion that 
we are living for the present. It is a 
bad system of society that prompts the 
well-being of to-day, caring nothing 
for to-morrow, for those who come 
after. 

The idea that we feed the world is 
being corrected ; and unless we can 
increase the agricultural population 
and their product, the question of a 
source of food supply at home will 
soon supersede the question of a mar- 
ket for our own products abroad. 

We have almost reached a point 
where owing to increased population 
without increased production per acre, 
our home food supply will be insuffi- 
cient for our own needs; within ten 
years, possibly less, we are likely to 
become a wheat-importing nation ; the 
percentage of the population engaged 
in agriculture and the wheat product 
per acre, are both falling; at the same 
time the cost of living is raised every- 
where by this relative scarcity of 
bread, by artificial increase in the price 
of all manufactured articles, and by a 
habit of extravagance which has en- 
larged the view of both rich and poor 
of what are to be considered the neces- 
saries of life. 

These plain facts should disturb 
and arouse, not only the economic 
student, but the men who are mostly 
intimately related to the wealth of the 
nation, and most concerned that it 
shall not suffer loss or decreases. 
Never yet has enhanced cost of liv- 
ing, when due to agricultural decline 
and inability to supply national needs, 
failed to end in national disaster. 

During the next 20 years, there will 
be a great evolution in farming. Agri- 
culture will be more intelligent and 
intense. New plants are to be intro- 
duced and better use made of lands. 
An acre will be made to produce twice 
as much as now. The farmer is handi- 
capped by lack of labor. It is up to 
the manufacturers to make farm work 
easier and more attractive by the in- 
vention and building of new and more 
efficient machinery. 



a 



Pigs is Pigs" 



By 
Ellis Parker Butler 



This is One of the Wittiest Stories Published in Recent Years. 



MIKE FLANNERY, the West- 
cote agent of the Interurban Ex- 
press Company, leaned over the 
counter of the express office and shook 
his fist. Mr. Morehouse, angry and 
red, stood on the other side of the 
counter, trembling with rage. The 
argument had been long and heated, 
and at last Mr. Morehouse had talk- 
ed himself speechless. The cause of 
the trouble stood on the counter be- 
tween the two men. It was a soap 
box across the top of which were nail- 
ed a number of strips, forming a 
rough but serviceable cage. In it two 
spotted guinea-pigs were greedily eat- 
ing lettuce leaves. 

"Do as you loike, then !" shouted 
Flannery, "pay for thim, an' take thim, 
or don't, pay for thim and leave thim 
be. Rules is rules, Misther More- 
house, an' Mike Flannery's not goin' 
to be called down fer breakin' of 
thim." 

"But, you everlastingly stupid 
idiot !" shouted Mr. Morehouse, mad- 
ly shaking a flimsy printed book be- 
neath the agent's nose, "can't you read 
it here — in your own plain printed 
rates? 'Pets, domestic, Franklin to 
Westcote, if properly boxed, twenty- 
five cents each.' " He threw the book 
on the counter in disgust, "What more 
do you want? Aren't they pets? Aren't 
they domestic? Aren't thev properly 
boxed? What?" 

He turned and walked back and 
forth rapidly ; frowning ferociously. 
Suddenly he turned to Flannery, and, 

* Copyright by Doubleday. Page & Co., New 



forcing his voice to an artificial calm- 
ness, spoke slowly, but with intense 
sarcasm. 

"Pets," he said. "P-e-t-s! Twenty- 
five cents each. There are two of 
them ! One ! Two ! Two times twen- 
ty-five are fifty! Can you understand 
that? I offer you fifty cents." 

Flannery reached for the book. He 
ran his hand through the pages and 
stopped at page sixty-four. 

"An' I don't take fifty cints," he 
whispered in mockery. "Here's the 
rule for ut. 'Whin the agint be in 
anny doubt regardin' which of two 
rates applies to a shipment, he shall 
charge the larger. The consign-ey 
may file a claim for the overcharge.' 
In this case, Misther Morehouse, I 
be in doubt. Pets thim animals may 
be, an' domestic they be, but pigs, I'm 
blame sure they do be, an' me rules 
says plain as the nose on yer face, 
'Pigs, Franklin to Westcote, thirty 
cents each.' An' Mister Morehouse, 
by me arithmetical knowledge, two 
times thirty comes to sixty cints." 

Mr. Morehouse shook his head sav- 
agely. 

"Nonsense !" he shouted, "confound- 
ed nonsense, I tell you ! Why, you 
poor ignorant foreigner, that rule 
means common pigs, domestic pigs, not 
guinea-pigs !" 

Flannery was stubborn. 

"Pigs is pigs," he declared, firmly. 

"Guinea-pigs, or dago pigs, or Irish 

pigs is all the same to the Interurban 

Express Company an' to Mike Flan- 

73 
York. 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



nery. Th' nationality of the pig cre- 
ates no differentially in the rate, 
Misther Moorehouse! Twould be 
the same was they Dutch pigs or 
Rooshun pigs. Mike Flannery," he 
added, "is here to tind to the expriss 
business an' not to hould conversation 
wid Dago pigs in sivinteen languages 
fer to discover be they Chinese or 
Tipperary by birth an' nativity." 

Mr. Moorehouse hesitated. He bit 
his lip and then flung his arms vvidly. 

"Very well !" he shouted, "you shall 
hear of this! Your president shall 
hear of this ! It is an outrage ! I have 
offered you fifty cents. You refuse 
it ! Keep the pigs until you are ready 
to take the fifty cents, but, by George, 




" Pets thim animals may be, an domestic they be, 
but pigs, rm blame sure they do be" 

sir, if one hair of those pigs' heads is 
harmed I will have the law on you !" 

He turned and stalked out, slam- 
ming the door. Flannery carefully 
lifted the soap box from the counter 
and placed it in a corner. He was not 
worried. He felt the peace that 
comes to a faithful servant who has 
done his duty and done it well. 

Mr. Morehouse went home raging. 
His boy, who had been awaiting the 
guinea-pigs, knew better than to ask 
for them. He was a normal boy and 
therefore always had a guilty con- 
science when his father was angry. 
So the boy slipped quietly around the 

74 



house. There is nothing so soothing 
to a guilty conscience as to be out of 
the path of the avenger. 

Mr. Morehouse stormed into the 
house. 

"Where's the ink?" he shouted at 
his wife as soon as his foot was across 
the door-sill. 

Mrs. Morehouse jumped, guiltily. 
She never used ink. She had not 
seen the ink, nor moved the ink, nor 
thought of the ink, but her husband's 
tone convicted her of the guilt of hav- 
ing borne and reared a boy, and she 
knew that whenever her husband 
wanted anything in a loud voice the 
boy had been at it. 

"I'll find Sammy," she said, meekly. 

When the ink was found Mr. More- 
house wrote rapidly, and he read the 
completed letter and smiled a trium- 
phant smile. 

"That 'Will settle that crazy Irish- 
man !" he exclaimed. "When they 
get that letter he will hunt another 
job, all right !" 

A week later Mr. Morehouse re- 
ceived a long official envelope with the 
card of the Interurban Express Com- 
pany in the upper left hand corner. 
He tore it open eagerly and drew out 
a sheet of paper. At the top it bore 
the number A6754. The letter was 
short. "Subject — Rate on guinea- 
pigs," it said, "Dr. Sir — We are in re- 
ceipt of your letter regarding rate on 
guinea-pigs between Franklin and 
Westcote, addressed to the president 
of this company. All claims for over- 
charge should be addressed to the 
Claims Department." 

Air. Morehouse wrote to the Claims 
Department. He wrote six pages of 
choice sarcasm, vituperation and 
argument, and sent them to the 
Claims Department. 

A few weeks later he received a re- 
ply from the Claims Department. 
Attached to it was his last letter. 

"Dr. Sir," said the reply. "Your 
letter of the 16th inst., addressed to 
this Department, subject rate on 
guinea-pigs from Franklin to West- 
cote, ree'd. We have taken up the 
matter with our agent at Westcote, 



PIGS IS PIGS. 



and his reply is attached herewith. 
He informs us that you refused to re- 
ceive the consignment or to pay the 
charges. You have therefore no 
claim against this company, and your 
letter regarding the proper rate on the 
consignment should be addressed to 
our Tariff Department." 

Mr. Morehouse wrote to the Tariff 
Department. He stated his case 



Duplicate copies of the bill of lading, 
manifest, Flannery's receipt for the 
package and several other pertinent 
papers were pinned to the letter, and 
they were passed to the head of the 
Tariff Department. 

The head of the Tariff Department 
put his feet on his desk and yawned. 
He looked through the papers care- 
lessly. 




Flannery is right, pigs is pigs 1 



clearly, and gave his arguments in 
full, quoting a page or two from the 
encyclopedia to prove that guinea- 
pigs were not common pigs. 

With the care that characterizes 
corporations when they are systemati- 
cally conducted, Mr. Morehouse's let- 
ter was numbered, O. K.'d, and start- 
ed through the regular channels. 



"Miss Kane," he said to his sten- 
ographer, "take this letter. 'Agent, 
Westcote, N.J. Please advise why 
consignment referred to in attached 
papers was refused domestic pet 
rates.' " 

Miss Kane made a series of curves 
and angles on her note book and 
waited with pencil poised. The head 

75 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



of the department looked at the papers 
again. 

"Huh! guinea-pigs!" he said. 
"Probably starved to death by this 
time! Add this to that letter: 'Give 
condition of consignment at present ' 

He tossed the papers on the s"en- 
ographer's desk took his feet from 
his own desk and went out to lunch. 

When Mike Flannerv received the 
letter he scratched his head. 

"Give prisint condition " he repeat 
td, thoughtfully. "Now what do thiin 




" Proceed to collect " 

clerks be wantin' to know, I wonder! 
'Prisint condition,' is ut? Thim pigs, 
praise St. Patrick, do be in good 
health, so far as I know, but I never 
was no veternairy surgeon to Dago 
pigs. Mebby thim clerks wants me 
to call in the pig docther an' have 
their pulses took. Wan thing I do 
know, howiver, which is they've glor- 
ious appytites for pigs of their soize. 
Ate ? They'd ate the brass padlocks 
off a barn door ! If the paddy pig, by 
the same token, ate as hearty as these 

76 



Dago pigs do, there'd bo a famine in 
Ireland." 

To assure himself that his report 
would be up-to-date, Flannery went 
to the rear of the office and looked in- 
to the cage. The pigs had been trans- 
ferred to a larger box — a dry goods 
box. 

"Wan — two — t'ree — four — foive — 
six — sivin — eight !" he counted. "Siv- 
in spotted an' wan all black. All well 
an' hearty an' all eatin' loike ragin' 
hippypotty-musses." He went back 
to his desk and wrote. 

"Mr. Morgan, Head of Tariff De- 
partment," he wrote. "Why do I say 
Dago pigs is pigs because they is pigs 
and will be till you say they ain't 
which is what the rule book says stop 
your jollying me you know it as well 
as I do. As to health they are well 
and hoping you are the same. P.S. 
There are eight now the family in- 
creased all good eaters. P.S. I paid 
out so far two dollars for cabbage 
which they like shall I put in bill for 
same what?" 

Morgan, head of the Tariff Depart- 
ment, when he received this letter, 
laughed. He read it again and be- 
came serious. 

"By George !" he said. "Flannery 
is right. 'Pigs is pigs.' I'll have to 
get authority on this thing. Mean- 
while, Miss Kane, take this letter: 
"Agent, Wescote, N.J. Regarding 
shipment guinea-pigs. File No. 
A6754. Rule 83, General Instruction 
to Agents, clearly states that agents 
shall collect from consignee all costs 
of provender, etc., etc., required for 
live stock while in transit or storage. 
You will proceed to collect same from 
consignee." 

Flannery received this letter next' 
morning, and when he read it he 
grinned. 

"Proceed to collect," he said, soft- 
ly. "How thim clerks do loike to be 
talkin' ! Me proceed to collect two 
dollars and twinty-foive cints off 
Misther Morehouse! I wonder do 
thim clerks know Misther More- 
house? I'll git it! Oh, yes! 'Misther 
Morehouse, two an' a quarter, plaze. 



PIGS IS PIGS. 



'Cert'nly, me dear frind Flannery. 
Delighted!' Not!" 

Flannery drove the express wagon 
to Mr. Morehouse's door. Mr. More- 
house answered the bell. 

"Ah, ha !" he cried as soon as he 
saw it was Flannery. "So you've 
come to your senses at last, have you ? 
I thought you would ! Bring the box 
in." 



Morehouse. Do you mean to say that 
two little guinea-pigs — " 

"Eight!" said Flannery. "Papa an' 
mamma an' the six childer. Eight!" 

For answer Mr. Morehouse slam- 
med the door in Flannery's face. 
Flannery looked at the door reproach- 
fully. 

"I take ut the con-sign-y don't want 
to pay for thim kebbages," he said. 




M\ Morehouse had moved ! 



"I hev no box," said Flannery, 
coldly. "I hev a bill again Misther 
John C. Morehouse for two dollars 
and twinty-foive cints for kebbages 
aten by his Dago pigs. .Wud you 
wish to pay ut?" 

"Pay — Cabbages — !" gasped Mr. 



"If I know signs of refusal, the con- 
sign-y refuses to pay for wan dang 
kebbage leaf an' be hanged to me !" 
Mr. Morgan, the head of the Tariff 
Department, consulted the president 
of the Interurban Express Company 
regarding guinea-pigs, as to whether 

77 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



they were pigs or not pigs. The 
president was inclined to treat the 
matter lightly. 

"What is the rate on pigs and on 
pets?" he asked. 

"Pigs thirty cents, pets twenty- 
five," said Morgan. 

"Then of course guinea-pigs arc 
pigs," said the president. 

"Yes," agreed Morgan, "I look at 
it that way, too. A thing that can 
come under two rates is naturally due 
to be classed as the higher. But are 
guinea-pigs, pigs? Aren't they rab- 
bits?" 

"Come to think of it," said the 
president, "I believe they are more 
like rabbits. Sort of half-way station 
between pig and rabbit. I think the 
question is this — are guinea-pigs of 
the domestic pig family? I'll ask Pro- 
fessor Gordon. He is authority on 
such things. Leave the papers with 
me." 

The president put the papers on his 
desk and wrote a letter to Professor 
Gordon. Unfortunately the Professor 
was in South America collecting zoo- 
logical specimens, and the letter was 
forwarded to him by his wife. As the 
Professor was in the highest Andes, 
where no white man had ever pene- 
trated, the letter was many months in 
reaching him. The president forgot 
the guinea-pigs, Morgan forgot them, 
Mr. Morehouse forgot them, but 
Flannery did not. One-half of his 
time he gave to the duties of his agen- 
cy ; the other half was devoted to the 
guinea-pigs. Long before President 
Gordon received the president's letter 
Morgan received one from Flannery. 

"About them Dago pigs," it said, 
"what shall I do, they are great in 
family life, no race suicide for them, 
they are thirty-two now shall I sell 
them do you take this express office 
for a menagerie, answer quick." 

Morgan reached for a telegraph 
blank and wrote: 

"Agent, Westcote. Don't sell 
pigs." 

He then wrote Flannery a letter 
calling his attention to the fact that 
the pigs were not the property of the 

78 



company, but were merely being held 
during a settlement of a dispute re- 
garding rates. He advised Flannery 
to take the best possible care of them. 

Flannery, letter in hand, looked at 
the pigs and sighed. The drygoods 
box cage had become too small. He 
boarded up twenty feet of the rear of 
the express office to make a large and 
airy home for them, and went about 
his business. He worked with fever- 
ish intensity when out on his rounds, 
for the pigs required attention and 
took up most of his time. Some 
months later, in desperation, he seized 
a sheet of paper and wrote "160" 
across it and mailed it to Morgan. 
Morgan returned it, asking for ex- 
planation. Flannery replied: 

"There be now one hundred sixty 
of them Dago pigs, for heavens sake 
let me sell off some, do you want me 
to go crazy, what." 

"Sell no pigs." Morgan wired. 

Not long after this the president 
of the express company received a 
letter from Professor Gordon. It was 
a long and scholarly letter, but the 
point was that the guinea-pig was the 
Cavia aparoea while the common pig 
was the genius Sus of the family 
Suidae. He remarked that they were 
prolific and multiplied rapidly. 

"They are not pigs," said the presi- 
dent, decidedly, to Morgan. "The 
twenty-five cent rate applies." 

Morgan made the proper notation 
on the papers that had accumulated in 
File A6754, and turned them over to 
the Audit Department. The Audit 
Department took some time to look 
the matter up, and after the usual de- 
lay wrote Flannery that he has had on 
hand one hundred and sixty guinea- 
pigs, the property of consignee, he 
should dehver them and collect 
charges at the rate of twenty-five 
cents each. 

Flannery spent a day herding his 
charges through a narrow opening 
in their cages so that he might count 
them. 

"Audit Dept." he wrote, when he 
had finished the count, "you are way 
off there mav be was one hundred and 



PIGS IS PIGS. 



sixty Dago pigs once, but wake up 
don't be a back number. Pve got even 
eight hundred, now shall I collect for 
eight hundred or what, how about 
sixty-four dollars I paid out for 
cabbages." 

It required a great many letters 
back and forth before the Audit De- 
partment was able to understand why 
the error had' been made of billing 



added to his drove, and by the time 
the Audit Department gave him 
authority to collect for eight hundred 
Flannery had given up all attempts to 
attend to the receipts or the delivery 
of goods. He was hastily building 
galleries around the express office, 
tier above tier. He had four thous- 
and and sixty- four guinea-pigs to care 
for. More were arriving daily. 




He was winding up the guinea-pig episode 



one hundred and sixty instead of eight 
hundred, and still more time for it to 
get the meaning of the "cabbages." 

Flannery was crowded into a few- 
feet at the extreme front of the office. 
The pigs had all the rest of the room 
and two boys were employed con- 
stantly attending to them. The day 
after Flannery had counted the 
guinea-pigs there were eight more 



Immediately following his author- 
ization the Audit Department sent 
another letter, but Flannery was too 
busy to open it. They wrote another 
and then they telegraphed: 

"Error in guinea-pig bill. Col- 
lect for two guinea-pigs, fifty cents. 
Deliver all to consignee." 

Flannery read the telegram and 
cheered up. He wrote out a bill as 

79 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



rapidly as his pencil could travel over 
paper and ran all the way to the 
Morehouse home. At the gate he 
stopped suddenly. The house stared 
at him with vacant eyes. The win- 
dows were bare of curtains and he 
could see into empty rooms. A sign 
on the porch said, "To Let." Mr. 
Morehouse had moved ! Flannery 
ran all the way hack to the express 
office. Sixty-nine guinea-pigs had 
been born during his absence. He ran 
out again and made feverish inquiries 
in the village. Mr.Morehouse had not 
only moved, but he had left Westcote. 
Flannery returned to the express 
office and found that two hundred and 
six guinea-pigs had entered the world 
since he left it. He wrote a telegram 
to the Audit Department. 

"Can't collect fifty cents for two 
Dago pigs consignee has left town 
address unknown what shall I do? 
Flannery." 

The telegram was handed to one 
of the clerks in the Audit Department, 
and he read it he laughed. 

"Flannery must be crazy. He 
ought to know that the thing to do is 
to return the consignment here," said 
the clerk. He telegraphed Flannery 
to send the pigs to the main office of 
the company at Franklin. 

When Flannery received the tele- 
gram he set to work. The six boys 
he had engaged to help him also set 
to work. They worked with the haste 
of desperate men, making cages out 
of soap boxes, cracker boxes, and all 
kinds of boxes, and as fast as the 
cages were completed they filled them 
with guinea-pigs and expressed them 
to Franklin. Day after day the cages 
of guinea-pigs flowed in a steady 
stream from Westcote to Franklin, 
and still Flannery and his six helpers 
ripped and nailed and packed — relent- 
lessly and feverishly. At the end of 
the week they had shipped two hun- 
dred and eighty cases of guinea-pigs, 
and there were in the express office 
seven hundred and four more pigs 
than when they began packing them. 

"Stop sending pigs. Warehouse 



full," came a telegram to Flannery. 
He stopped packing only long enough 
to wire back, "Can't stop," and kept 
on sending them. On the next train 
up from Franklin came one of the 
company's inspectors. He had in- 
structions to stop the stream of 
guinea-pigs at all hazards. As his 
train drew up at Westcote station he 
saw a cattle car standing on the ex- 
press company's siding. When he 
reached the express office he saw the 
express wagon backed up to the door. 
Six boys were carrying bushel baskets 
full of guinea-pigs from the office and 
dumping them into the wagon. In- 
side the room Flannery, with his coat 
and vest off, was shovelling guinea- 
pigs into bushel baskets with a coal 
scoop. He was winding up the 
guinea-pig episode. 

He looked up at the inspector with 
a snort of anger. 

"Wan wagonload more an' I'll be 
quit of thim, an' never will ye catch 
Flannery wid no more foreign pigs 
on his hands. No, sur ! They near 
was the death o' me. Nixt toime I'll 
know that pigs of whativer nationality 
is domestic pets — an' go at the lowest 
rate." 

He began shovelling again rapidly, 
speaking quickly between breaths. 

"Rules may be rules, but you can't 
fool Mike Flannery twice wid the 
same thrick — whin ut comes to live 
stock, dang the rules. So long as 
Flannery runs this expriss office — pigs 
is pets — an' cows is pets — an' horses 
is pets — an' lions and tigers an' Rocky 
Mountain goats is pets — an' the rate 
on thim is twinty-foive cints." 

He paused long enough to let one 
of the boys put an empty basket in 
the place of the one he had just filled. 
There were only a few guinea-pigs 
left. As he noted their limited num- 
ber his natural habit of looking on the 
bright side returned. 

"Well, annyhow," he said, cheer- 
fully, " 'tis not so bad as ut might be. 
What if thim Dago pigs had been 
elephants!" 



iMaaMMMMMMMMaMaMMaMasMasiMMSMMsiMM^aisfSEjaiaMeMaajaiaMaiaBJ 



The Inspiration of Work Well Done 



By Orison Swett Marden 



DID you ever notice how much bet- 
ter you feel after having done a 
superb piece of work, how much 
more >ou think of yourself, how it 
tones up your whole character? What 
a thrill one feels when contemplating 
his masterpiece, the work into which 
he lias put the very best that was in 
him, the very best of which he was 
capable ! This all comes from obey- 
ing the natural law within us to do 
things right, as they should be done, 
just as we feel an increase of ^elf- 
respect when we obey the law of jus- 
tice, of integrity within us. 

There is everything in holding a 
high ideal of your work. For what- 
ever model the mind holds, the life 
copies. What we think, that we be- 
come. Never allow yourself for an 
instant to harbor the thought of de- 
ficiency, inferiority. 

A famous artist said he would never 
allow himself to look at an inferior 
drawing or painting, to do anything 
that was low or demoralizing, lest 
familiarity with inferiority should 
taint his own ideal and thus be com- 
municated to his brush. 

Reach to the highest, cling to it. 
Take no chances with anything that 
is inferior. Whatever your vocation, 
let quality be your life-slogan. 

Many excuse poor, slipshod work 
on the plea of lack of time. But in 
the ordinary situations of life, there 
is plenty of time to do everything as 
it ought to be done, and if we form 
the habit of excellence, of doing every- 
thing to a finish, our lives would be 
infinitely more satisfactory, more com- 
plete, there would be a wholeness, in- 



stead of the incompleteness that char- 
acterizes most lives. 

There is an indescribable superiority 
added to the very character and fibre 
of the man who always and every- 
where puts quality into his work. 

There is a sense of wholeness, of 
satisfaction, of happiness, in his life 
which is never felt by the man who 
does not do his level best every time. 
He is not haunted by the ghosts or 
tail-ends of half-finished tasks, of skip- 
ped problems ; is not kept awake by 
a troubled conscience. 

When we are striving for excellence 
in everything we do, the whole life 
grows, improves. Everything looks 
up when we struggle up; everything 
looks down when we are going down 
hill. Aspiration lifts the life; grovel- 
ing lowers it. 

It is never a merely optional ques- 
tion whether you do a thing right or 
not, whether you half do it or do it 
to a finish, there is an eternal prin- 
ciple involved, which, if you violate, 
you pay the penalty in deterioration, 
in the lowering of your standards, in 
the loss of self-respect, in diminished 
efficiency, a dwarfed nature, a stunted, 
unsuccessful life. 

Don't think you will never hear from 
a half-finished job, a neglected or 
botched piece of work. It will never 
die. It will bob up farther along in 
your career at the most unexpected 
moments, in the most embarrassing 
situations. It will be sure to mortifv 
you when you least expect it. Like 
Banquo's grost, it will arise a* the 
most unexpected moments to mar your 
happiness. 



f2MSjaaaaMaaMSJHSMMaaMMSMaMMaasM3iMaa3(5MMaH2M3Masraj3MF. 



Farm Costs 



Accounting Needed for all Farm Operations. 



By Van Vliet Addling 

Profits — they arc the reason for our work, for our 

risks of money. 

Losses, we believe, should be avoided. Yet no pari 
of our farm operations is so neglected as the matter 
of business accounting for profit and loss. The ar- 
ticle here published tells of the way this matter has 
been taken up by the Federal Government of the Unit- 
ed States. The lessons taught arc lessons for us. 
Canadian farming methods need inproving. 



GOVERNMENT experts have 
been conducting an investiga- 
tion for the past eight years to 
develop a system of farm accounting 
that shall at once be simple and prac- 
tical, and general in its application 
to the diversified conditions of our 
agriculture. 

They have been seeking a system of 
cost accounting founded on business 
science, that shall enable the farmer 
to determine easily and accurately the 
unit values in the cost of production. 
It is the debit side of the ledger that 
has been the stumbling block in all 
systems devised for farmers during 
the last fifty years. The credit side 
is simple in comparison. The average 
farmer has permitted the cattle buy- 
ers, the grain dealers and the milk 
companies, whether acting as trusts 
or individuals, to be his bookkeepers 
for the credit side of the ledger. Thev 
didn't bother themselves about the 
debit side, and neither did the farmer 
himself. The middlemen figure out 
the quantity of his products in units 
of bushels, pounds or quarts, as the 
case may be, multiply the result by the_ 
market price of the unit, and hand 

82 



him the cash. It is a slovenly farmer 
indeed who cannot tell just what his 
credits have been in dollars and cents 
for the current year. More than like- 
ly he has set them down in a yellow 
covered memorandum book distribu- 
ted as an advertisement for some in- 
surance company or fertilizer concern. 

On the other hand, ask any farmer 
how much each dollar he has received 
in returns cost him to produce. Ask 
him whether the expenditure of one 
dollar in capital and labor returned 
him $1.10 or ninety cents. 

He can't answer. The debit side of 
the ledger is a void so far as he is con- 
cerned and the part played in the pro- 
duction of an acre of corn by such 
items as rent of land, interest and 
depreciation of machinery, man 
labor and horse labor has never 
entered into his calculations. If 
he shqujcl sit down and figure 
out his business in all the minu- 
tiae of detail that is necessary for the 
proper conduct of other business un- 
dertakings, mercantile or manufac- 
turing, he might find that he was 
actually producing his crops at a loss. 
A large percentage of American 



FARM COSTS 



farmers, probably the majority of 
them, actually are producing food- 
stuffs at a loss, on the basis of the 
science of modern business. 

Farming as a business is unique in 
that it has been able to exist year 
after year, almost indefinitely, in the 
face of an actual loss. The average 
individual farmer in the corn and 
wheat belts came into possession of 
his land either as a homestead gift 
from the government, or by payment 
of a few dollars per acre. With the 
growth of population and the in- 
creased demand for foodstuffs he be- 
came independent of debt, and he has 
continued to produce crops in the old- 
fashioned way that was in vogue 
when he moved west in a prairie 
schooner. He is assured of a com- 
fortable living, and he does not stop 
to consider that his land represents an 
investment, independent of any effort 
on his part, that possesses a definite 
real estate value. 

PROFIT DEPENDS NOW ON LAND VALUES 

Calculating on the basis of the orig- 
inal value of his land, the farm- 
er is making money. Calculated on 
the current market price at which he 
could withdraw his investment and 
put it in interest-bearing industrial 
securities, he is losing money every 
time the seasons revolve. In many 
sections of the country farm values 
have doubled, even trebled, in the last 
generation. Land that has been 
worked on the basis calculation of 
from $5 to $20 an acre, must in the 
future respond to acreage values of 
from $75 to $200. The old gener- 
ation with its obsolete methods, which 
has persisted solely on the excuse of 
cheap land — or gift land — must give 
way before the new generation. The 
newcomer, the man who would estab- 
lish himself as a farmer to-day, has 
to meet the changed conditions, and 
it is to these conditions that the busi- 
ness of farming must respond. The 
question of fixed capital has come 
to stay. We are not yet out of our 
first generation as farmers on a grand 
scale. This first generation is taking 
its hand from the plow, and those who 



follow the pioneers, either through 
deed of sale or probate, must here- 
after reckon interest on investment as 
an actual item of cost. Farming as 
an industry is in its transitional stage, 
and it is to meet the new conditions in 
a business-like way that experts have 
been giving their attention to the 
question of devising a system of cost 
accounting for the farmer. 

When it is considered that there are 
approximately fifty billions of dollars 
— fifty times as much as the capital of 
our largest industrial combination, the 
Steel Trust — tied up as capital in our 
agriculture, we can begin to compre- 
hend the vastness of farming as a 
business, and the necessity for 
"science," both in bookkeeping and in 
intensive culture, to save the whole 
system from utter demoralization. 

The government accountants have 
not used the experiment station farms 
of the various states, in their present 
investigation, for the reason that the 
conditions met with in these station 
farms are artificial,- as these stations 
are essentially laboratories — subsid- 
ized institutions in which the question 
of profit and loss is not directly con- 
sidered. The experts have confined 
their investigations so far to actual 
conditions as they have found them 
on privately-owned farms — average 
farms. The state of Minnesota has 
been collaborating in the work since 
1902, and the end in view has been to 
devise a system that shall be appli- 
cable to all classes of general farming, 
under normal conditions. 

The accounting system, so far as 
perfected, starts out with the land as 
the basis of value, with the acre as the 
unit. With each individual farmer, 
his land becomes his fixed capital. The 
prevailing rate of interest determines 
rent, which must be paid as scrupu- 
lously as the cost of labor before he 
can take his profits. Taxes do not 
enter into the calculations of cost of 
production, as they are included in 
the rental charge. 

ACREAGE THE UNIT OF COST. 

Farm values vary from $10 to $200 
an acre, and interest, or rent, from 5 

83 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



to 7 per cent. Acreage is made the 
unit in determining the cost of pro- 
duction instead of bushels or tons as 
the case might be. This is done be- 
cause yield of crops fluctuates with 
wind, rain and drought, and the same 
plot of land may produce twenty 
bushels of wheat one year to each 
acre against ten bushels the following 
season, with no decrease in the cost 
of production. Cost of production 
per acre, then, becomes the unit of the 
system. On this basis, the farmer 
makes a chart of his farm each year, 
indicating the position and extent of 
his several crops. Forty acres may 
be in wheat, forty in corn, forty in 
potatoes, eighty in pasture, and so on. 
Each crop becomes a department in 
the business scheme, with its own 
journal into which is entered every 
item contributing to the cost of pro- 
duction, the totals being reduced, by 
means of a chart, so as to show at a 
glance the acre cost of each item. The 
cost items are divided into : 

a. Rent of land. 

b. Man labor consumed. 

c. Horse labor consumed. 

d. Interest on and depreciation of 
machinery. 

e. Cost of seed, etc. 

Rent, as already stated, should con- 
sist of interest at the prevailing rate 
on the capital which could be with- 
drawn by sale of the land occupied by 
the crop in question, and re-invested 
in dividend-paying securities. 

Human labor includes the farmer 
himself, if he works in the fields or as 
foreman, members of his family who 
may be employed in the work of sow- 
ing, cultivating, or harvesting the 
crop, and help hired by the day or 
month. Cost of board is added to 
money wages in determining the cost 
of labor. The item of labor must be 
reduced' to cost per hour. The follow- 
ing table is given as an example of 
the average hourly cost of day labor 
and monthly labor, as found by the 
Minnesota investigators to obtain over 
a period of years among the farms of 
three counties. The figures include 
cost of food, depreciation of house- 

84 



hold goods, the cost of farm produce, 
fuel, and current wages of woman 
labor, $3 to $5 a week: 

Cost of labor Cost of labor 
by month, by day, 
per hour, per hour, 
(cents) (cents) 
January 10.87 16.16 

February n.83 14.28 

March ' 10.57 12.54 

April 12.01 15.16 

May 12.23 I 4-7& 

June 12.67 l8 -39 

July 12.62 17-15 

August 12.19 22.09 

September 13.04 26.67 

October 12.42 26.79 

November 1 3 . 50 2 1 . 04 

December 10.79 I 7-59 

The table is given in derail merely 
as a basis of comparison and is not 
to be taken as a scale of the cost of 
labor for all sections of the country. 
Managing labor economically is one 
of the cost problems for the business 
farmer, just as it is for ihe button 
manufacture and railroad man. His 
pay roll should correspond to his 
needs and every hour he pays for 
should be productive. Contrary to 
general opinio"!, the farm laborer does 
not work a 1 excessive number of 
hours. The foregoing table is based 
on an actual average of 8.10 hours 
each week-day, and 2.76 hours on 
Sundays. 

The labor of horses is the next 
item the farmer must ascertain. The 
cost of keeping the average farm 
horse, the sole motive power on the 
average farm, is roughly speaking 
about $80 a year, and in return the 
animal gives about three hours' work 
a day. This average takes into con- 
sideration all seasons in Minnesota, 
summers when the animal is busy all 
day in the fields and winter when the 
horse stands idle in the stable. Where 
the economic factor enters here can 
be seen from the fact that at a state 
experiment station, where the horses 
are kept busy eight hours a day the 
year around, the cost per hour is 3 
cents, while on an average of several 
hundred farms, the cost was found to 



FARM COSTS 



be over 8 cents. The type of farming 
affects this item, that system which 
aims to keep the horse employed as 
nearly eight hours a day as possible 
being the most economical. The 
farm horse continues an item of ex- 
pense while he is standing idle, and 
this fact must be taken into account 
in determining the cost per hour of 
horse labor. 

In four counties, records were kept 
of upwards of 2,000 horses, and the 
average cost per hour of horse labor 
was found to be 8.57 cents. This sum 
included interest in investment, de- 
preciation, harness depreciation, shoe- 
ing, feed, man labor, and miscellan- 
eous expenses. 

MACHINERY CONSUMPTION PER ACRE. 

Machinery, in the first place, repre- 
sents fixed capital. Therefore, the 
first charge must be interest on the 
investment. The second charge is 
depreciation. It has been usual to en- 
ter 10 per cent, for annual depreci- 
ation. Statistics seem to show this 
amount too great, the average being 
7.3 per cent, on the farms under ob- 
servation for a series of years. This 
item is determined by the number of 
years a piece of machinery can be 
used for the purpose for which it was 
designed. 

The items, interest, depreciation, 
and cost of repairs, are reduced to 
cost per acre. Thus, a $50 mowing 
machine is used to harvest a ten-acre 
crop of hay. It represents $3 interest, 
$3.65 depreciation and $1.50 repairs, 
a total of $8.15, or $.815 per acre. On 
twenty acres the cost would be re- 
duced one-half, on forty acres three- 
quarters, as the interest remains the 
same, and the depreciation would not 
be changed to a marked, or even cal- 
culable, degree. It is the rust of idle- 
ness that eats up the value of the 
machine from year to year. 

For the benefit of those interested 
in the result of the statistical research 
covering machinery value consumed 
over a term of years in 3,000 acres of 
crops, the following table is given. 
These figures do not include man or 



horse labor, merely the 


amount of 


machinery consumed. 




Value of machinery consumed per 


acre annually : 




Grain machinery : 




binders, 


$0,171 


reapers, 


•075 


drills, seeders, 


.010 


fanning mills, 


.Oil 


grain tanks, 




wagons, racks, etc., 


•034 


Corn machinery : 




binders, 


828 


planters, 


.087 


cultivators, 


•155 


wagons, racks, etc., 


.158 


Hay machinery : 




mowers, 


$0,206 


rakes, 


.085 


tedders, 


•113 


loaders, 


•151 


ropes, forks, etc., 


. 120 


wagons, sleds, etc., 


•059 


All crop machinery : 




plows, 


.087 


harrows, 


.017 


discs, 


.089 



There has now been considered the 
part played by rent of land, interest 
on and depreciation of machinery, and 
the cost of human labor and horse 
labor. In computing the expense of 
any given crop, the cost of seed must 
be added, as another item. The ques- 
tion of fertilizers is a puzzling one to 
the farmer bookkeeper. The benefit 
of fertilizers extends over a series of 
years, so that it is unfair to charge 
cost of fertilizing chemical and labor 
of distributing it to any one crop. It 
is a better system in the long run to 
count expense for fertilizers as "gen- 
eral expense," and thus to include it 
in the final posting of the farm ledger. 

With the facts now in hand, it is 
possible to proceed to work out in de- 
tail the system of accounting for the 
various crops. Taking the oat crop 
as an example, there are the following 
items which must be entered in detail 
in the day book, for subsequent entry 
into the journal. 

85 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 
Cost of Producing \cres of Fall-plowed Ooats. 



Seed, 



( leaning seed, 
. . . .hours 
machinery 

Plowing, 

.... hours 
. . . .hours 
machinery 

1 lagging, 

.... hours 
. . . .hours 
machinery 

Seeding, 

.... hours 
. . . .hours 
machinery 

Weeding, 

. . . .hours 
. . . .hours 
machinery 

Cutting, 

. . . .hours 
. . . .hours 
machinery 

Twine, 



.bushels at $. . . 

man labor at $. 
consumption, 

man labor at $. 
horse labor at $. 
consumption, 

man labor at $. 
horse labor at $. 
consumption, 

man labor at $. 
horse labor at $. 
consumption, 

man labor at $. 
horse labor at $. 
consumption, 

man labor at $. 
horse labor at $. 
consumption, 



Shocking, 

. . . .hours man labor at $. 

Stack thrashing, 

. . . .hours man labor at $. 

Thrashing, cash cost, 



Land rental, 

....acres at $....per acre, 

Total. 



The foregoing entries represent in 
detail the items connected with the 
cost of each operation for the entire 
plot of ground. To assemble these 
figures, as supplied to the farmer in 
the published bulletins, to determine 

86 



exactly the cost per acre for each 
item, the following chart is filled in by 
the farmer who desires to set the cost 
per acre against the value of the 
product per acre of that crop in his 
own fields. 



FARM COSTS 





Total acreage .' Total cost 


Cost 'per acre 


Seed 

Cleaning seed 

Plowing 

Dragging 

Seeding 

Weeding 

Cutting 

Twine 

Shocking 

Stacking 

Stack Threshing 

Threshing, cash cost 

Land rental 








Total 







This table properly filled in from 
the items of the journal which is made 
up from day to day as the work pro- 
gresses, will tell the farmer at a 
glance the acre cost of every detail of 
his work. To the intelligent man it 
reduces the business of producing 
crops to a scientific 'basis, wherein no 
leak can escape the eye, and at the 
same time it tells the farmer what he 
wants to know about machinery and 
hand labor as compared with each 
other. With a pencil and paper, it is 
but the work of a minute for him to 
determine whether or not this or that 
addition to his machinery stock would 
prove profitable. 

AVERAGE COST OF CROPS. 

The statisticians have carried out in 
chart form the average cost of pro- 
ducing the various crops under con- 
ditions where the price of capital and 
labor are normal, and the chart is of 
interest to the farmer as a business 
man, so it is given here in full. : 

Average annual cost per acre of 
producing field crops. 
Barley — fall plowed, $ 8.211 

clover — cut for seed, 6 . 500 

corn — husked from standing 

stocks, 10.438 

corn — cut, shocked and 

shredded, 15-279 

corn — cut, shocked and 

hauled in from field 10.265 



corn — 'grown thickly and 

siloed, 18.892 
flaxseed, thrashed from 

windrow, 7-496 
flaxseed, stacked from 

windrow, 7-851 
flaxseed, bound, shocked, 

thrashed and stacked 7.278 
fodder corn — cut and shocked 

in field, 9-650 
fodder corn — cut, shocked 

and stacked, 12.362 
Hay — 'timothy and clover, 

1st cut, 5.591 
hay — timothy and clover, 2 

cuttings, 7- : 78 

hay — millet, 7- J 05 

hay — -wild grasses, 4.042 

hay — timothy, 3 . 394 

hemp, 6.741 

mangels, 32.682 

oats, fall plowed 8.863 

oats — on disked corn stubble, 8.884 

potatoes — machine production 26.366 
potatoes — machine production 

and fertilized, 37.721 

timothy — cut for seed, 4-33 2 

wheat — fall plowed, 7- 2 49 

These figures are not given as ab- 
solute. The details of cost must be 
worked out by every farmer through 
the medium of his journal entries, and 
the charts showing detailed cost per 
acre estimated at the close of each 
season. He must correct them to suit 
his local conditions and his plan of 

87 



FARMER'S M UiA/lXK. 



cultivating each crop. The majority 
of the totals of the above table do not 
include fertilizing. An exception is 
shown in the case of potatoes, where 
the use of fertilizers added to the cost 
of production, $11,455 P er acre - The 
original cost and the labor and 
machinery consumed in distributing 
the fertilizers must, of course, be 
reckoned in detail. If he will plant 
one plot with and one without fertil- 
izer the returns, the credit side of the 
ledger, will then show at a glance 
whether or not the additional cost of 
over $11 per acre was justified in the 
results. In the specific investigation 
from which these figures were com- 
piled, the average yield on unfertilized 
land was 127 bushels, returning a net 
profit of $24.43 on land valued at $50 
an acre. This profit, over and above 
fixed charges was therefore 48.9 per 
cent. On the other hand, the use of 
fertilizers raised the yield to an aver- 
age of 162 bushels an acre, which, in 
the face of increased cost of produc- 
tion, gave a net profit of 54.2 per 
cent. Thus it was shown at a glance 
that intensive methods paid, and paid 
well. The farmer who keeps books 
need not ask himself this question. 
His figures show him to a penny the 
profit and loss on his investment. 

The method, so far as this article 
has gone, shows only the cost of pro- 
duction of crops, in the field. Market- 
ing of crops brings in additional de- 
tails of expense, which must be con- 
sidered. The marketing of crops is 
usually confined to hauling to market. 
The cost of hauling is determined by 
the "ton mile," to use a term made 
famous and practical by the late E. H. 
Harriman, the railroad magnate, the 
greatest systematizer in business ac- 
counting we have ever known. In 
hauling the same elements enter to 
determine cost of the ton mile, that is, 
labor and interest and depreciation on 
wagons. 

It is still a question as to the proper 
place in the farm ledger for the cost 
of storing crops, a considerable item. 
This item also concerns horses and 
cattle. Because of the fact that the 



same building is used for storing 
crops and sheltering animals, in many 
cases, it is difficult to determine the 
burden each of these items should 
bear. It is suggested that the cost 
of buildings be added to the fixed 
capital of the land itself, against which 
rent is charged. In the case of barns 
and storehouses, there must be an 
additional charge for depreciation and 
np-keep, which must be determined 
by each individual farmer. 

BOOKKEEPING IN DAIRYING. 

In no system of farming is the ad- 
vantage of bookkeeping so necessary 
as in dairying and stock raising. It 
was brought out some time ago that 
the average milch cow an the State of 
Minnesota did not pay her own way. 
It has been brought out in the recent 
discussion of high prices in the east 
that the average farmer gets no more 
return for conducting a dairy indus- 
try, than the value of the manure pile. 
This manure pile which he surveys as 
his net profits at the end of each year 
must go back to the land to enable 
him to continue dairying another 
year for the same result. Dairying 
for the manure pile is bad business, 
and is only too prevalent, but the 
farmers themselves don't know it, 
in the vast majority of cases. In 
every herd there are "robber" cows, 
that produce 99-cent dollars or even 
75-cent dollars. There is only one 
way of catching these "robbers" with 
the goods on them, and that one way 
is in bookkeeping. Many dairymen 
have adopted a system of records for 
each cow, and they are the dairymen 
who are getting rich, while their 
brothers are growing poorer every 
year. 

The system in use requires thai an 
accurate account be kept — in the first 
place — of the following details : 

(a) Interest on capital invested in 
stock. 

(b) Depreciation. 

(c) Cost of grain feed. 
( il ) Cost of roughage. 

(e) Cost of pasturage. 

(f) Cost of labor. 



FARM COSTS 



These items are determined by the 
same methods as are used in determ- 
ining the amount of labor, and capi- 
tal expended in raising one acre of 
oats, except that the unit in the dairy 
system is the cow, and not the acre. 
Some dairymen go even farther and 
divide the year into months, though 
for all practical purposes a system of 
accounting that will show the detail- 
ed cost of producing milk in sum- 
mer and in winter is sufficient. 

The milk produced by each cow is 
weighed after each milking, and en- 
tered on a chart hung in her stall. It 
is a simple matter to arrive at the 
monthly, semi-annual and annual pro- 
duction of each cow by adding these 
figures. 

But at this point more detail enters, 
technical detail, which, however, is the 
most important of all. The quantity 
of milk given by each cow is not the 
test of her value. The amount of but- 
ter fat she produces is the item that 
fixes the profit and loss in dairying. 
This amount, varying from 3 per cent, 
to a trifle over 4 per cent., is constant. 
Each cow is a machine that can pro- 
duce a certain grade of good*. Feed- 



ing will increase the flow oi mv'k, but 
it will not affect the percentage of 
butter fat. That p rceatag'e was born 
v\ith the cow and will die with her. 
Therefore, it is only necessary to de- 
termine once for all the "richness" of 
the milk of each cow, as expressed in 
terms of butter fat, and multiply this 
percentage by her total milk output 
in pounds per year, to determine what 
she is producing. Multiply this re- 
sult by the price per pound of but- 
ter fat during the year — it may vary 
from 20 to 25 cents in normal con- 
ditions of supply and demand — and 
add the farm value of skim milk, and 
the result is the gross income per cow 
per year. Subtract from this the cost 
of production, that is, the expenditure 
of capital and labor of the debit side 
of the ledger, and the result is the net 
profit. Is she paying her way or is 
she producing 99-cent dollars? This 
is a vital question for the dairyman, 
and the only way he can find out the 
answer is to keep books. 

Following is a chart of cost of pro- 
duction, showing the form and, as an 
example, the results determined in an 
investigation covering some 500 cows 
of average value as milk producers : 



Yearly Cost of Maintenance of Milch Cows. 



Summer 
6 months 



Winter 
6 months 



Total 
of year 



Grain, pds. per cow 

Roughage, pds. per cow 


149 772 

618 4,355 

$1.18 $5.71 

$1.24 $9.04 

$4.92 


921 

4.97^ 


Grain, value per cow 

Roughage, value per cow 

Pasture, charge per cow 


$6.89 
$10.28 

$4.92 


Total cost of feed, per cow 

Man labor, per cow 

Interest on investment, per cow . . . 


$7-34 


$14-75 


$22.09 

$17,038 
$1,845 


Total 






$40,974 



The cost per year per cow varies 
greatly according to the price of grain, 
labor and pasturage. In many dis- 
tricts it is as high as $60 per annum, 
and near our large cities even higher. 
Now, as to production — three col- 
umns, to indicate milk in pounds per 



year for each cow, butter fat per year 
in pounds for each cow, and value of 
product per year for each cow. The 
quantity of butter fat varies with the 
breed of cows, and in profitable ani- 
mals should average above 200 pounds 
for the vear. A comparison of a good 

89 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



and a poor herd made by the investi- 
gators picking the herds at random, 
broughl to light the astonishing fact 
that one herd was producing $1.41- 
dollars, while the poor herd was pro- 
ducing 99-cent dollars. 

Bookkeeping in Poultry Raising. 

A similar system of accounting is 
extended to raising hogs and beef cat- 
tle, and, by careful work, the meat 
grower can tell just how many pounds 
of meat a bushel of corn or an acre 
of pasture is worth. 

Bookkeeping has been brought to a 
high state of accuracy in poultry rais- 
ing. Individual records are kept of 
each hen by means of the so-called 
:rap nests, and) only the upper-ten 
among the layers are used for breed- 
ing purposes. In this way the poultry 
raisers hope to increase the average 
output per hen. 

The United States Department of 
Agriculture and the State Agricultural 
College and experiment stations have 
begun a propoganda for better busi- 
ness methods on the farm. The per- 
centage of farmers at the present time 
who keep books is so small as to be 
regarded as nothing. Yet those few 
are the ones who are making money, 
because thev are able to determine at 



a glance just what system of farming, 
whether hay, grain, stock, or mixed, 
lS the best adapted to their peculiar 
conditions, and to act accordingly- 
There are thousands of farmers grow- 
ing wheat at an annual loss without 
knowing it. The item of interest on 
investment is accountable for this pe- 
culiar situation, and, strange to say, 
it is this one item that farmers as a 
rule disregard absolutely in their cal- 
culations. As an example it is only 
necessary to cite a few figures. Fifteen 
bushels of wheat, at a farm price of 
66 cents, grown on $20 land, returns 
a net profit of 13.6 per cent. On $100 
land, there is a net loss of 2 per cent. 
The same illustration can be used for 
corn, potatoes, barley, rye, and the 
other crops. How many farmers know- 
where they are at the end of the year? 
Many of them have a hole in one poc- 
ket that swallows the profit of the 
other. Intensive farming is good and 
has got to come, but intensive book- 
keeping is what is necessary to tell the 
American farmer where the leaks in 
his business are and how to close 
them. It is also necessary to enable 
him to strike a balance sheet at the 
end of each year, to find out his 
financial condition. 



The Pursuit of Happiness 



IT would be cynical to say that hap- 
piness is like the snakes of Ireland, 
for each one of us, at some time 
or other, has had glimpses of her in 
the distance. But, at any rate, she is 
more secretive than the wiliest serpent, 
swifter than the deer, more cunning 
at escape than the fox, and, indeed, if 
we pursue her to the end, she will 
never be caught alive; when we hold 
her, at last, it is but to find her dead. 
But occasionally, of her own free will, 
she drops down upon us by chance in 
her light-hearted, casual way, and we 
have a taste of what her companion- 
ship might mean. It is the patient 

90 



and the hopeless and the bravely desti- 
tute that happiness chiefly affects ; as 
if she knew all too well where she was 
most needed and most appreciated. It 
is not the despairing she visits, but 
those who have learned to renounce 
with a certain ease of spirit and de- 
tachment. "After all," she seems to 
say blithely to these, when she flutters 
in upon them, "You thought I never 
came, but I do ; only not too often." 
For she is a goddess, Happiness, one 
of the old pagan goddesses, haughty 
and capricious and wilful, and a rare 
and exacting visitant. 




The wheat is harvested by stripping ,h » heads from the straw, not by cutting. 

A Jolt From Australia 

By 

Lewis Austin 



UJ T does us good to have our sys- 

I terns jolted by new ideas once 

in a while," a neighbor of mine 

used to say, in explaining why he read 

so many periodicals, from so many 

parts of the world. 

We think of the British Empire as 
the biggest empire in the world ; and 
of Canada as its biggest dominion. 
We pat ourselves on the back for 
good fellows, and are pleased when 
men say we possess the empire's 
wheat granary. Let us jolt our sys- 
tems a little! 

In 1889 our Canadian West shipped 
a million bushels east. Last year we 
exported 48,147,000 bushels. That 
is good growth all right. But — see 
what ettr sister empire, Australia, has 
been doing down there across the Pa- 
cific. 

In 1905, one province alone, South 
Australia, exported 7,805,512 bushels 
of wheat. In 1907 this export had 



grown to 13,146,662 bushels. Their 
yield per acre does not equal 
ours, as it averages around 12 
bushels per acre. 

Some lessons already learned by 
the Australian wheat farmers are 
worth studying by the farmers of the 
Canadian West. They have learned, 
for instance, that smaller areas of well 
cultivated land yield more profits 
than less thoroughly and carefully 
tilled farms of larger acreage. In our 
own Western wheat districts it is 
common to see failures of yield owing 
to "sowing on the break" — not pre- 
paring a firm, well-tilled seed-bed. 
That is the field which suffers in dry 
weather. 

The second lesson we have to learn 
from South Australia is the great im- 
portance of grazing more. Animals 
build up the land, or maintain its fer- 
tility at least. 

91 



'^P ;$ 



K. 




In Australia, where winter is summer, the Iprairies have Itheir trees as well as wheat 'I 




Large wagons, large loads, long hauls, are [the rule in South Australia. 



92 




An Australian Elevator ! 



Thei-e is something odd about Aus- 
tralian methods of handling wheat in 
harvest. Instead of the binder with 
which we all are familiar, they use 
what is called a "stripper harvester." 
This beheads the standing grain, 
threshes it at once. One of these 
machines, under favorable conditions, 
will clean up 15 to 20 acres in one 
day, at a cost of 50 to 60 cents per 
acre. This leaves a large proportion 
of the straw standing, the heads be- 
ing pulled off by combs and revolving 
beaters. Threshing machinery using 
steam or gasoline power, with which 
we do our work of separating the 
grain from straw and chaff is thus 
done away with, but the labor of 
horses required in its place is, of 
course, a countervailing expense. 

No less remarkable to one of us is 
the Australian methods of transport- 



ation and storage. Huge wagons, 
carrying over four tons, and drawn 
by three or more teams of horses, are 
required to haul the wheat in sacks, 
often six times our average distance 
to rail points. At these shipping points 
there are no elevators. Instead, the 
sacks, which carry the wheat on tar- 
paulin-covered flatcars to market or 
salt water, are piled in the open air. 
The photograph here reproduced will 
give some idea of the "Australian 
Elevator." 

Altogether, there are many strange 
ways of doing things ! And there is 
no activity, common to humanity the 
world over, more varied than the 
harvesting of the grain which gives 
us our bread. It is well worth learn- 
ing "how the other half of the world 
lives." 



It is a good thing, when you find 
yourself inclined to condemn a man, 
to make his acquaintance first, to 
know him before you judge him, and 
the same is true of causes and institu- 



tions as well. "The best gift you can 
make to anyone is the gift of a gen- 
erous judgment, and one of the high- 
est qualities you can cultivate in your- 
self is fair-mindedness." 



By Special License 

The Story of a Woman's Love and 
of a Man Who Played the Game 

By L. G. Moberly 



SHE looked at him silently, into 
her sweet eyes there came a sud- 
den wistfulness. 

"You know," she said, "you know — 
the best of me isn't here — any lon- 
ger." 

"I know," he answered, his voice 
very gentle, his head bent a little to- 
wards her. "I don't expect you to 
give me what you gave — the dear old 
fellow — but — I want to try and give 
you all the hapiness I can — and I — 
want you so, Nancy." 

It was the sudden break in his 
voice, the sudden boyish appeal of 
those last words that made her put out 
her hands to him impulsively. 

"I can't bear not to do what you ask 
me," she said, "and 1 — you have done 
me such an honor in asking it — and if 
— if you are sure you can put up with 
the second best — I will try to bring 
you happiness." 

They stood together in the little 
library facing the garden. Through 
the open window there drifted up to 
them on the warm June air the frag- 
rance of roses, and the mingled sweet- 
ness from the great border that ran 
along one side of the lawn. The sum- 
mer night was only dim and shadowy 
— not dark, and a faint luminousness 
seemed to fill the atmosphere, over- 
head in the clear sky the stars twink- 
led out one by one. Down in the park, 
where the shadows lay thickest among 
the trees, the song of the nightingale 
thrilled out upon the stillness. The 

94 



girl's hand went out and gripped at 
the mantelpiece close beside her. That 
thrilling voice shook her pulses, it 
made her remember — just as the 
sweet, warm scent of the roses made 
her remember — another night in June, 
when she had stood out there with 
Nigel, when Nigel had laid his first 
kiss on her lips — when she had prom- 
ised to be Nigel's wife. And now — 
Nigel was lying far away in that great, 
dark Africa which had seized him in 
her ruthlessly cruel arms, and devour- 
ed his manhood and strength. And 
she, Nigel Martley's promised wife, 
was still alive in the fragrant summer 
world where he walked no longer ; 
and — another man — Nigel's friend and 
hers — was asking her to give him hap- 
piness. The cold marble hurt her fin- 
gers with its carved surface as she 
gripped it, but its touch helped her to 
rally her forces. She drew her 
thoughts away from the shadowy 
woods where the nightingales sang, 
and lifted her eyes once again to Giles 
Dennaway's face. 

"I wish — you had cared for a wo- 
man who could give — all — that I can- 
not give you," she said impulsively : 
"it seems so unfair that you who are 
so good, so unselfish, should not have 
the very best — instead of " 

"Instead of what I most want in all 
the world," he answered gently, 
though his voice was shaken. "Give 
me — what you can — little Nancy — I — 
only ask for that." 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



"It isn't fair," she repeated, looking 
still into his down bent face, whose 
expression was one of overmastering 
tenderness for her. "Fate — plays such 
cruel tricks. Why should you be put 
off with a woman's second best when 
— nothing is really too good for you?" 

He laughed gently, the kindly, ten- 
der laugh which seemed to mean so 
much, and his hand rested caressing- 
ly on her shoulder. 

"I am not really anything much of 
a chap," he said; "the dear old fellow 
always rated me far too highly. I'm 
afraid you are taking your view of me 
from his." 

"Perhaps I have my own view of 
you too," she answered, "Nigel and I 
have said, often and often, that you 
were the best person we knew — the 
very best, and I think," her voice 
shook a little, "I think he would be 
glad that I am going to try and make 
you happy." She put out her hands 
to him as she said the words, and 
Giles took them bobh into his strong 
and tender grasp, and drew her into 
his arms very gently, stooping to kiss 
— not her lips, but her forehead just 
where the soft tendrils of her hair 
strayed in little wayward curls. 

"Poor little girl" — so ran his lov- 
ing thought of her — "I mustn't fright- 
en her by kissing her lips — yet. Some 
day, when time has healed the old sore, 
and when Nigel is only a loving mem- 
ory — some day she will learn to be 
used to me. And, please God, I will 
be very good to her." 

"You are so strong," she said wist- 
fully. "You will take care of me." 

"I will do my best," he answered, 
"little Nancy; I will do my best. I 
wonder if you will ever begin to know 
how much I love you ?" 

She looked at him with troubled 
eyes — sweet eyes that seemed to re- 
flect the blueness of the June sky, 
and as the wind ruffled the soft gold 
of her hair, Giles touched it caress- 
ingly with his hand. 

"Don't look at me so sadly, dear," 
he said. "Remember, I mean it when 
I say I will be content with very little. 
Just to have the joy of taking care of 



you and making you happier will be 
enough for me. And if some day I 
can see your eyes less sad, I shall have 
my reward." She let him kiss her 
again, she even put up her face to 
kiss his. She had a very grateful soul 
this little Nancy Brereton, who had 
won the love of two good men. She 
knew the sterling worth of the man 
who was offering her everything now, 
and asking so little in return, and her 
heart overflowed with gratitude to 
him. And there, in the dim twlight, 
she made up her mind to show him 
how grateful she was by giving him all 
that was in her to give — all that was 
left from her great and abiding love 
for Nigel. 

"I won't even think of Nigel any 
more," she said to herself that night, 
when, alone in her own room, she look- 
ed out at the velvety darkness of the 
woods, and heard the nightingales 
sing. "I shall only remember him as 
my dear friend, who is dead and 1 
will just live for Giles, who was his 
friend, and who is so inestimably good 
to me. I will do my very utmost to 
give him happiness !" 

JJC «j» 5(C JfC J^I 

"I can't bear the thought of rush- 
ing you, dear ; but — some muddle in 
the post delayed my receiving the 
orders that should have reached me 
days ago. Our wedding will have to 
be at once. I sail on Saturday. It is 
a case of special license — or postpone- 
ment !" 

Giles Donnaway stood in the draw- 
ingroom of Nancy's house, and look- 
ed down at the girl with deprecating 
eyes. 

"I — want to take you with me," he 
said. "You will like India, Nancy — 
and the change; the life there, every- 
thing, will do you good. But — I know 
it is asking a great deal of you to sug- 
gest that our wedding should be the 
day after to-morrow." 

"The day after to-morrow?" Nan- 
cy's voice shook. 

"Yes, the day after to-morrow, in- 
stead of an indefinite three months 
hence. I never dreamt of being sent 
out like this, and there would not 

95 




I think he would be glad that I am going to try and make you happy.' 



% 



BY SPECIAL LICENSE. 



have been such a rush if my orders 
had reached me as they should have 
done. They were delayed, as I say, 
and now — it must be the day after 
to-morrow — or postponement, Nan- 
cy!" 

The quiver in his voice as he pro- 
nounced her name turned the scales 
in his favor. Nancy could not bear 
to hear that quiver — Nancy, who hated 
to hurt any living creature, would not 
give a moment of extra pain to the 
man she had promised to marry. 

"I made up my mind to do my best 
to make him happy," she thought, 
"and I will keep my promise — even if 
it hurts." 

Her eyes were very brave, very 
bright, as she lifted them to him. She 
resolutely thrust from her the sense of 
shrinking dismay that swept over her. 
She put from her the vision of Nigel 
that rose before her with almost 
startling vividness, and putting her 
hand into Giles's hand, she said gent- 
ly, but very firmly : 

"We won't postpone it, Giles. I 
will be ready for you the day after to- 
morrow." 

The man who loved her with such 
a great love looked deep into her eyes, 
and, reading the truth there, knew 
that though she was giving herself to 
him, the best of her heart was still with 
his dead friend, and knowing it, went 
away from her with an ache to his 
own heart. 

"And yet — I believe I am doing 
what is happiest for her in making 
her my wife," his thoughts ran, as the 
train bore him back to London. 
"Some day I shall give her happiness ; 
some day, perhaps, she will learn to 
love me, and — until then, patience." 

Until then, patience. The words 
echoed in his mind again as he mount- 
ed the stairs to his sitting-room, but 
with those words there seemed to 
mingle a little song of thankfulness, 
because, after all, Nancy would be 
his. The day after to-morrow he and 
she would be man and wife, with 
nothing to come between them any 
more ; and patience would be easier 
to practice when Nancy was his own. 



To-morrow he must arrange about the 
special license ; and then— then 

The glad thought stopped sudden- 
ly, as though snapped off at its root. 
Giles stopped on the threshold of his 
room, the door he had just opened 
still held in his hand ; his eyes stared 
fixedly at a figure that stood beside the 
window — a figure that turned sharp- 
ly at his entrance; his lips moved, but 
for a moment no words came from 
them. And the figure by the window 
moved across the room and came 
swiftly to his side. 

"Why, Giles, old man," a voice said 
gaily, "you look scared out of your 
wits. Did you think I was a ghost? 
It's all right. I'm— I'm — myself — 
Nigel Martley." 

The dimness cleared suddenly from 
Donnawa,y's eyes — the room steadied 
itself again. For a moment it had 
seemed to him as though the floor 
rocked, as though everything about 
him was whirling round in a dizzy 
hideous dance. Now it all grew 
steady once more, and out of the haze 
that had crept over his senses, he saw 
Nigel's face — thin, worn, lined' — .but 
unmistakably the face of Nigel Mart- 
ley, his old friend. The brown eyes 
were there, eager and bright ; the 
smile that held such infinite charm hov- 
ered over the lips whose slight mous- 
tache scarcely hid their mobile sweet- 
ness; the wave of hair that had always 
had a trick of falling over his fore- 
head lay there now. It was the old 
Nigel — with the same cheery voice, 
the same firm hand clasp, the same lov- 
ing friendliness of look and touch ; the 
same Nigel — come back from the 
dead. 

And he- — Nigel's friend^ — was going 
to marry Nancys — the day after to- 
morrow ! 

The hands of the two men grasped 
each other firmly. Giles's confused 
thoughts ran on in a bewildering un- 
dercurrent, whilst he listened to his 
friend's explanations of all that had 
happened. He dimly understood what 
Nigel said ; dimly realized that though 
he had not been killed by the savage 
tribe by whom he had been captured, 

D 97 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



Nigel had been their prisoner for 
months and months — suffering tor- 
ture, starvation, and unspeakable mis- 
ery. And then his escape had been 
Me — and Nigel had made his 
way home at last, coming straight, as 
had always been his wont, to Giles 
Donnaway, his old and faithful friend. 

"And I am going to marry Nancy 
the day after to-morrow," the thought 
went dully through Giles's brain, 
whilst still he listened to Nigel's story. 

"Nancy is going to marry you the 
day after to-morrow — but Nancy loves 
Nigel — and — Nigel has come home!" 
Backwards and forwards in his mind 
ran those persistent words, and though 
he heard and even answered what his 
friend was saying, the image of Nancy 
rose before him, and blotted out Ni- 
gel's thin eager face. 

Nancy — as she had looked that day 
in the room overlooking the terrace 
when he asked her to be his wife — 
he could see every line of her slim 
young form, could see the dainty fea- 
tures with the briar rose tints that 
came and went so softly whilst he 
urged his suit; could see the eyes, 
speedwell blue like the wee flower in 
summer meadows — and the rippling 
loveliness of her hair shining like a 
halo about her shapely head. The 
little wistful smile on her lips, the wist- 
ful sweetness of her eyes — these came 
between him and Nigel's face, and 
again that whisper floated across his 
brain : 

"She is to marry me the clay after 
to-morrow !" 

Her name, spoken in Nigel's voice, 
broke into the train of -his thoughts, 
and he forced himself to put aside her 
haunting image, to listen to what his 
friend was saying. 

"I can't get down to Ratherley to- 
morrow. 1 have no end of reporting 
myself, and worrying round generally 
to do; but on Thursday I shall go to 
Nancy, I thought I would take 'her by 
surprise. She is at home — in the old 
place — isn't she ?" 

"Yes — she is at home, in the old 
place." Giles said the words mechan- 
ically, his throat felt parched, his 

98 



mouth dry, he articulated with diffi- 
culty. "Then you have not let her 
know yet that you are in England?" 

"I wanted to go down myself to 
break the news to ber. Was it foolish 
of me" Nigel spoke with boyish im- 
petuosity. "I wondered if I should 
find her on the terrace. It was just 
there that I asked her to be my wife — 
and — I expect you think me a senti- 
mental idiot, old chap ; but I had a sort 
of fancy for meeting her there again." 

"I don't think you a sentimental 
idiot," Donnaway answered mechani- 
cally. "The roses are out on the ter- 
race now, and there are lilies on the 
lawn below the library windows." 

Nigel's eyes brightened; he did not 
notice the level monotony of the other 
man's speech ; he was too absorbed in 
his own happy reminiscences to real- 
ize what a sudden look of suffering 
had leapt into his friend's eyes. 

"I know," he said. "I know — those 
lilies smell like nothing else in the 
world. I thought of them when we 
were camping among some of those 
pestilential swamps that smell of every 
conceivable horror. I used to see the 
lilies standing white and tall in the 
moonlight, and it seemed as if. their 
very fragrance came to me across the 
sickening stench of the swamp. And 
sometimes I could almost declare I 
heard the nightingales sing — just as 
they sang in the woods beyond the 
garden." 

"Yes — they still sing in the woods 
beyond the garden." Giles answered 
slowly, and in his heart he cried out 
fiercely: 

"Nancy is to marry me the day after 
to-morrow' — whatever you say. Nancy 
is to marry me !" 

"I'm glad I got back in June," Ni- 
gel's voice went on. "There is noth- 
ing for us to wait for. We can be 
married straight away — and Nancy 

and I " His sentence broke off 

abruptly, but Giles's thoughts ran on. 

"Nancy and I are to be married the 
day after to-morrow by special li- 
cense. You have come back too late 
— too late ! She is to be mine — now — 
mine — the day after to-morrow!" 



BY SPECIAL LICENSE. 



"You'll come down, too, old man?" 
Nigel began again. "You've always 
been our best friend, Nancy's and 
mine. Come with me to Ratherley — 
and wish me luck !" 

Giles laughed, a strange, low laugh 
that brought Nigel's glance sharply 
to his face. 

"Why do you laugh like that?" 
his visitor questioned. "You — you 
will be glad to come down with me, 
and see Nancy? We can't do with- 
out you, old man. We have always 
said you are our best friend — Nancy's 
and mine. You will come?" 

"Yes." Giles curbed his desire to 
break into laughter again. "Yes, I 
will come down to Ratherley — the 
day after to-morrow — and — " 

"I knew you would," Nigel inter- 
rupted, putting both mands on the 
other's shoulders, and looking affec- 
tionately into his face. "You were 
never the fellow to fail a pal. You've 
always helped me through tight places. 
Now I want you to see me through 
the happiest bit of my life. There's 
no one like you, Giles, old man — you 
always play the game !" 

"You always play the game." After 
Nigel had left him, Giles Donnaway 
stood by the window looking out across 
the chimney tops to the blue sky be- 
yond, those words ringing in his ears. 
"You always play the game." 

And the day after to-morrow he 
was going to marry the girl who loved 
Nigel, whom Nigel loved! — the girl, 
who as yet did not even know that 
her lover was alive. Who would not 
know it until — the day after to-mor- 
row — when the knowledge would 
come too late. 

"You always play the game." Well ! 
He had played it. He had done what 
seemed best for Nancy, when he 
thought Nigel was dead ; and now — 
now it was too late for Nigel to re- 
assert any claims. Nancy was pledg- 
ed to him, Giles Donnaway. She 
could not go back on her word to 
him — and he — 

"You always play the game!" The 



words sounded so clearly in his ears, 
it was almost as if he actually heard 
Nigel speaking them in his eager, boy- 
ish voice ; he could almost see the light 
in Nigel's brown eyes, the light of af- 
fectionate admiration that never fail- 
ed to leap into them when they look- 
ed at him. He turned away from the 
window abruptly, trying to turn his 
thoughts into other channels. But as 
an accompaniment to all his packing, 
to all 'his letter writing, to all the 
multifarious things which had to be 
done — ran those double lines of 
thought — the memory of Nigel's face 
and Nigel's words — the remembrance 
of Nancy as she looked when she 
stood on the terrace amongst the 
roses, and promised to be his wife. 

"To-morrow I shall get the special 
license," he said aloud at last, when 
the thronging thoughts became too 
persistent. "And the day after to- 
morrow- — Nancy and I will be mar- 
ried!" 

She stood on the terrace, a slim 
young figure in trailing draperies, 
white as the tall lilies that stood in 
stately rows along the grass plot be- 
low. Over the parapet roses grew in 
a delicious tangle of color and their 
petals, crimson and pink and orange, 
fell at her feet — and some dropped 
softly — vivid patches of color — upon 
the whiteness of her gown. Her face 
was white, too, very white and very 
still ; and in her eyes was a look of 
wistful sadness, from the heart of 
which looked out a great fear. The 
sun lit her golden hair into a crown 
of light; she looked out across the 
shadowy woods beyond the garden — 
and her hands suddenly wrung them- 
selves together, because she remember- 
ed the nightingales' song. 

"I can't do it," she whispered under 
her breath. "Oh ! Nigel — I can't do 
it, and yet I must ! Giles was your 
friend ; he has been such a good friend 
to me — and I can give him happiness, 
and he wants me so. I — will try to 
be good to Giles for your sake. But 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



— oh ! It is so hard to do it — so very 
hard!" 

She leaned against the parapet, the 
roses brushing against her gown, and 
her hands gripped at the parapet and 
the touch seemed to help and brace 
her. She was waiting for Giles — 
waiting for him to some with that 
special license, which was to hasten 
their marriage. When he came, they 
would go to the little church across 
the park together — she and Giles — 
and her father — and she and Giles 
would be made man and wife. And 
though Nigel lay far away in the 
darkness of that terrible land which 
had slain him — surely, he would be 
glad that she was making this great 
sacrifice for his friend — that she was 
going to try and bring happiness to 
Giles! 

Nigel's face looked at her from 
across the tall white lilies. Nigel's 
brown eyes looked into hers from 
amongst the roses; Nigel's voice, ten- 
der and gay, seemed to ring in her 
ears; and she turned away with a 
resolute step, determined to bury the 
past for ever; to think only of the 
future. 

Behind her on the gravel came the 
sound of a quick footstep — a footstep 
that seemed to make her heart stop 
beating for an instant, and then send 
it on again at racing speed; and she 
stopped with a breathless feeling that 
she must be asleep and dreaming. 

"Nancy!" 

The voice, tender, gay, eager, was 
not a dream voice, it rang with life 
and vitality; and she looked round to 
see the man who was filling her 
thoughts coming towards her along 
the terrace. The color flowed over 
her face in a crimson tide, but she 
neither moved nor spoke. Whilst a 
great joy seemed to shake her very 
pulses, she was smitten by a para- 
lysing sense that she must be in a 
nightmare if this was Nigel, and she 
belonged to another man! Nigel? It 
could not be Nigel, who lay dead in 
that far, dark land. It could not be 
Nigel, when she was waiting here 
100 



to pledge herself for life to Nigel's 
friend. 

"Nancy!" 

Again his voice fell on her ears, 
ringing with passionate gladness, and 
by now he was at her side, his hands 
stretched out to her, his brown eyes 
alight with love, looking into the 
depths of her eyes, that shrank under 
his gaze. 

"Nancy — sweet — has it been too big 
a shock? It is I — your own Nigel — 
come back to you. Nancy — my dear 
— my dear!" 

She tried to draw her hands from 
his, but they only clasped her closer: 
and before she could answer his eager 
words he had gathered her to him in 
a vehement embrace from which she 
had neither the will nor, indeed, the 
power to free herself — whilst his lips 
rained kisses upon her face. 

"Nigel," she whispered breathless- 
ly, "you mustn't — I — oh ! try to un- 
derstand." 

"I can only understand that I am 
here again, on the terrace amongst 
the roses — with you," he answered. 
"I can only understand that you are 
in my arms again — my Nancy — my 
sweet — and — everything else you must 
tell me about later. I have no room 
in my heart for anything but the hap- 
piness of this hour — with you and the 
roses and the lilies." 

"But, Nigel !" She made another 
attempt to free herself, but he only 
drew her closer with masterful touch, 
saying gently : 

"I — thought I should have brought 
Giles with me to-day. But at the last 
moment he sent me a letter — 

"A letter?" She started, and look- 
ed up at him. 

"Yes — a letter — with a sealed en- 
closure which he says I am to give — ■ 
to you. I cannot understand the let- 
ter, but he says you will explain it 
to me." 

"Show it to me," she answered 
shakily, as he drew from his pocket 



BY SPECIAL LICENSE 



and put into her hand a thick packet. 
She read Giles' letter first. It was 
very short : 

"Dear Old Nigel, — Go down to 
the terrace amongst the roses to-day 
— and find your heart's desire. I am 
obliged to start earlier than I thought. 
I leave England to-night. Give Nancy 
the enclosed. She will explain it to 
you. May it bring you both all your 
happiness. Yours ever, 

"Giles Donnaway." 

With hands that shook, Nancy open- 
ed the sealed envelope, and from it 
drew a special license — made out in 



the names of Nigel Martley and Nancy 
Brereton ! 

"I don't understand," Nigel said 
slowly, whilst Nancy looked from the 
printed sheet to his face with tear- 
filled eyes, "I can't understand." 

But when, with faltering voice, 
Nancy told him of all that had come 
and gone in the past few weeks, his 
own eyes grew misty, looking across 
the lilies to the shadowy woods, and 
with a voice not wholly steady, he 
said very softly: 

"Bless the dear old fellow — bless 
him ! bless him ! Was there ever a 
chap like Giles Donnaway? He has 
played the game." 



An Irish Revolution 



The cry of Home Rule in Ireland has been partially 
covered by the agitation for better agriculture. Irish 
farmers found that by working together they could ac- 
complish a great deal more than otherzmse. Thanks to 
Sir Horace Plunkctt, co-operative societies have a firm 
foothold in Ireland, 



AN economic revolution is daily 
taking place in Ireland. So 
peacefully is it working to its 
predestined goal that many people 
are unaware of the wonderful work 
it is doing in the creation of a 
New Ireland. At the bottom of 
that seething turmoil, known as the 
Home Rule agitation, always lay 
this basic factor — earth hunger — 
the primeval desire of the peasant to 
possess his native land. The peasant 
is now possessing the land, and the 
peasant is taking a larger share in its 
government. In the place of the po- 
liceman we see the agricultural in- 
structor at work. In the place of the 
wretched old mud cabin we see new 
and clean five-roomed cottages. In 



those silent places, amid grassy plains, 
where yesterday bullocks only were 
to be seen, we now hear the cheerful 
sound of children's voices at the doors 
of smiling homesteads. In the place 
of the exacting "gombeen man," who 
preyed upon the poverty of the peo- 
ple, we have the government acting 
as the benevolent banker. This is 
what Mr. F. E. Green has to say in 
the London Magazine after a study of 
agricultural conditions in Ireland. The 
trouble lay largely in the system of 
land tenure in vogue in Ireland. The 
"gentry" owned it all. If the poor 
peasant tried to improve his rented 
land, taxes were increased. When he 
built a mud cottage for himself and 
family, a tribute was exacted by the 

101 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



landlord, and if this was not forth- 
coming, the cottage was confiscated. 
The Land Vets of Gladstone did little 
to rel'ieve the situation. Peasants were 
still afraid to make any improvements 
for fear of a raise in rent at the end 
of fifteen years. Up to this time it 
had been a question of politics, but 
there was one who was destined to 
play an all-important part in the 
awakening of Irish agriculture. This 
was Hon. Horace Plunkett, brother 
of a lord, one of the landlord class 
and a Protestant, three of the worst- 
hated characteristics in Ireland. He 
was not a fluent speaker, but recog- 
nized the fact that co-operative socie- 
ties were to be the means of placing 
agriculture on a proper basis in his 
native land. 

Mr. Plunkett — now Sir Horace — at- 
tended with unwearying patience no less 
than fifty meetings before a single so- 
ciety was formed. Then all of a sud- 
den, in that electric way peculiar to Ire- 
land, the idea caught on. Suspicions as 
to his political and religious disinterest- 
edness began to be dispelled, and priests 
and Nationalists alike loyally threw 
themselves into a movement which could 
only result in strengthening the charac- 
ter and improving the condition of the 
Irish people. 

The actions and words of these pion- 
eers in effect amounted to this: "Whe- 
ther we are Home Rulers or Unionists, 
whether we axe Catholics or Protestants, 
we realize that this is an economic ques- 
tion and it is clear that even if we had 
Home Rule to-morrow and the land of 
Ireland became the property of the Irish 
we should still have to combine together 
and 1 work our farms on a more business- 
like footing for the mutual improvement 
of all." 

. And here it is interesting to note that 
the same phase of thought in the pro- 
posed revival of English agriculture, is 
passing through England. The word has 
gone forth: "Whether we be a Free 
Trade or Tariff Reform country, if we 
are to retain our place among the na- 
tions of the world, we must co-operate 
in order to work our holdings to the best 
economic advantage." 

There are two important acts which 
mark the real turning point in Irish 

102 



agriculture. One of these was the es- 
tablishment of the Irish Congested 
Districts Board in 1893. The aims of 
the Board were to improve conditions 
in the rural sections of the country. 
They had powers to relieve the con- 
gestion in thickly settled portions and 
get each man working land where he 
will have fuller sway for his work. 

It should be remembered that more 
than three-quarters of the farms in Ire- 
land are under thirty acres in size, and 
agricultural experts have declared that 
not less than thirty acres, taking the 
good with the bad land, are necessary 
for the maintenance of a family. 

Hence the new farms that I visited 
were invariably thirty acres in extent. 
Here, where a few years ago only a soli- 
tary herdsman's cottage was to be seen, 
there are now hamlets with thirty-acre 
farms. Instead of kine only on a bleak, 
treeless landscape, we now see home- 
steads with cheerful blue smoke rising 
from their chimneys, and the plough 
busily turning profitless grassfields into 
productive arable land. Instead of a 
mud cabin surrounded by filth, with two 
or three acres of grass here, and bog 
with a patch of oats there, the new small 
holder of Ireland has a four or five- 
roomed cottage and farm buildings, with 
thirty acres of land for a sum (paid as 
a terminal annuity) less than the rent 
paid for his wretched old hovel and his 
meagre scattered acres. 

Let me give a typical case of the hold- 
ing I have photographed. The land cost 
£540 to purchase, the house £150 to 
build. The new purchasing tenant only 
pays half this amount, as half is allowed 
for the cabin or cottage he has vacated. 
That brings the sum to £615, and from 
that is deducted £120 for his tenant 
rights and disturbance compensation. 
This leaves £495 to pay off in sixty-eight 
years at 3Vk per cent, interest, which 
amounts to an annual payment of £17 
6s. 6d. for a house and thirty acres, 
which eventually become his own. Now 
the poor small farmer taken from a con- 
gested district has, of course, but few 
implements and live stock. How is he 
then to equip a larger holding? 

The second important act which 
has been referred to is the establish- 
ment of a Department of Agriculture. 
This latter was the result of work by 
Sir Horace Plunkett. He argued 




THE IRISH DONKEY IS A PATIENT BEAST OF BURDEN. 




AN IRISH CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETY 



The buildings consist of store and creamery. Notice the $3,500 co-operative 
threshing engine in the yard 



103 



I- VRMER'S MAGAZINE. 



that if similar departments could do 
good work in other countries why 
shouldn't the Government help out 
matters in Ireland. This department 
'has carried on a system of education 
and stock and grain improvement 
which is making Ireland over into a 
new country. Much of this is done 
through the Albert Agricultural Col- 
lege at Glasnevin. Here the best of 
live stock is raised and sent out for 
service at a small fee. Mr. Green saw 
a fine young bull about to be shipped 
for use. 

The value of that bull is estimated at 
£3030. It will be sent down to some re- 
liable farmer, who will be paid £15 a year 
for the keep of the animal. The farmer 
will 'have the use of it himself, but he 



[ris'h grey or mottled pig, often under- 
sized, is disappearing under the imperial 
sway of the large White Yorkshire sires 
which are bred and sent down from Glas- 
nevin. 

A boar will be sent to a farmer, and 
kept by him for a sum varying from £3 
to £5 a year, and the local farmers have 
the use of it for the fee of Is. From 
here, too, stallions are sent to innumer- 
able horse-breeding stations and don- 
keys imported from Spain to improve 
the breed of the small Irish ass are also 
distributed. 

Besides this work in stock breeding 
the grain, poultry and forestry are 
not neglected. Much is being done 
in the afforestation of Ireland. This 
year $45,000 are to be sipent for for- 
estry. 




A NEW HOME FOR THE SMALL IRISH FARMER 



will have to let the bull serve the cows 
of the local farmers for the fee of Is. 
only. 

The effect of this policy has already 
become marked in the different class of 
cattle now being sent across to the fairs 
and market towns of England. Irish 
cattle are no longer spoken of with con- 
tempt by English farmers, and at mar- 
kets at which I attend there is always 
a brisk bidding for Irish heifers. In 
rearing good sto'ck the Irish small hold- 
er certainly has the advantage over the 
English small holder. The one gets the 
use of a first-class bull for Is. only, 
whilst the other has- to content himself 
with a third-class bull for the custom- 
ary fee of 5s. And still more marked, 
I think, is the improvement throughout 
Ireland in the breed of pigs. The old 
1M 



Not only is the advance being made 
along strictly agricultural lines, but 
Credit Banks are being started. To 
these banks the department sends on 
the security of two persons the sum 
of $5,000. Neighbors may borrow 
from $50 to $250 at the low rate of 
2 l / 2 per cent. So regular have these 
payments been made and so profitable 
have these loans become that this 
money is called "lucky money." Peas- 
ants use this money to stock their 
holdings with implements, live stock 
and other farm necessities. 

Not only has the education been 
carried on amongst the farmers, but 
the women and girls are also receiv- 
ing education to make them "useful 



AN IRISH REVOLUTION 



wives to farmers." At Loughglynn, 
Co. Roscommon, is one of the schools 
of Domestic Economy — 

where about one hundred girls of four- 
teen years and upwards attend daily 
from the surrounding farms, some of 
them trudging as many as three miles 
across the 'bogs. Here dairying, poultry- 
keeping, pig-raising, gardening, bee- 
keeping, sewing, washing and ironing, 
cooking, "the cleaning and decoration 
of the home," and home industries are 
taught. This demesne, which, with its 
beautiful lake, was once the property of 
Lord Dillon, is now presided over by the 
gracious presence of a Mother Superior, 
and though the teachers are Catholic 
nuns, no religion is taught in this sub- 
sidized state school. One can only ad- 
mire the simplicity of life led by these 
good and gracious ladies — these High 



was doing good to his neighbors and to 
his country, and priests loyally took their 
share in the work of the reconstruction 
of Irish agriculture. In the absence of 
village halls, meetings were held in the 
open fields and addressed by some or- 
ganizer. When a resolution was passed 
that a co-operative society should be 
formed, each farmer (if the immediate 
object was a creamery) would agree to 
take up £1 shares, according to the num- 
ber of his cows. By this means a good 
deal of capital would be promised, from 
£1,0'0'0 upwards. It is not usual, how- 
ever, for the farmers to take up fully- 
paid shares, and money is often borrow- 
ed from the Local Joint Stock Bank at 
4 per cent. 

When the local farmers have decided 
to make the first move to help them- 
selves, the Department of the Board of 
Agriculture will render them all the as- 




THIS FIVE-ROOMED COTTAGE RENTS FOR 25 CENTS PER WEEK 



Priestesses of Demeter — for at the lunch 
I had with the Mother Superior, eggs, 
sponge-cake and coffee composed the 
meal, all 'beautifully prepared and served. 

In Ireland the Co-operative Soci- 
eties have full sway. They are the 
backbone of Irish agriculture. They 
were started by Sir Horace Plunkett 
and are doing more to hold the 
farmers' attention to agriculture than 
all other things combined. 

'It is one of the charms to be fo'imd 
in the Irish character that before an 
Irish peasant takes a step, socially or po- 
litically, he must feel sure that he is 
doing some good. The individual Irish- 
man soon saw that by co-operating he 



sistance it can by sending down to them 
architects' plans of buildings and mach- 
inery, and in co-operation with the 
County Council, dairy experts and ag- 
ricultural instructors are sent to give 
the farmers the latest scientific know- 
ledge. Negotiations are entered into 
with some butter merchant or dairy com- 
pany, and when the contract is arranged 
the milk is brought to the creamery. 

These co-operative societies are 
working specially along dairy lines. 
They are fashioned after the co-oper- 
ative societies in Denmark which are 
for the development of the dairy in- 
dustry. The Irish aim is to beat out 
Denmark in t<he large markets of 

106 



LARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



England. It is hoped that as soon as 
organization has been thorough, the 
cities o\ Liverpool and Manchester 
will be supplied with milk from Ire- 
land. Besides the milk, cheese and 
butter industries, the extracting' of 
casein from the milk and the making 
of it into door-knobs, combs, etc.. is 
being found to be very profitable. 

The spread of the gospel of good 
agriculture is best told in Mr. Green's 
own words. 

An Agricultural Instructor in Ireland 
does not confine himself to lecturing in 
some village hall, (they are often non- 
existent) but he goes to some farmer's 
land, lakes off his coat and demonstrates 
in a practical way. In spite of the re- 
putation that Irishmen have for mystic- 
al dreaming, they are as Bernard Shaw 
has said, an intensely practical race; or 
as Sir Horace Plunkett graphically puts 
it, "A 'bull, a boat, or a band loom is 
more readily appreciated than a profes- 
sor, a leaflet, or an idea." 

I tried to meet a certain agricultural 
instructor, who never rested until he got 
the farmers of Co. Limerick to ea.st aside 
their worthless old ploughs, 'but I could 
never catch him at home. He had an 
abundance of native wit and once he 
went down to a meeting of farmers in 
an open field and described to them how- 
many a dark deed had been done in Ire- 
land. "Now," he said, "I want you to 



do another dark deed. I want you one 
night to collect all the ploughs in Co. 
Limerick and throw them into the Shan- 
non." Thereupon he took one of their 
ploughs to a local blacksmith and show- 
ed him how the plough should be fash- 
ioned to do effective work. And it is 
told, how when the smith had made the 
plough anew, he took it into a field and 
ploughed from morning till sunset, for- 
getting to come home to dinner! Soon 
he had so many orders for new ploughs 
that he could not cope with the work. 

"Now you grow your crops your own 
way, and let me have a rood of land for 
potatoes or oats," this instructor will 
say to an unconvinced farmer. "I will 
bring you the seeds and the manure for 
the rood, but you must do all the work 
following my instructions, and when the 
crop is harvested you can then compare 
the results of my methods with your 
own." The outcome of all this prac- 
tical teaching has been amazing. Tat- 
tered peasants may he seen on the high- 
road fervently discussing albuminoid 
ratios and percentages of soluble phos- 
phates, and the poor Irish farmer, as 
both producer and organizer, is becom- 
ing a far better educated man than his 
English prototype. 

The difficulty of threshing a small 
amount of corn economically has 
been overcome by the practical Irish- 
man in Wexford and Kilkenny, where 
there are a number of co-operative 
threshing machines. 




IRISH LASSES PREPARE FOR FUTURE FARM LIFE. 



106 



Rural Insanitation 



MOST people go from the city to 
the country to regain health 
and strength. It has been as- 
serted by Dr. A. W. Freeman, of 
Virginia, in his address before the 
American Medical Association, that 
the city is more sanitary than the 
country. Dr. Freeman is Assist- 
ant State Health Commissioner for 
Virginia, and should be in a position 
to speak with authority. The country 
may be more healthful than the city, 
but there are places full of disease 
which need careful sanitary treat- 
ment. In the cities much has been 
done to improve sanitary conditions. 
Health departments have been estab- 
lished ; water supply has been looked 
after ; milk is thoroughly inspected ; 
contagious and infectious diseases are 
isolated ; sewer systems have been per- 
fected, and everything has been done 
which will tend to beter health of the 
citizens. 

While these facts are true of the cities, 
in those States with which we are fam- 
iliar, no such condition exists in the 
country districts. They remain as they 
have been for years, without efficient or- 
ganization, depending on the methods 
and beliefs of thirty years ago. In only 
a few States is there adequate super- 
vision of the rural communities; only a 
few States require the reporting of even 
the most dangerous of contagious dis- 
eases, and in most cases what activity 
there is in the country districts is con- 
fined to the control of smallpox, diph- 
theria, and scarlet fever, with occasional 
attention to a flagrant nuisance. The 
vast contributions of modern science to 
the prevention of disease are for the 
most part lost to the people of the coun- 
try for the lack of organization and edu- 
cation. 

The contrast between the city and 
rural conditions is great. In fact, Dr. 



Freeman thinks they are so obvious 
that they are too easily noticed. 

There is in the first place a greater 
survival of the individualistic idea of 
life in the country than in the city. 
Government touches the life of the in- 
dividual in the country to a limited* de- 
gree only. His personal liberty, so call- 
ed, is seldom invaded. He is, and he 
considers himself to be, a law unto him- 
self. In the city the communal idea 
prevails; no man lives unto himself 
alone; government is at the elbow of 
every citizen. In the second place, the 
very isolation of the country makes it, 
almost impossible in the circumstances 
to educate the country people in the im- 
portance of health measures. A single 
successful campaign against measles or 
diphtheria or impure milk will generally 
convince the people of the city of the 
importance of health measures. As such 
a campaign is difficult or impossible un- 
der present conditions in the country, 
education comes more slowly and the 
support of health measures is always 
more doubtful. In the third place, the 
contrast between country and city is 
largely due to the fact that health meas- 
ures are more obviously necessary in 
the city than in the country. The crowd- 
ed city demands health protection. 
Where our nearest neighbor lives half 
a mile away he may suffer from a wide 
variety of diseases and we may never 
feel the danger, but where we are sep- 
arated from contagious disease only by 
the partition wall of an apartment house, 
we feel the necessity for and yield more 
readily to preventive measures. 

Effective sanitation is more diffi- 
cult in the city than in the country. 
This makes it all the more important 
that work should commence at once. 
This work should be done thoroughly 
because practically all the food pro- 
ducts come from the rural sections. 
If these foods are produced in un- 

107 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



sanitary conditions we are only coax- 
ing the spread of disease. One case 
of typhoid on a dairy farm may in- 
fect a whole city. 

"The farm is the point of attack, and 
.... is the unit both in the spread and 
prevention of infection. Each farm is, 
to all intents and purposes, a separate 
community, with its own population, its 
own problems of sanitation, and its own 
forces for good and evil. The work 
we would do for the improvement of 
rural conditions of sanitation must be 
done for the improvement of the farm." 

Hygienic conditions on some farms 
are said to be unbelievable. Sanitary 
arrangements are absent. Wells are 
sunk without any regard for sanita- 
tion. The daily amount of water used 
is very small and the absence of run- 
ning water makes effectual cleanliness 
very difficult. One of the methods 
which might be used to effect a change 
for the better would be education, or 
what is commonly known as advertis- 
ing. To get people to buy, we must 
show them that the article we have 
to sell will be a benefit to them. In 
order that people will improve their 
methods of sanitation we must show 
them the benefit of it by advertising 
or by education. 

The forms of publicity to be used in 
this educational campaign are varied, 
and practically all of them are to-day 
being used in common by commercial 



and health organizations. Press notices, 
which are easily secured at small cost 
by a proper press-agent, are of enormous 
value; special stories are gladly carried 
by newspapers if they do not carry too 
much self-advertisement; bill-boards, ma- 
gazine stories and articles, and special 
publications of various health depart- 
ments are being used daily in this work. 
In addition, lectures, exhibits, special 
railroad exhibit cars, demonstrations in 
railway stations and public places, all 
have their place and all are being used 
by public-health agencies. 

But these are not of themselves suffic- 
ient. They arouse the interest or excite 
the curiosity of those whom we wish to 
reach, but they do not give the individ- 
ual the necessary impulse for immediate 
action. We must have something more 
personal, more direct and impelling, to 
obtain the results that are necessary. 

Such work as this has been com- 
menced in Virginia, and it is hoped 
that by a concerted effort on the part 
of other states and provinces the sani- 
tary conditions of the country will 
soon be better than those of the city. 
It will take a lot of education, but it 
is worth trying. Qualified inspectors, 
carrying proper literature, simple 
remedies and microscopes, would do 
much to educate the people. These 
men should also inspect the schools, 
talk with the parents, and be able to 
lecture and give demonstrations when 
necessary. 




108 



Tasty Lunches for Rural 
Scholars 



VERY few of the scholars at rural 
schools have time to go home 
for their mid-day meal. For this 
reason the problem of school lunches is 
the problem of school lunches is 
sometimes perplexing to the mother. 
The lunch must be attractive and 
appetizing if the children are to get 
the best out of it. Besides wonder- 
ing what to put in the lunch the 
mother often wishes a better place in 
which to eat it. It has often been 
suggested that the partial preparation 
of the school lunch at the school 
would be a good lesson in domestic 
science. This whole question has 
been thoroughly handled by Caroline 
L. Hunt in "Good House-keeping." 
Her treatment of the subject and the 
suggestions offered are worth con- 
sidering. 

The answer to the first question, 
' ' What constitutes a good school lunch ? ' ' 
is part of the answer to the larger ques- 
tion, "What constitutes a good meal 
for a child?" and to the still larger 
question, "What in general constitutes 
a good meal?" In the first place, a 
good meal should be carefully planned 
as well as properly cooked'. I like io 
think of a well-put-together meal as con- 
taining something liquid, something 
starchy and something meaty or "tis- 
sue forming," as we have been taught 
to say, something fat and something fib- 
ery, something sweet and something sav- 
ory. How does that apply to a school 
lunch? In answering this question, we 
will leave the liquid part of the meal 
to be considered last, because that is the 
part of all parts that should be provided 
at school, both for the reason that a 
warm liquid helps to stir up the circula- 
tion, thus helping digestion and leaving 



the head clear for study, and also for 
the reason that the liquid portion is in- 
convenient to carry from home. 

SOMETHING STARCHY. 

The backbone of every good meal, 
school lunch or any other, is good, thor- 
oughly baked bread. Soggy bread is bad 
for anyone, and it is particularly bad for 
children, for their teeth need exercise. 
That is the universal opinion of dentists 
and physicians. Rolls, the long narrow 
finger rolls preferably, make good sand- 
wiches, partly because by cutting them 
open and removing just a little of the 
crumb, you can make a good-sized place 
in which to put chopped meat or other 
rilling. Remember the children when you 
bake bread and make some of these rolls, 
or buy some occasionally. Boston brown 
bread makes good sandwiches. It com- 
bines well with cottage cheese and let- 
tuce. Make a small loaf for sandwich- 
es in a baking powder can at the same 
time you make the larger supply. Zwie- 
back and many of the prepared cereals 
which now come in the form of crackers 
are good food for children, but they are 
rather dry, and also crumbly. The best 
way to pack them is in the little tin box- 
es in which mints or wafers come. Try 
occasionally making very thin slices of 
zwieback and putting jelly or jam be- 
tween them. Zwieback is made by toast- 
ing bread in a very slow oven. It should 
be crisp and a golden brown. Zephyr- 
ettes with cream cheese between them 
furnish a pleasing variety if used oc- 
casionally. I class plain cakes with 
these starchy foods because in the well- 
constructed meal they do not take the 
place of the sweet which seems neces- 
sary to top off with. Here, too, belong 
doughnuts and coffee cake, and many 
kinds of cookies. 

In addition to breads, the well-planned 
meal, with an occasional exception, 

109 



FVRMER'S MAGAZINE. 





should contain one of (be following: 
Milk, eggs, cheese, fish, poultry, nuts, 
meal or beans. Of these milk is most 
important for the young, for it is rich, 
not alone in tissue-forming foods, but 
also in the materials which make bones 
and teeth. 

Meat, for the school lunch, should be 
thinly sliced, or chopped and mixed 
with salad dressing. Save a little of the 
mint sauce served with the roast lamb, 
or of the caper sauce served with boiled 
mutton, or the horseradish sauce served 
with beef, or the tomato sauce served 
with veal, to give a touch of spice to 
the sandwich filling. Try always to have 
boiled dressing on hand, or mayonnaise 
if you use it, for that makes it possible 
to make a good filling out of a little meat 
or fish. Mixed with veal or chicken and 
combined with lettuce, it is best, but it 
can be used with any meat or with 
cheese, or with baked beans or chopped 
nuts, or with nuts and cream cheese 
mixed, or with hard-boiled eggs, or with 
a mixture of hard-boiled eggs and fish, 
or with lettuce or watercress. There 
are, in fact, few foods with which salad 
dressing cannot be combined to make a 
good sandwich filler. 

If there is a place for a jelly glass in 
the lunch box, moist foods like cottage 
cheese or baked beans or salad may 
constitute the meaty portion of the meal. 
So far as the food value of custards is 
concerned they come under the head of 
flesh-forming foods if they are made 
with plenty of eggs. The days when 
they form the dessert, therefore, are 
good days on which to serve non-meaty 
sandwiches, plain bread and butter, per- 
haps, or lettuce or cress sandwiches. 

SOMETHING FAT. 
This does not mean something 
greasy, but something containing one of 
the good, wholesome fats — butter, egg 
110 



yolks, cream, bacon, olive oil — which all 
children need. Butter is an expensive 
food, but it cannot be considered wasted 
if children eat it. If you have a child 
thai needs building up, put lots of butter 
on his bread, disguising it , if necessary, 
by putting plenty of other things with it. 
Thin slices of crisp bacon combine with 
lettuce to make wholesome sandwiches. 
A very small amount of sour cream will 
make a filling if it is drained as for cot- 
tage cheese, but without being heated. 
If heated, much of the fat is lost. It 
may be seasoned with salt alone or mix- 
ed with chopped olives, pimentos' or 
raisins. Remember that the souring of 
milk and cream purify them and make 
them safe, for the germs that make them 
sour destroy any harmful germs that 
are in the sweet milk. Cottage cheese, 
however, which has been carelessly 
handled, as it sometimes is in grocery 
shops, is as bad as any other carelessly 
handled food. 

Egg yolks are rich in fat, each con- 
taining about a teaspoonful. They are 
irich, too, in iron. They "make red 
blood," as the saying goes, and are the 
best of foods for anemic children. If 
lyou have yolks left over from your 
baking, cook them in a double boiler, 
either alone or, if they are whole, in 
water. The low temperature of the 
double boiler prevents them from turn- 
ing dark. Use them in sandwiches or 
in potato salad, or mash them and make 
into salad dressing according to the rule 
which you can find in any good cook 
book. It is always safe to use less vine- 
gar, mustard and pepper than the rule 
calls for, as young people do not care 
for highly seasoned foods, and are bet- 
ter off without them. The following 
salad dressing offers a good way to use 
yolks and skim milk, another valuable 
food and one often wasted. 

SALAD DRESSING. 

One-half teaspoonful of salt, one tea- 
spoonful of mustard (or less), one table- 
spoonful of sugar, one and one-half cup- 
fuls of skim milk and egg yolks com- 
bined, using from four to eight of the 
latter; one-fourth cupful of vinegar. 
Mix the dry ingredients, add the other 
ingredients and cook over water till 
thick. 

A large number of egg yolks can also 
be used in baked custards with either 
whole or skim milk. When making cus- 
tard, always make a few cup custards 



TASTY LUNCHES FOR RURAL SCHOLARS 



for the lunch box. Use the little enam- 
eled ware cups, which are light and 
strong, or aluminum molds. These can 
be used also for lemon jelly or other 
puddings of which you wish to pre- 
pare small portions that can be saved in 
good form for the lunches. The little 
individual portions are much more at- 
tractive than portions of a large pud- 
ding. If the pudding is one that keeps 
well let a day elapse between the time 
it is served at home and the time it ap- 
pears in the lunch box. It will seem 
more novel. 

By fiber is meant that substance which 
makes apples and grapes and cucumbers 
hold their shape though they contain lit- 
tle but water, or water and sugar. 
There is all the way through them a 
network of a tough, elastic substance, 
usually called cellulose. When this is 
taken into the body it acts very much as 
excelsior does in a packing case. It 
keeps the heavier parts of the foods 
from settling down upon each other. It 
is seldom digested, but it is an invalu- 
able help to the digestion of other foods. 
It may be supplied in the form of let- 
tuce, watercress or cucumbers in sand- 
wiches; in the form of celery or rad- 
ishes, or in the form of fresh, dried or 
stewed fruit. 

Apples, oranges, pears, peaches and 
berries are desirable, not only because 
they are refreshing, but because of their 
fiber. Berries keep best tightly sealed 
in a bottle or a jelly glass and without 
sugar. Dried fruits — dates, figs, raisins, 
and a good quality of prunes are 
equally wholesome and much easier to 
carry. Baked apples may be carried ir 
jelly glasses. So may apple sauce and 
stewed dried fruits if they are properly 
prepared. Dried fruits should be cooked 
without sugar till they are nearly done. 
The sugar added at the last tends to take 
up the juice and make a syrupy, rather 
than a watery compound. For sauce 
apples should be cooked, a few pieces at 
a time, in a syrup of sugar and water. 
By the time the last of the apples are 
done the syrup will be like jelly. Such 
apple sauce is easily transported. 

When you are making cake, remem- 
ber to make a few small ones for the 
lunches, and do not fear that they will 
be too rich if frosted. A little sugar 
is a valuable part of a school luncheon 
because it is easily absorbed and quickly 
made ready for use in the body. Think 



how different it is from pastry. In that 
the flour and the fat must first be sepa- 
rated from their close companionship, 
and after that each must be acted upon 
by the digestive juices. The sugar is, 
at the time it is eaten, in very much the 
condition that the flour of pastry reaches 
after all these processes. Put just a 
little sugar of some kind into the lunch 
box, two or three pieces of pure candy 
or of loaf sugar, or a little maple sugar 
or sweet chocolate. Sweet cookies come 
under this head too. As to pastry, save 
that till a day when the afternoon is to 
be spent in festivities of some kind, not 
in study — when there is to be speaking or 
an excursion to the woods. Then make 
some turnovers, inclosing the filling safe- 
ly between crusts. Children like these, 
and they are easier to carry than pieces 
of pie. 

SOMETHING SAVORY. 

This meed not always be put in as an 
extra; it may be introduced in one of 
the many sandwich fillings of which men- 
tion has been made. Ham is a savory, 
and dried beef and bacon and cheese. So 
are acid fruits, if the term "savory" be 
stretched a little. If the sandwiches and 
the dessert are both rather neutral in 
flavor it may be well to add a little sour 
jelly or spiced preserves. The jelly can 
be put up at the regular jelly-making 
season. There are numberless little jars 
and wide-mouthed bottles coming into 
our houses now that can be used for the 
individual portions of jelly. Covered 
with paraffin, the small amounts keep 
in good condition without drying. 

The question of "something liquid" 
for the school luncheon brings up the 
whole matter of the policy of the school 
with reference to the food of the pupils. 
We will suppose first that the authorities 
do not help and that every mother must 
settle the matter for herself. Under 
these circumstances the children them- 
selves should be consulted. If they pre- 
fer to have boxes that can be closed up 
flat when empty, and thus leave them 
comparatively hand-free on the way 
home, to having liquids and custards and 
other foods that must be carried in 
dishes, with their luncheons, that should 
settle the matter. In the consolidated 
rural schools, however, transportation is 
provided. Here, and in other cases where 
pupils ride back and forth, the size and 
weight of the lunch basket need not be 
considered. Milk in these cases should 

111 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



be a part of the lnncheon in 'winter, and 
milk or lemonade or other fruit juices 
in summer. 

The flavoring material for lemonade 
can be made up in quantities and kept 
on hand. Boil a cupful of sugar in a 
pint of water for about fifteen minutes. 
Cool and add one-third of a cupful of 
lemon juice. Keep on ice till needed. 
To this may be added other fruit juices 
or the syrup from canned fruits. The 
water can be added at school. Lemon 
or orange jelly and many of the more 
watery fruits should, in making up the 
bill-of-fare, be considered as liquid, be- 
cause they are chiefly water. 

In the following sample luncheons the 
numbers refer to the necessary parts of a 
well-planned meal: (1) the starchy; (2) 
the meaty; (3) the fatty; (4) the fibery; 
(5) the sweet; (6) the savory; (7) the 
liquid or watery. 

SUGGESTED LUNCHES. 

Milk (2) (7) Milk (2) (7) 

Ham sandwiches (1) Egg sandwiches with 

(2) (3) (6) salad dressing (1) 

An apple and two or (2) (3) (6) 

three dates (4) Apple sauce (4) 

A frosted cake (5) Plain cake (1) 

Maple sugar (5) 
Grape juice (7) 
Cheese sandwiches (1) (2) (3) (6) 
Stewed prunes or apricots (4) 
Cookies (1) 
Sweet chocolate (5) 

The lunches given to children are fre- 
quently faulty through excess of some 
one or other kind of food. For ex- 
ample : 

TOO MEATY. 
Milk (2) (?) Hard-boiled eggs (2) 

Meat or cheese sandwiches (1) (2) (3) 
Custard (2) (3) Plain cake (1) 

TOO STARCHY AND TOO DRY. 
Plain meat sandwiches (1) (2) (3) 

Doughnuts (1) 
Crackers (1) Plain cake (1) 

TOO FAT. 
Milk (2) (7) Custard (2) (3) 

Veal sandwiches with salad dressing (1) (3) (6) 
Doughnuts (1) Nuts (2) (3) 

TOO FIBERY. 
Lettuce sandwiches (1) (3) (4) (6) 
Oranges 14) (7) 
Radishes (4) Raisin cake (1) (4) 

TOO SWEET. 
Milk (2) (7) Cookies (1) 

Jelly sandwiches (1) (5) 
Frosted cake (1) (5) 
112 



TOO MOIST. 

Milk (2) (7) Pear (4) (7) 

Potato salad (1) (3) (6) 

Lemon jelly (7) 
Bread and butter (1) (3) 

TOO SPICY. 

Meat sandwiches with highly seasoned dress- 
ing (1) (2) (3) (6) 
Pickles (6) Mince pie (1) (3) (6) 

Paper napkins and paraffin paper are 
a boon to those who pack as well as those 
who eat school lunches. The napkins 
may be bought for a dollar a thousand; 
the paraffin paper at the price of five 
cents for twenty-four large sheets. 
Sandwiches and cake folded in paraffin 
paper keep moist, and the paper pre- 
vents the different kinds of food from 
sticking to one another. It is very easy 
to equip a cheap basket after the fashion 
of the expensive automobile lunch bas- 
kets now on the market. A strip of 
leather fastened to the cover may make 
places for spoons, knives and forks. A 
loop of leather or a piece of wire or 
wood may be fixed in the corner of the 
box in such a way as to support a cup. 
A holder for a plate can be placed at 
the side. The light-weight enameled 
ware dishes are best to use. Fortunate- 
ly they are not unbeautiful. They us- 
ually come in good shapes and have just 
a little blue band for decoration. If 
there is no place to wash the soiled dish- 
es at the school they can be wrapped in 
the paraffin paper or the paper napkins 
before they are returned to the box or 
basket. 

The best thing that has been written 
on the subject of simple plans for serv- 
ing lunches in schools is Mrs. Ellen H. 
Richards' Good Lunches for Rural 
Schools without a Kitchen. Mrs. Rich- 
ards emphasizes the fact that even if 
arrangements are simple, the serving 
can be done decently and in order. Sh*.? 
suggests that paper plates be used, and 
that they be protected by rounds of 
paraffin paper so that they can be used 
several times. I was skeptical at first, 
for I was sure that the plates would be 
soiled the first day, but I experimented 
and found that I had underestimated the 
toughness of paraffin paper. The hot- 
test liquids, if dropped on it, do not 
"phase" it, as the boys say. A cup of 
hot cocoa or soup can be set upon it 
with no danger that it will become soft- 
An equipment of paper plates, paraffin 



TASTY LUNCHES FOR RURAL SCHOLARS 



paper cups, spoons and a ladle would 
make it possible to serve a hot dish and 
also the food brought from home in boxes 
in quite an orderly manner. The serving 
could be done on a long table, or if this 
were not provided, on the school desks. 
There ought to be a lunch room, of 
course, if possible, but I am assuming 
now that it is out of the question. 

Some of the trade schools in our 
larger cities have led the way in a kind 
of education which, I think, might very 
well be adopted in some of the consoli- 
dated rural schools where there is an op- 
portunity for special teachers, or at 
least a chance to employ one teacher who 
has had some training in domestic 
science. In the Boston Trade School 
for Girls, the pupils are divided 
into groups for their domestic science 
work. Each group has a lesson twice a 
week. This task is to prepare a hot 



dish for lunch to supplement the food 
brought from home by the pupils. Each 
class is divided into three groups. One 
group sets the table, another cooks and 
another washes the dishes. The girls pay 
ten cents a week each for the food mat- 
erials used. In the Manhattan Trade 
School in New York much the same plan 
is followed except that several dishes 
are cooked and the pupils have a choice ; 
they may buy all or part of a meal. 
The advantage of this kind of instruc- 
tion cannot, be overestimated. There 
is the stimulus which the pupils have of 
knowing they are really doing useful 
work and that their work is going to be 
criticized by their fellows. There is the 
opportunity to work with portions of 
food much like those used in homes, and 
with dishes of much the size used in 
ordinary cooking. This may be the final 
solution of the school lunch problem. 



Texas Fever and The Tick 



There are fezv plagues which cannot be fought in 
some way. Texas fever has always been the bane of 
southern farmers. A loophole zvas discovered and people 
took advantage of it. The tick carried the fever, so the 
tick was destroyed. Vermin always carry disease. 



THOSE who know the conditions 
of the cattle trade to the south 
of Canada know that the United 
States has for some years been 
fighting one of the worst diseases 
in the catalogue of animal dis- 
eases. This is the Texas fever. 
For many years it was known a 
disease was carrying off the cattle 
in the southern portion of the United 
States and no one seemed able to stop 
it. It gradually spread to the north 
till it seemed as if the whole of the 
country was to be overrun with it. 
The cattle at the uouth had gradually 
gained a certain amount of immunity 
to the disease and were not as readily 
affected as were cattle from the north. 
When cattle were shipped from . the 



north to the south for the improvement 
of herds, usually about 75 per cent, of 
them died. Worry was the first symp- 
tom of the disease. This was follow- 
ed by gradual loss of flesh, with the 
animal staggering around the field in 
a sort of stupor till death relieved it 
of its pain. 

The first question that confronted 
the United States authorities was to 
find the cause of the disease and how 
it carried from one animal to another. 
It was first recognized and described 
by Dr. J. Pease, Pennsylvania, in the 
case of an outbreak in that state. He 
noted that the outbreak was caused 
by an importation of southern cattle 
and that whenever northern cattle 
were taken to the south they contract- 
in 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



ed the same disease. This was so 
marked that in 1885 the Department 
of Agriculture established what was 
known as an "infested district." 
Speaking of the disease and how it 
was investigated, Samuel M. Evans 
has the following to say in an article 
in Saturday Evening Post: 

In 1888 Professor Babes, of Rumania, 
announced that Texas fever was caused 
by bacteria that he had isolated from 
the blood of an infected cow. The fol- 
lowing year Dr. Theobald Smith, then 
of the Bureau of Animal Industry, now 
of Harvard University, announced that 
as the result of independent investiga- 
tions he had classified the causative 
agent of the disease as protozoa, not 
bacteria— that is, as belonging to the 
lowest forms of animal life instead _ of 
to the lowest forms of vegetable life. 
He named it Pyroplasma bigeminum. 
The cattlemen call it Pyroplasma, bv 
jiminy ! It is a small parasite that 
cannot be seen without the aid of a 
microscope. It lives in the blood of the 
infected animal, inhabiting the red 
bloodcells. It invades anywhere from 
five to fifty per cent, of the red blood- 
cells, breaks them down, liberating: the 
red coloring matter called hemoglobin. 
Finally the spleen becomes greatly con- 
gested with an excess of the red cells ; 
the liver becomes clogged up because 
the blood is too poor to nourish it : 
the temperature of the blood rises rap- 
idly and the animal dies in great pain. 
The little protozoa multiply manv times 
over during- their existence in the blood 
of the animal. A small quantity of 
blood from an infected animal intro- 
duced into the veins of a healthy cow 
will produce the disease and give rise 
to millions of the microscopic, death- 
dealing protozoa in an incredibly short 
space of time. 

As soon as it was found that the 
disease was caused by protozoa, which 
is a low form of animal life, the next 
problem was to find how it was carried 
from one animal to another. It was 
shown that the cattle tick had a great 
deal to do with the spread of the dis- 
ease and Dr. F. L. Kilborne demon- 
strated in i8qo that the disease was 
not contagious but was carried by the 
ticks. After this had been proven, 
experiments were tried to see whether 
or not the northern cattle could be im- 
munized to the disease as the southern 
cattle appeared to be. 

114 



Considerable progress was made along 
this line, but it was eventually dis- 
covered that Southern cattle are never 
really immune from Texas fever in the 
real sense of the word. The native cat- 
tle of the South were found to have 
suffered from the malady early in their 
life and gradually to have begot a sort 
of tolerance for the presence of the 
protozoa in their blood ; but their 
blood did not produce an antitoxin that 
offset the effects of the disease-produc- 
ing protozoa, eventually driving them 
out of the system as does the antitoxin 
that has been discovered for diphtheria 
in man. The protozoa were still pre- 
sent in the cattle and exposure to un- 
usual climatic conditions soon weaken- 
ed the cow's resistance to them, so 
that the disease developed as it did in 
newly infected animals and produced 
death. Moreover, the infected blood was 
carried to healthy cattle by ticks and 
produced the same effect as though the 
first cow had never been rendered im- 
mune. This explained the phenomenon 
of apparently healthy Southern cattle 
communicating the disease to their Nor- 
thern neighbors. 

Having a "dead" line across the 
continent above which no infected cat- 
tle were allowed to pass unless they 
were cleared of ticks, it fell to the lot 
of Cooper Curtice to make a study of 
the life habits of the tick and find, if 
possible, some means of combating it. 
In this he was successful for he found 
that the tick could live for only a short 
time when separated from its host, the 
cow. Each female was found to lay 
fifteen hundred to three thousand eggs 
in the fields. These eggs are not very 
easily destroyed by adverse conditions 
for they will live from late fall till 
early spring before they hatch. On 
the other hand, if the ground is warm 
they will hatch in thirteen days. The 
fact that the tick cannot live unless 
it is attached to the animal provides 
an opening through which the fight 
for their eradication has been kept 
up. In 1906 the Department at 
Washington decided that it was time 
to try and eradicate the disease, in- 
stead of just trying to prevent its 
spread, and in that year Congress ap- 
propriated $82,000 for the work of 
the following year. This sum was 
gradually increased, till last year 
$250,000 was voted. 



TEXAS FEVER AND THE TICK 



The problem of eradicating the ticks 
is comparatively simple. There are two 
things to be tackled, the field and the 
animal. If the fields can be freed of 
ticks none will attach itself to the cat- 
tle, of course ; and if the cattle can be 
freed none will drop off on to the 
ground to give birth to more. The 
fields are freed of ticks in two ways, 
and here the vulnerable spot discovered 
by Curtice is utilized. One method is 
to exclude all animals from the field 
until the little seed ticks shall have 
been starved to death. The other is to 
permit cattle to remain in the fields, 
treating them at proper intervals with 
preparations that destroy the ticks 
and thus prevent any females from 
dropping to the ground to lay eggs. 

Animals are freed from ticks in two 
ways. They are sprayed or dipped in 
oils or other agents that destroy the 
ticks and they are rotated from one 
tick-free pasture to another until all 
the ticks shall have dropped off. The 
Bureau of Animal Industrv has sent 
agents into every part of the infected 
territory and worked out the time that 
it takes the tick to develop in its var- 
ious stages for each region. With these 
data, a system of pasture rotation 
that will free both animals and fields 
of ticks has been worked out for every 
section below the dead line. Various 
sprays and dips for treating cattle have 
also been worked out. The scheme 
seems almost too simple to be true. 

The tick and the disease have caus- 
ed a great loss to the farmers of the 
south. Besides the loss from the dis- 
ease directly, there was the loss from 
the poorer quality of the animals 
which were on hand and which suf- 
fered because they could not shake 
•themselves free from the dread dis- 
ease. It is hard to estimate the loss 
to the country in dollars and cents, 
but Mr. Evans has computed the 
shrinkage at $50,000,000, which seems 
to be a fair estimate. 

The principal stockyards of the Unit- 
ed States, where Southern cattle are 
received, are located at Chicago, Kan- 
sas City, South Omaha, East St. 
Louis and Cincinnati. Last year 1,141,- 
804 cattle from the infected area were 
received at these stockyards, including 
stock, beef, and feeder cattle. None of 
these cattle received the market price 
for beef, the average difference ranging 
from one-quarter to one-half of a cent 
per pound below the market. The av- 
erage difference between the market 



price of cattle and the price paid for 
Southern cattle at these stockyards 
last year was $3.62£ a head. This 
makes a direct loss of over $4,000,000 
to the Southern cattlemen last year be- 
cause of the tick. According to the 
statistics of the Department of Agricul- 
ture there were about 3,502,000 dairy 
cattle below the dead line on January 
1, 1910. The shrinkage in the produc- 
tion of milk caused by the Texas fever 
and the presence of the tick is very con- 
servatively estimated at one quart of 
milk a day. Counting 300 milking days 
in the year for each cow, about 850,000 
of that number are milked daily. At 
three cents a quart for milk, this means 
a loss of $25,500 a day of $7,650,000 a 
year. 

On January 1 there were in the in- 
fected area 13,914,000 cattle of all 
kinds. At the average shrinkage in 
value of $3.62^ a head, reported from 
the stock centres, this means a shrink- 
age in value of over $50,000,000 for the 
cattle that were not sent to market. 

This is the direct loss which has 
been sustained, but there are other 
losses which must be taken into ac- 
count. We have not allowed for the 
cost of maintaining the "dead" line ; 
nor the loss of the cattle which were 
taken to the south for improvement 
purposes ; nor the loss which the 
southern farmer has sustained because 
he cannot get cattle into that country 
for the improvement of his herd; nor 
the loss which has been sustained 
from the stunted growth of the ani- 
mals from the disease. If we count 
in all these we will have a sum over 
$131,500,000. The southern steer has 
remained a scrub, simply because the 
farmers could not get animals in 
there for the improvement of their 
herds. The Texas tick is at the bot- 
tom of it all. Cattlemen are now glad 
that this pest has about seen its last 
in the United States. So near is it 
that the Government is building a 
barb wire fence along the border be- 
tween that country and Mexico. This 
is to keep the tick from coming to 
the north after it has been stamped 
out. The Governments of both the 
United States and Mexico are in earn- 
est over this fence, and the fellow who 
has not sense enough to leave it alone 
will soon find himself behind the 

115 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



"bars," with neither country willing 
to let him out. Some places will not 
need fencing, but : — 

Where the boundary leaves the steep 
canons and runs across the rolling mesa 
great coils of barbed wire will be placed 
at regular intervals aud fenceposts scat- 
tered in a straight line over the plain. 
Last summer this route was carefully 
surveyed by agents of the United States 
Government, and as soon as negotia- 
tions now under way between this coun- 
try and Mexico are completed by the 
State Department the finest barbed- 
wire boundary line in the history of the 
world will be constructed. It will not 
run the entire length of the boundary 
between Mexico and California, because 
most of the line is protected by natural 
barriers of ridge and stream even hard- 
er for man or beast to break through 
than the cruel fence with sharp spears. 
Neither will the fence be continuous, 
but will simply supplement the natural 



barriers so as to make it impossible 
for man or beast to enter that portion 
of the United States from Mexico. 
About forty-eight miles of fence will be 
constructed and it will cost two hun- 
dred and fifty dollars a mile. 

This article shows that the farmer 
can save himself large sums of money 
by keeping all vermin off the place. 
This is easily done by the use of tried 
disinfectants, a liberal supply of which 
should always be on hand. In the 
south the tick is associated with Texas 
fever. Thanks to the United States 
Government, the fever did not reach 
into Canada. Here we may have 
other diseases which are carried by 
the tick and other vermin. There- 
fore, keep the tick off the farms. — 
Editor. 



Household Hints 



FRIED TOMATOES. 

A most excellent way of cooking 
tomatoes will be found in the follow- 
ing recipe : Cut firm, large, ripe to- 
matoes into slices about half an inch 
thick, season well with salt and pepper, 
dredge with flour or roll in egg and 
fine bread crumbs. Fry them brown 
on both sides in butter. 

They are delicious when cooked in 
this way in conjunction with scrambled 
eggs, placing the fried tomatoes first 
of all upon pieces of 'buttered toast in 
the centre of the dish, with a good- 
sized border or the scrambled eggs 
around them. Another way of com- 
bining tomatoes and eggs is to cut a 
small piece from the top of each to- 
mato, taking out sufficient pulp to 
leave a fair-sized hole. Place the to- 
matoes in a pan, season with salt, pep- 
per and a tiny piece of butter; put 
them in the oven to thoroughly heat 
through, but not long enough to lose 
their shape. Drop into the hole previ- 
ously made, an egg, as for poaching, 
and return to the oven, giving the 

116 



egg just time enough to set. Place each 
tomato on a separate square of but- 
tered toast and serve. This makes a 
pretty dish and will be found sueful, 
easy to make, and good for any meal. 

* * * 

SPICED GRAPES. 

Take the pulp from the grapes, pre- 
serving the skins. Boil the pulp and 
rub through a colander to get out the 
seeds. Add the skins to the strained 
pulp and boil with the sugar, vinegar 
and spices. To every seven pounds of 
grapes use four and one-half pounds 
of sugar, and one pint of good vine- 
gar. Spice quite highly, with ground 
cloves and allspice, with a little cinna- 
mon. 

* * * 

Jack— "Yes, I had a little balance in 
the bank, but I became engaged two 
months ago, and now — " Tom — "Ah, 
love makes the world go round!" 
Jack— "Yes; but I didn't think it 
would go round so fast as to cause 
me to lose my 'balance." 




Vernon, the boss, pulled out his 'kerchief. 



The Mammoth Tusk 



A Tale of British Columbia 



By William A. Bryce 



VERNON the boss pulled out his 
'kerchief and his watch as he 
strode along to where St. Elco 
was spraying fruit trees with an enor- 
mous metal syringe. The boss's 
"ticker," as he himself cahed it, was 
the 24-hour timepiece they use out 
west, and he wore it, as most men 
wear watches in the "dry belt" of 
British Columbia, swathed in a hand- 
kerchief to protect it from dust. 

"Fourteen o'clock, St. Elco, my 
tulip!" he cried cheerily. "Belay all 
— that is to say, cease fire! No more 
spraying to-day. The flume's dry as 



a whistle. Must be a leak somewhere 
up yonder in the woods. A murrain 
on't, as Shakespeare says. A hundred 
degrees in the shade, the flume dry, 
and the lake two miles off! And they 
call this a wet season — one downpour 
and two showers in six months. Who 
wouldn't sell a Columbian fruit farm 
and go to sea?" 

"I wouldn't," came in positive tones 
from the young fellow as he laid down 
his syringe and rose to stretch him- 
self. "The sea? Not for me, thanky. 
I had enough coming over. I'd rather 
rest easy under my own or someone 

117 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



else's fig tree — rather study arbori- 
culture and pomology under you, 
boss, if you don't mind." 

Charlie St. Elco was just an ordin- 
ary young Britisher, dressed in the 
garments of the country — grey flannel 
shirt and trousers, cowboy hat, thick 
boots and canvas overalls. A leather 
belt with a pruning knife in a sheath 
proclaimed his avocation. His face 
was not without a touch of the sad- 
ness and sentimentality of the Celt, 
and not improved by the fact that it 
was pitted with tiny red blotches 
where the black fly had bitten him. 

"Chacun a son gout," said the elder 
man with a laugh that showed he was 
not ill-pleased at the answer. "Eh, 
you're six months out, you've sampled 
most of the work of the farm — deuced 
hard work — and you say that? Well, 
well ! You've got sand, St. Elco. 
There's not much you can't do, from 
hoeing carrots to clearing land and 
picking cherries. You're an out and 
out Canook, and that's something 
very different to the Kclvingsighed 
city clerk of six months back — eh, my 
tulip ?" 

The tulip reddened under his tan, 
"I was a bit green then, boss, and 
that's a fact." 

"Well !" laughed the jovial boss, 
"you're full-blown now. You'll soon 
be quite capable of managing your 
own little ten-acre lot, and I shall be 
sorry to lose you. Come along. We'll 
strike for to-day, though we ought 
to be spraying like Trojans. Hang that 
flume ! Must go up the woods and 
put it right, by hook or by crook." 

"By the way," he said a few min- 
utes later, as they went up the wide 
wooden stairway into the ranch, "seen 
any signs of that harum-scarum 
daughter of mine this afternoon? I 
wonder where she's got to?" 

Charlie shook his head. 

Vernon's orchard occupied a wide 
and lovely valley, surrounded by 
ranges of mountains as far as the eye 
could reach — and hundreds of miles 
farther. From the brow of the hill 
one could see the Selkirk Range, ad- 
joining the Rocky Mountains; and all 

118 



around lay a wild and picturesque 
country — a country that will always 
remain wild, defying the taming ad- 
vance of civilization — a country 
shaggy with woods that teem with 
life. 

St. Elco's ten-acre orchard was a 
couple of leagues distant over the 
brow of the "rise." He was working 
hard at Vernon's, trying to earn the 
purchase money, five hundred pounds, 
which he had arranged to pay in in- 
stalments ;' but it was an uphill fight 
for a needy young fellow with no 
capital, and the company who were 
exploiting this part of the fruitful 
"dry belt" threatened to sell the lot 
over his head if he did not pay 
promptly. 

It was tiresome to be so young and 
so poor, and he heartily wished his 
"learning" time was over, so that he 
could start in his own ranch. But as 
things were going he could not hope 
to do this inside a couple of years. 

Thinking of this, Vernon's "learn- 
er" cantered over the ridge that sul- 
try afternoon. He had a few hours 
at his disposal ; the sun was burning 
hot, the woods looked inviting, and a 
distant gleam of the Okanagan Lake 
called him northward like a lure. 

The sturdy young fellow made a 
pleasant picture as he rode under the 
fresh green leaves. The horse shone 
glossy brown where the sun struck its 
flank, and the rider, tricked out in a 
gay red scarf that struck a salient 
note amid the encircling leafage, sat 
gracefully poised in his saddle, sitting 
down, cowboy fashion, but quite up- 
right, and holding the reins loosely 
in the left hand, high up, level with 
the chest. 

There was little or no trail, and the 
horse wound a sinuous way round 
huge fallen trunks, and forced a pass- 
age through tall, thickly-bunched rasp- 
berry canes, its hoofs crashing noisily 
at times over littered branches and 
matted undergrowth, but more often 
falling soundless on carpet-like mast 
or loose, crumbly soil. 

Presently they broke through an 
ancient copse of trees into a clearing 



THE MAMMOTH TUSK 



where a broad rift in the encircling 
woodage gave an outlook upon the 
lofty peaks of the Range. They were 
more than a hundred miles away — 
those mountains — but in the clear air 
they looked nearer than ten, and it 
was a grand sight to see them, swath- 
ed in fleecy scarfs of mist, towering 
up so clearly in the stillness of the 
perfect day. A magnificent scene, 
but— 

"Lonesome," said Vernon's "learn- 
er" with a sigh. 



he wished he were still laboring among 
the cherry trees, with the overpower- 
ing sun scorching the back of his 
neck. Some bitter lines from Locksley 
Hall mingled with his reflections : 

"I . . . must mix with action, lest I 
wither by despair. 

What is that which I should turn to, 
lighting upon days like these ? 

Every door is barr'd with gold, and 
opens but to golden keys." 

"Dash it all— dash it all! I'll go 
and see what's the matter with the 




She had fallen upon a ledge-like outcropping of rock, less than six feet down the cliff. 



Below, in a gorge, the merest trickle 
of water marked the course of what 
had been a month before a dashing, 
frothing stream. 

"Dried up," St. Elco muttered, 
turning in his saddle, "dried up, like 
the flume — dash it." 

He had become obsessed by the 
uneasy, aimless feeling that comes 
over hard-working men who suddenly 
find themselves with nothing to do. 
He took unkindly to idleness. He 
wished the flume had not dried up; 



flume. Must have something to do, 
or I'll go crazy." 

Though barely twenty-five, St. Elco 
had "a past." He had done little 
harm away back there in the old 
country — certainly nothing to be very 
much ashamed of — but he had done 
little good. There were times when 
those sickening spectres — wasted op- 
portunity and abject failure — laid 
chilly fingers on him. 

Thank God that there are countries 
like Canada and British Columbia for 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



men like these, where, if you would 
eat, you must help yourself, fetch your 
rations raw from wood and stream, 
gather your own faggots and light 
your own fire, bustle around and ar- 
range and prepare everything! 

"Come, Robin — mush!" he cried, 
with something like an oath, as he 
swung his horse aside and crashed 
through an ocean of breast-high fern. 

A moment later he pulled up with 
an abruptness that cost him his seat 
and sent him asprawl on the animal's 
neck. 

"The fair Emily's hat, as I'm a 
sinner!" he muttered excitedly as, re- 
covering himself, he reached out his 
riding crop and lifted a large straw- 
brimmer with trimmings of pale blue 
from an overhanging bough. 

He had dismounted, tethered his 
horse, and was standing with the hat 
in his hand, rubbing a red smear on 
his cheek where a branch had smote 
him, when the drumming of ho^fs and 
a clear, musical cry heralded a mount- 
ed figure which, dashing out of a 
wood at the foot of a steep slope on 
the left, came careering along at a 
neck-break pace. It was Vernon's 
daughter, a young girl of about twen- 
ty, hat'ess, her dark hair streaming 
about her, her riding-skirt blown aside, 
and two vivid spots of color on her 
warm-tinted face. 

The young man's eyes grew keen 
and bright as he watched her. ''Emily 
Vernon on the randan! What's the 
young helicat up to now ?" 

The ground to the right fell sheer, 
almost vertically, into a gash in the 
hillside. In that gash, or ravine, the 
flume from Vernon's ranch wound 
along, a great wooden tube, like a 
sinuous snake. The slope to the left, 
where Charlie St. Elco stood, canted 
downwards to where a fringe of un- 
dergrowth marked the edge of the 
ravine, and then, at a less acute angle, 
dropped away to the wood from which 
the girl had emerged. 

Even an Italian cavalryman would 
have hesitated to tackle such a "snell 
brae," but the girl, seeing St. Elco on 
the crest, charged it full pelt, and came 

120 



floundering up, hailing the young fel- 
low with a resounding view^halloo ! 

"By Jove ! why didn't old Vernon 
call her Diana ? Emily, forsooth ! 
She's Diana Vernon to a 't'." 

He watched her with fascinated 
eyes and parted lips. 

Some time in the late fall a fire had 
swept the bluff. It had been the scene 
of a big brulc. There was charcoal 
underfoot, and fine, feathery ashes, 
and near St. Elco rose a monstrous 
blackened trunk, tottering on the brow 
of the slope, quite lifeless and with 
only a few charred stumps for limbs. 

Had Charlie's attention not been 
fixed on Emily Vernon, he would 
never have ventured within such a 
danger zone, for trees like this are 
liable to fall at any moment. But he 
had eyes for one object only — the 
young Diana. 

"Ca' canny there, Miss Vernon!" 
he shouted. "You'll break the knees 
of your nag, sure as a gun !" 

"No fear!" came the cheery re- 
sponse. "Take a lot to break Bobby's 
knees. I say — that my hat you've 
got there?" 

Charlie was about to repeat the 
admonition, when, with a whip-like 
crack and without the least warning, 
the huge blackened trunk at his elbow 
tilted over, hung quivering for a sec- 
ond or two, and, missing him by a 
hair-breadth, crashed like a thunder- 
bolt down the slope. 

"Good God!" 

Gasping, deafened, and half-blinded 
amidst a stifling cloud of dust, it was 
some moments ere St. Elco regained 
his eyesight. When he did so he 
stood for a time as if petrified, gazing 
down the bluff. He had heard a 
shriek, and now looked in vain for the 
girl and her horse. All that could be 
seen was a deep trench ploughed by 
the fallen tree down the hillside, and 
a pearly cloud of dust rising from the 
spot where the blackened trunk had 
dashed over into the ravine. 

Complete silence had followed the 
catastrophe. Charlie stared about him, 
scarcely breathing. Then a groan 
burst from him as he realized the 




Vernon was considerably surprised to see his daughter slung across the front of his " learner's ' 

saddle. 



significance of that deeply-ploughed 
trench. The huge trunk, in hurtling 
down, had dashed into horse and girl 
and swept them into the ravine. 

He raced down the slope. His dis- 
traction was such that he blundered 
through a clump of the horrible devil's- 
club-thorn without feeling in the least 
its venomous stings. The dust stung 
his eyes like caustic; and almost be- 
reft of sight he would have gone 
headlong into the ravine had not some- 
thing gripped him above the left ankle 
on the very verge of the cliff. 

A sharp, spike-like object had 
pierced one leg of his canvas overalls. 
It was yellow and smooth and horn- 
like, and protruded from the clayey 
subsoil in which it was firmly rooted. 
The monstrous charred tree-trunk had 
swept away the clump of brushwood 
and the ton of gravel under which it 
had lain buried for centuries. It held 
him fast, and saved him a fall of 
sixty feet, but it sent him asprawl 
down the face of the declivity, and 
held him suspended, upside down, like 
the immortal Bailie in "Rob Roy." 

The shock racked every nerve in his 



body. Involuntarily he flung out his 
arms to save himself. They embraced 
something warm and yielding, whilst 
in his ear a low voice moaned : 

"Charlie !" 

"Diana!" In his perturbation he 
called her Diana. She had fallen upon 
a ledge-like outcropping of rock less 
than six feet down the cliff. 

The cloud of dust had settled, so 
that he saw her clearly. Her white 
face and affrighted eyes were close 
where he hung. 

"Lift me up, Charlie," she mutter- 
ed feebly. "You said I'd break Bob- 
by's knees, but I've broken my own, 
I'm afraid. . . . Where's Bobby?" 

"Lie still, my dear," he said, bro- 
kenly. Then sternly — "Don't move. 
I'll have you up in a jiffy." 

Rut it took him more than fifteen 
minutes of the most desperate exer- 
tion to raise himself to the cliff-top, 
and quite half an hour to bring up 
the girl. She had swooned twice or 
thrice in the interim, though she was 
quite conscious when he set her down 
on a pile of dust. She had broken a 
leg, but this did not seem to trouble 

121 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



her so much as her little tip-tilted 
Irish nose, which was not broken, but 
which bled profusely. 

"Oh, bother," she said whimsically 
whilst he set her broken limb in a 
rude splint. "It's so unbecoming to 
have one's claret tapped like this. 
Have you a key I could put down my 
back?" Then, with tears in her eyes, 
she repeated: "Where's Bobby?" 

"Oh — er — Bobby's gone home," he 
answered weakly, for he had seen the 
horse lying at the bottom of the ra- 
vine, near the flume, a mangled mass, 
with all the life knocked out of it. 

He felt that he must divert her at- 
tention from that unpleasant subject. 
"D'y know what yon is?" he said 
with his Glasgow accent, pointing to 
the yellow, horn-like object that had 
caught in his overalls and saved him 
from the fate of Bobby. "Looks like 
a huge tooth, doesn't it? I wonder 
what it is !" 

"What a queer thing!" said she; 
"it's like an elephant's tusk. . . ." 
But there was another matter of great- 
er import than all the elephant's tusks 
in the world. "Why did you call me 
Diana down there?" she asked with 
a sidelong look as he lifted and bore 
her off in his strong arms. "I heard 
you." 



Charlie's explanation was slightly 
involved, but he had finished to their 
mutual satisfaction when the boss who 
had come out prospecting for the leak 
in the flume, met them hurrying home 
through the woods. 

Vernon was considerably surprised 
to see his daughter slung across the 
front of his "learner's" saddle, with 
that happy young man's arms round 
her. He was still more surprised when 
Emily, now slightly delirious in addi- 
tion to being dirty and dishevelled, 
greeted him thus: 

"I say, Dad ! my nose is bleeding 

like one o'clock; we've found such a 

queer thing like an elephant's tusk ; 

my right leg's fractured, and I'm 

engaged to Charlie St. Elco!" 
* * * * 

Charlie always said that it was the 
tusk that brought him the luck. It 
turned out to be of value from an 
archaeological point of view. It was the 
canine tooth of a prehistoric monster, 
and he sold it to one of the Canadian 
museums for £260 — not a very large 
sum, but sufficient to pay most of the 
remaining instalments for his ten-acre 
lot and enable him to marry Emily. 

Last time I saw them their first 
child was cutting his first tooth, and 
making as much row as if it were a 
second Mammoth Tusk. \ 




122 



Does the East Need 
Reclaiming ? 



THE whole question of irriga- 
tion resolve; - itself into one of 
science. The scientific methods 
which irrigation necessitates, will 
likely prove of more importance 
than the soucre of the water. Would 
the methods adopted in the West 
bring fabulous crop returns if ap- 
plied in the East? It is to show 
that great results would be had 
if these methods were applied in the 
East that Agnes C. Laut has de- 
scribed western fruit cultural meth- 
ods in the American Review of Re- 
views. Miss Laut has traveled much 
in the West, studying life on the farm, 
and is trying to depict the bright side 
of life in the West. In the eastern 
portion of the continent frost has 
many times spoiled the fruit yields, 
but how many of them have tried to 
ward off frosts by the use of coal or 
oil stoves? Many orchards are 
carpeted with grass and bordered 
with brush-heaps, yet these are the 
sure harbingers of insect pests. Dis- 
ease often enters the tree through 
some wound, caused by breaking 
limbs, etc., yet no precaution is taken 
by waxing over these wounds. For 
years the easterner has been crying 
against the middlemen while the 
western unions have been paying 
$5,000 salaries to market agents, who 
have been making money for the fruit 
growers. 

"Is it the fruit, or the soil, or the sun- 
light, or the water or what?" I asked .1 
prominent fruit grower of Grand Valley, 
Colorado, who last year cleared, — net 
profit, — $7,500 from a ten-acre plot of 
apples. He had just told me that aver- 
age returns, not exceptional returns, for 
apples in that valley should be put near- 



er $300 an acre than $1,000; and here 
he was with gross returns himself of 
nearly $1,000; and net returns for ten 
acres of $7,500. These figures, — I may 
add, — I got from the fruit growers' ship- 
ping association and not from himself. 

"Why, I should say it's soil, sunlight, 
altitude, water, and all," he answered, 
"but most of all it's our new methods. 
You see, where your running expenses 
for water alone average all the way 
from $3 to $15 an acre, — you've got to 
make good! It's Pike's Peak or bust! 
There isn 't room for any leakage ! You 
have to manage your farm the way an 
expert manages a railway. — right on the 
nail, down to the very last farthing! In 
the case of the railway, damage suits 
for carelessness fall on the shareholders. 
In the case of irrigation they fall on the 
farmer. Why, let me tell you about this 
orchard! You see I have twenty acres, 
but my returns came from only ten. 
"When I bought this place I was a com- 
mercial traveler. The orchard had been 
set out by a retired clergyman and it was 
just coming on to bear, — some twelve 
years old. It had been set out pretty 
well as you see, — not a single experi- 
mental tree, — every one a tested variety 
and good producer. I think it a lot safer 
for the newcomer to buy an orchard 
coming on to bear if he can afford it. 
If a company sets out your trees and 
cares for them, it may be all right; or it 
may be all wrong. They may not be the 
right varieties; or they may not pollenize 
properly; or they may not be cared for 
while they are growing to keep them free 
of disease. I don't like these orchards 
with grass under them. It harbors too 
many bugs; and I don't like trees that 
have been grown too high and gone all 
to branch. Your fruit will be bruised 
in the picking; and high trees are more 
expensive to spray " 

"Do you spray often?" I was think- 
in jr of a fruit country in the East, where 

123 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



I happen to live, though I am a Western- 
er. I know only one orchardist who 
sprays at all in that county; and he is an 
outsider; and he sprays only once a 
year. 

"Spray often?" The Colorado man 
burst out laughing. '"1 keep two men at 
$60 a month each spraying all summer. 
We don't wait till the bugs come. We 
spray, spray, spray all the time and keep 
'em from ever coming! I don't think 
I'm exaggerating when I tell you we 
spray constantly from the time we take 
the extra hands on after the blossoming 
till the fruit begins to ripen; and that 
is the smallest part of our labor. You 
see on this whole twenty acres there is 
not one single blade of grass growing 
the size of a pin. It takes work to keep 
that down with constant supply of mois- 
ture from the ditch. The idea is to 
keep the soil soft as dust, a dust blank- 
et to hold the moisture. Besides I think, 
■ — and a good many fruit growers think 
with me, — that a lot of bitter weeds 
growing below trees taints the flavor of 
the more delicate fruits. Anyway, all 
that undergrowth takes away strength 
that should go into the tree." 

Not a pound of fertilizer is used in 
the Colorado orchards. The greatest 
danger is from frost. With no pre- 
caution, the fruit grower is caught 
about every fourth year. It was to 
save this fourth crop that experiments 
were undertaken to find some means 
of keeping the blossoms from being 
spoiled. 

Some of us got together and began to 
try cheap wrinkles with small coal oil 
and coal burners." (He did not tell me 
that he, himself, had been the chief in- 
ventor.) "We found to keep the tem- 
perature above the freezing point those 
coldest spring nights, it would take from 
thirty to forty small coal-oil burners per 
acre at a cost of about $26. We like the 
coal-oil burners best, because when you 
get them going they take less hand labor; 
and hand labor is a big consideration out 
here. We get the United States Weather 
Bureau reports at Grand Junction; and 
when the thermometer begins to drop 
during blossom time warning is tele- 
phoned out to every orchard man in 
Grand Valley. Last spring the towns- 
people came out in wagon loads, volun- 
teer helpers to keep the coal-oil burners 

124 



going and beat out the frost; and we did 
licit out the frost. The Board of Trade 
gathered the volunteer helpers up and 
sent them out to us. As a type of what 
the burners did for us, — you see how my 
orchard is laid out, ten acres on each 
side of the entrance drive, — well, I had- 
n 't sufficient burners and workers to 
cover both fields; so instead of scatter- 
ing our efforts and risking a half failure, 
we put all our efforts on the left-hand 
side. Results? Net $7,500 from the 
saved field. The other half didn't pay 
the cost of labor. 

It is the fruit associations that bring 
the money in after the growing has 
been done. Every fruit grower pays 
his fee to join the association. Each 
society has its cold storages and in- 
spectors ; they also have their own 
agents in the different large markets 
of the world, who daily keep them in 
touch, by wire, with prices. 

We don't pay these fellows paltry 
commissions. They are from among our- 
selves, and we give them as high as 
$5,000 a year. We have a man in Ger- 
many and France looking over the mar- 
kets and methods there. Our associa- 
tion supplies the boxes and paper for 
packing and sees that everything goes 
out uniform and graded. At the station 
warehouses here, every apple, every 
peach, is examined as it is packed; and 
not a cull is allowed to pass. Apples 
flawed in the skin, bruised, specked, ail 
are rejected and sent back to the ship- 
per. What is the result? Our apples go 
right on the market in New York and 
London and Paris and command exactly 
as much for our small boxes, — one-fourth 
of a barrel, — as you pay for a barrel of 
other apples. They command that price 
because they are perfect in appearance 
and will keep. You pay in New York 
from $2 to $2.50 a box for our apples; 
and you can get a barrel of your Eastern 
apples for $1.75 to $2.50; but by the time 
you have used two layers off the top of 
that barrel the size begins to diminish, 
and the apples in the bottom have begun 
to rot before you reach them. Oh, yes, 
I know your Nova Scotia and Niagara 
and Michigan man boasts he can beat 
us out as to flavor; but we can beat him 
right off his own market at his own 
game, while we are 2,000 miles away. 



DOES THE EAST NEED RECLAIMING? 



And who can say that the Colorado 
man is not speaking the truth ? Why 
do the Colorado and Oregon and Wash- 
ington and California and Utah fruit 
lands sell at from $500 to $1,000 an acre, 
when the fruit lands of Niagara and 
Michigan and Nova Scotia sell at from 
$100 to $200? "Boom" and "boost" 
may have something to do with it; but 
"boom" and "boost" are not all. The 
rock bottom basis of values is interest 
on investment; and your man who gets 
$7,500 from an investment of $12,000 has 
a right to a feeling of confidence in the 
methods used. 

After showing- that the sugar beet 
growers, the citrus fruit growers, the 
potato and onion farmers could all 
tell the same story, Miss Laut shows 
that there are poor farms in the West. 
Some men, believing that if a little 
is good more will be better, used the 
irrigation channels too often and 
spoiled the crops. The growih all 
went to size and the frost caught him 
before the fruit ripened. 

At another time we were driving along 
the high line ditch of a Government 
canal. Back and above the ditch lay 
thousands of acres of high mesas, sage- 
brush plateaus, rich in silt but destitute 
of water. "That," said the engineer, 
pointing with his whip, "is where the 
' wild-catters ' operate. That land is be- 
ing sold to Eastern tenderfeet as irrigat- 



ed land at irrigated prices. You would 
think people should realize that water 
will not run up hill. Buyers could save 
themselves that loss if they wrote for in- 
formation to the Government engineers 
as to whether the land is above or below 
ditch line." 

What are the lessons of irrigation 
farming to the East? It is eleven years 
since I left the West to reside perma- 
nently in the East ; and in those eleven 
years there have been at least four years 
when drought seriously affected farm 
values in the East. Yet the East has 
never thought of irrigation except for 
truck-gardens and green-houses. The 
East has plowed along in the same old 
furow it was plowing in 1700. To con- 
struct water reservoirs for the East 
would be a joke compared to what is be- 
ing done in the West; for water is al- 
ways plentiful at some time of the year 
in the East ; and the contour of hills 
lends to natural reservoirs. Even with- 
out irrigation storage one is constrained 
to ask, what would be the result if the 
East, right at the door of its markets, 
adopted the irrigation farmers' methods. 
Long ago the East gave of its 
manhood and its means for tiie 
winning of the West. The day 
may not be at hand when the West, 
youthful and buoyant and perhaps even 
bumptious, will bring back some return 
for that old obligation to the East. The 
West has been reclaimed. Isn't it time 
for somebody to launch the evangel of 
reclaiming the East? 




135 



Home Helps for Health 



By Marjory MacMurchy 



That the farm home gives cxery chance to provide 
ideal sanitation is disputed by none. Many people are 
not fully aware of the extent which pure water, drainage 
and ventilation play in the preservation of health. Miss 
MacMurchy has made a special study of home sanitation 
and in this article tries to set forth the true importance of 
these different branches of zvork in the farm horn? 



THE Canadian farmer's wife has 
not realized yet that she is 
one of the most important and 
interesting figures in the Canadian 
nation. Her problems and the way 
in which she settles them affect 
largely the future of the farm- 
ing community and in Canada the 
farm is the heart of national in- 
dustry. Women in the city have 
many of their house problems set- 
tled by the city authorities. The 
farmer's wife has the opportunity 
to settle most of these problems her- 
self. In attending to the sanitation 
of the farmhouse her vigilance is 
often the best safeguard against 
danger in the three ways by which 
danger to health most frequently 
comes. These three ways are water 
sources, drainage, and ventilation. 
Add to these, food, personal cleanli- 
ness, house cleanliness and house 
warming and it will be readily under- 
stood why the farmer's wife is the 
guardian of the health of the house- 
hold. She is the person who hears 
and obeys the Command of Health. 
The water source on a farm is 
commonly a spring. No sweeter 
water in the world can be tasted than 
that which comes from a farm spring. 
Sweet and cool and plentiful, the 
recollection of spring water from a 

126 ♦" 



well on an old farm brings longing 
to many a thirsty lip which has long 
learned to drink water taken from a 
tap as arranged by the authorities of 
some populous city. The practical 
common sens;e of the farmer's wife 
leads her to know that the well should 
be on high ground or banked up so 
that surface water may not drain into 
it. Too much care cannot be taken 
to protect the water of the well from 
contamination. It must be covered 
so that nothing can fall into it. It 
should be impossible for moisture to 
drip into it from above. The well 
must be a reasonable distance from 
farm outbuildings. Heaps of manure 
and outhouses must not be in the 
neighborhood of the well from which 
drinking water and water for the 
work of the house is taken. No 
farmer's wife is a good housemistress 
who does not know about the water 
sources of her house. She must 
watch to see that the proper condi- 
tions are kept up. 

Should the farmer and his wife 
have a feeling that the water supply 
is not all that it ought to be let them 
write to the nearest government 
agricultural station, either Dominion 
or Provincial, and ask for advice as 
to the purity of the water supply of 
the farm. Explain the situation in a 



HOME HELPS FOR HEALTH 



letter. If it is thought advisable send 
a sample of the well water for analy- 
sis. The Provincial Board's of Health 
are constantly making analysis of 
drinking water. This is part of the 
reason for their existence. To make 
use of these government aids to 
health is part of the privilege of 
Canadian citizenship. Should the 
farmer's wife be doubtful of the pur- 
ity of the drinking water for immedi- 
ate use, the following is a simple, in- 
expensive and efficient method of 
making impure water safe and fit for 
drinking. The method has been thor- 
oughly tested and perfected by two 
doctors in the Ontario Provincial 
laboratory. 

TO PURIFY WATER. 

Take a teaspoonful of pure chloride 
of lime, smoothing off the surface of 
the spoon with some flat object, so 
that too much of the 'chemical is not 
used. Dissolve this in a teacupful of 
water, and add to this three more cup- 
fuls of water. A teaspoon of the re- 
sultant solution added to a two-gal- 
lon pail of water and allowed to stand 
for ten minutes, will give a propor- 
tion of .4 to .5 parts of free chlorine 
to a million parts of water, sufficient 
to purify the latter from every trace 
of harmful bacteria. There is no 
taste or odor to this sterilized water, 
and the free chlorine in itself harm- 
less soon disappears. 

CONVENIENCE MEANS PURITY. 

I wonder how many million pails 
of water have been carried from the 
well to the farmhouse by the mothers 
and daughters of Canadian farms. 
This labor is one of the difficulties to 
be considered when a safe, clean, high 
place is being selected for the digging 
of the well. Two farm boys not long 
ago gave most of their spare time for 
a year to piping the water from a 
spring far away from the farmhouse 
to the house and to the barn. Their 
mother now has good running water 
in her kitchen and the boys have good 
running water in the farm buildings 
for the stock. Hundreds of other 
boys and men have done the same 
■Hill.!! ! I -III i ! 1 



thing, and thousands of others can do 
it now if they give the question a 
little thought and a little labor. The 
Canadian farmhouse should have wa- 
te ; laid on in the house. Many Cana- 
dian farmhouses have water laid on 
now, judging by the windmills that are 
turning in every province from Prince 
Edward Island to British Columbia. 
A large number of engines are speci- 
ally manufactured to pump water into 
country houses and are used exclu- 
sively, especially in the United States. 

More than in the case of the water 
supply, the question of drainage is 
left to the men of the farm. But the 
mistress of the farmhouse has had to 
make up her mind to say in some in- 
stances that she will not any longer 
throw her dish water out of doors. A 
sink with a drain must be contrived 
to carry it away from the house. For 
part of the year, some housemistresses 
w'ho love gardens say that there is 
nothing better for flowers than soap 
suds from clothes. One lady with a 
garden is of the opinion that a cer- 
tain plant thrives best if watered with 
water in which potatoes have been 
boiled. Other plants should have the 
water used for boiling meat and so 
on. Many items of information be- 
long to the woman who manages a 
farmhouse. One of them is that 
drains will always bear watching. If 
water is laid on in the house, more 
drains are needed and greater care. 
Although the men of the farm gen- 
erally understand drains best, knowl- 
edge of where the drains are and of 
how they ought to be placed never 
comes amiss to a woman on a farm. 
The man who wrote "The Servant in 
the House" glorified the drain-digger. 

PURE AIR A NECESSITY OF LIFE. 

Ventilation and the warming of a 
house have a close connection, in the 
minds, at least, of those who put fuel 
in stoves or furnaces. There can be 
no doubt that the man who stokes a 
furnace often has an objection to open 
windows. The janitor of a large 
school complained once to the prin- 

127 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



cipal that since the windows were openS|| 
he could not be expected to warm allff 
out-of-doors. With young children,! # 
old people, or invalids in a house the 
temperature needs to be kept higher 
than otherwise would be necessary. 
But proper clothing, proper food, and 
proper bathing, enable the rest of an 
average household to do with less heat 
in the house and be the better for it. 
A reasonable amount of heat in a 
Canadian winter is always necessary. 
Open fires help to secure good ven- 
tilation. If a house is not well ven- 
tilated, it means dull wits and a slug- 
gish physical condition for the peo- 
ple living in the house. A hurricane 
blowing through a house is not to be 
desired on a cold day, or, indeed, at 
any time, except for a few minutes to 
clear the atmosphere of the whole 
house. Proper ventilation is a differ- 
ent matter. No house in which all the 
windows are shut for hours at a time 
can be well ventilated. Fresh air is 
never to be feared. Take means to 
keep the circulation of the body ac- 
tive and have plenty of fresh air. 
Good water, fresh air, and sunlight 
are the most powerful agents known 
in the prevention of disease. It is pos- 
sible to arrange a piece of board at 
the bottom of a window in such a way 
that no draught is felt in the room. 
In the treatment of some of the most 
fatal diseases the patient is kept in 
the open air night and day. Well 
people may be strong enough to do 
with less fresh air. But it is always 
an extravagant waste of health to stint 
well people in their air supply. If the 
farm household does not understand 
the value of proper ventilation, then 
it is the woman of the house who with 
due caution and gentleness must see 
that windows open an inch or two in 
winter and much wider in summer, 
will bring a sense of comfort, well- 
being and greater physical health to 
the inmates under her care. 

It is possible that the woman of the 
farmhouse would rather have all the 



windows of the house closed to keep 
out the dust. Dust seems to be one 
of the unavoidable accompaniments of 
life, which we would all banish if we 
could. The woman on the farm can 
always reflect, however, how much 
better off she is in this respect than 
the woman in the city. Country wash- 
ing never reaches the same stage of 
blackness as city washing. It is a 
question of dust. Dry sweeping and 
dry dusting are two of the mistakes 
of housekeeping. They should be 
superseded by the sprinkled floor and 
the damp duster. These means help 
to keep down dust. The law of the 
household which follows the Com- 
mandment of Health, brings, as well, a 
reformation in the planning of meals. 
It teaches what foods ought to be 
combined to make a nourishing meal, 
and it inculcates right ways of cook- 
ing food. A nurse in a hospital not 
long ago was stopped by a superior 
authority as she was about to carry 
to one of her patients an attractive- 
looking tray of food. "Do you real- 
ize," the authority asked the nurse, 
"that the only nourishment the patient 
will get from that pretty tray of yours 
is in the bread and butter?" The 
nurse looked startled. But the ques 
tion had brought her to her senses. 
The food was prepared well, but it had 
not been well-chosen. It is possible 
even to have good food, cooked in 
such a way that the people at the table 
will get little nourishment from it. To 
be healthy everyone needs a proper 
amount of well-chosen, well-cooked 
food. Besides personal care of the 
body, which needs a whole article to 
itself, there is nothing which adds to 
the health and happiness of a house- 
hold as much as goodness and refined 
ways of living. For refinement is 
goodness in little things. It gives to 
the spirit the same buoyancy and hap- 
piness that sunlight and fresh air be- 
stow on the body. 



128 



FARMER'S— ADVERTISING SECTION 




y 




Some of the characteristics which have won popularity for the 

are : Its beautiful singing tone 
Its evenness of scale 
Its responsiveness of action 
Its beauty of design and its 
capacity to withstand hard 
usage without becoming "tinny. " 

GOURLAY PIANOS are all of one quality— the 
very best. If we took a commission to make a 
single piano for $1,000.00, it could be of no better 
material or workmanship than we regularly use in any one 
of our simpler, more moderately priced styles. We could 
spend more money on ornamentation, but nothing to 
improve quality. 

May we send you Booklet No. 6, which 
tells where 2,500 Gourlay 'Pianos are used ? 

Gourlay, mimer $ Cecnting 

l68YongeStreet : : : TORONTO 



U 



m* 



y j v; . y. ! M{f i ,v. . : : y.yf. - .y/W^ 






W£X^ 



n.'y.-.'-i-'.'.iv.v.tii;-;-.'. 



tit;-:t.-.': i : 



i?o 



FARMER'S— ADVERTISING SECTION 







^i 






1 


For over fifty years 


among the few foremost 


artistic pianos of Americ 


a, 



The 

Hairier Bror 

Piano 

is now manufactured in 

Canada, and sold in 

Toronto at 

New York 

Prices. 



SPEC I A L 

We offer during the month of 
October, a genuine Haines Bros. 
upright piano, of beautiful design, 
as low as $400. Write to-day for 
details and attractive terms. Local 
representatives wanted every- 
where ; a profitable proposition 
to a live salesman. 

THE FOSTER-ARMSTRONG CO., Ltd. 

PIANO MANUFACTURERS 

4 Queen East, -:- Toronto 

or 

WINNIPEG PIANO CO. 

Manitoba Ball, 293 Porlarfe Ave. • Winnipeg Mao. 



Local 
Representatives 



for 



farmer's 
SHagasinc 



Farmer's Magazine is a 
necessity in every farm 
home. 

Its articles are of such 
intense interest that no 
farm home can afford 
to be without it. 

We want live, am- 
bitious representatives 
in every locality, men 
and women who are 
desirous of earning 
$100 a month. Our 
proposition is one 
which will enable the 
right man to make that 
amount or more. 

Take advantage of this 
opportunity and write 
us at L once for partic- 
ulars. 



Farmer's Magazine 

143-149 University Ave., Toronto, Ont. 



The advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement— tell him. 



FARMER'S— ADVERTISING SECTION 



I3 1 



DOES A WASHING 
JUST LIKE PLAY! 

SIX MINUTES TO WASH A TUBFUL! 



Ladies, just see how easy I do a big washing with my 1900 
Gravity Washer. I sfarf the tub a-whirling. Then the gravity de- 
vice under the tub begins to help and the rest is just like play. 
Washes a tubful in six minutes! How's that for quick and easy 
work ? The 1900 Washer Co. sent me this marvellous machine on 
trial. They didn't ask for notes or cash in advance. And they let 
me pay for it a little each week out of the money it saved.me! They 
treat everybody the same way. 

You can have one shipped FREE 

on thirty days' trial, the same as I got mine. The company will let 
you pay for it on the same easy terms they offered me. The Washer 
will actually pay for itself in a very short time. Mine did! I 
wouldn't take $100 cash for my 1900 Gravity Washer if I couldn't 
get another just like it. It does beautiful work handles anything 
from heavy blankets to daintiest laces. Every housewife who is 
tired of being a drudge and a slave to the washtub should write to 

F. M. E. BACH, Manager, The "1900" Washer Co. 
357 YONGE ST.. TORONTO, CANADA*! 

for their beautiful WasherlBook and generous offer of a Washer 
on free trial. -Mrs. R. H. FREDERICK. 

This offer is not good in Toronto. Montreal. Winnipeg or Van- 
couver and Suburbs, as we have branch offices in these places. 
Special trial arrangements are made in these districts. 2761 




You Buy Stove Comfort and Economy 

when you install a 

"NEW EMPRESS" 

STEEL RANGE 

By a rigid system of test and inspection at 
every stage of its manufacture, and by the 
employment of the highest skilled labour 
and first quality materials, the " NEW 
EMPRESS " has earned a reputation for 
continuous good service unequalled by any 
range on the market. It is. moreover, very 
handsome in appearance, and can be sup- 
plied with or without reservoir. If your 
retailer doesn't stock the "New Empress," 
write us direct for catalogue "N" and full 
details. 

We also make Sovereign Ranges, Scales, "Capital" 
Cream Separators, Fanning Mills, etc. 

The NATIONAL MANUFACTURING CO., Limited, Ottawa, Ont. 

BROCKVILLE - BARRIE - EDMONTON - REGINA - MONCTON 




FARMER'S— ADVERTISING SECTION 



A SQUARE DEAL 

As publishers we are determined 
that our readers shall always be given 
a square deal by our advertisers. 

We therefore have refused to 
accept, and always shall, every adver- 
tisement which upon investigation 
we find cannot justify our thorough 
recommendation. 



It is only fair, in return, that our 
readers should remember that 

/. Our advertisers pay us for giving yon, for $2 
a year or less, a magazine costing S6 to produce. 

2. Our advertisers pay this money so that they 
may TALK BUSINESS with you personally. 

3. Our readers should therefore seek to PROFIT 
BY READING EVERY ADVERTISEMENT 

sometime during the month. 



WINDSOR dM ry SALT 




The wise house- 
wife knows the 
importance of 
always keeping a 
good supply of 
Windsor Dairy 
Salt on hand. 

She knows that 
Windsor Salt 
makes the best 

butter — and she is not satisfied to make 

any other. 

Windsor Dairy Salt is both a money- 
maker and a money-saver. 

It makes money for farmers and dairy- 
men because it makes butter that brings 
the best prices. 

It saves money for them because, being 
absolutely pure, it requires less to properly 
salt the butter. 39 



Reading advertisements is profitable to you. 



FARMER'S— ADVERTISING SECTK ).\ 

A Jolt from Australia. 



l 35 



is a good thing — but we can learn many home truths from our own master fruit-growers. 
Come to the 

Ontario Fruit Growers' Association 

CONVENTION 

(ST. LAWRENCE ARENA, TORONTO, NOV. 16 and 17, 1910) 

and hear Mr. B. J. Case, one of the most successful fruit-growers in New York State. Mr. 
Case has 165 acres of fruit under cultivation, employs a gasoline tractor for orchard culti- 
vation, and used 330,000 paper bags to pack one crop of grapes. 5000 people flocked to the 
Summer Meeting at his home at Sodus last year to inspect the orchards and study his 
methods. He will talk on 

"ORCHARD MANAGEMENT FOR PROFIT" 

a theme interesting to every fruit-grower, and as his is the tale of a man who has 'made 
good' in the biggest sense, his talk should not be missed by any fruit-grower. Other good 
men will speak. 



APPLE SHOW 

Nov. 15 to 19 



Full particulars from 

P. W. HODGETTS, Secretary 

ONTARIO FRUIT GROWERS' ASSOCIATION, TORONTO 



SINGLE FARE 

RETURN 
ON ALL RAILROADS 




Do you want a good wire fence? 

If you are a thorough going man — a man who insists upon getting the very 
best value for your money — there is only one fence that will suit you — the 
SELKIRK STIFF STAY FENCE. It is the one fence that will keep its good 
appearance and perfect shape in spite of the hardest usage from animals or the 
elements. You can adapt it to every requirement. It is easy to erect, consisting 

of lateral wires and stiff straight stays joined together with a lock that holds tight even when direct 
pressure of more than half a ton is brought upon it. How would you like to 

make some cash profits in return for a little pleasant work 

done in your spare time? We want a good agent in your locality — a man who can interest his 
neighbors in Selkirk Fencing. You can do this, and by doing it you can make a splendid profit 
without spending much time or effort. This proposition is worth immediate investigation — investi- 
gation costs nothing. Fill in the coupon and mail it to-day. 




Selkirk Fence Co., 

HAMILTON, ONTARIO 



..&»!> 



The 



Manufacturers of 
Selkirk Woven Wire Fence 
elki rk Lawn Fencing 
Selkirk Poultry Fencing 
Selkirk Ornamen 
tal Farm 



<K, 



Selkirk 
Fence Co., 
Hamilton, Ontario 



Gates 



s,tf^^ Gentlemen: — I wish to examine 
ty*r f or myself the merits of your fences. 
Send me a free sample piece with de- 
criptive matter and agent's terms. 



Name- 



P O. 



• Prov 



! U 




l-'ARMER'S— ADVERTISING SECTION 

LET THIS 
CARRIER 

Work For You 




YOU DO KNOW that Stable work in winter 
is hard work, whether by fork, barrow or sled, and 
you must have envied the man who had a mechanical 
carrier to do this work for him. 

You'll admit, then, that a Litter Carrier is a 
good thing, and naturally you want the best ! 

Why not install THE BEST— the 

Beath Feed and Litter Carrier? 

Two Styles To Choose From-— They're Both Leaders. 

Not only are Beath Carriers the easiest to 
handle, but they are very durable, all parts subject 
to strain being made of malleable iron and steel, 
carefully machined and fitted. 

The load is raised by means of an endless chain 
or crank windlass, as illustrated. Capacity of Galvaniz- 
ed Steel Box is 16 cubic feet. 

Present prices of Beath Carriers are very 
moderate, and every carrier has an unqualified 
guarantee. 



W rite to-day for Catalogue "B" and Prices. 

W. D. Beath & Son, Ltd. 



LIVE 

AGENTS 

WANTED 



TORONTO, 

CANADA 



The advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement — tell him. 



FARMER'S— ADVERTISING SECTION 



135 



fSrEsaaBsB ~ f?=^-= — f?~~^ 




Here's a fence that is strong 
and springy — remains taut 
and will not rust— 

PCCrlCSS the Fence that saves expense 



Put a Peerless fence around your 
farm and you'll get real service. 

It will last through years of the 
hardest kind of use. 

It will not rust— and rust is the 
greatest enemy of wire fencing. 

It will not sag — when struck by 
a wagon or unruly animal it springs 
right back into position. 

Our No. 9 Peerless fence is made 
of heavy English galvanized wire — 
all No. 9 gauge. 

We tested all kinds of wire and 
found this English wire the best of 
all. No other wire we have tested 



is drawn and galvanized with such 
care and thoroughness. 

For this reason Peerless Fence 
will not rust — the spelter never 
chips off. The fence will last 
for years. 

You can test and know how good 
any fence is before you buy it. 
Write for our simple formula for 
testing wire. We'll also send 
samples of Peerless Fence to test. 

We know there is no fence made 
that will last as long and give you 
as much satisfaction as the Peer- 
less Fence. Write to-day for our 
simple test and samples. 



THE BANWELL HOXIE WIRE FENCE CO., Limited 

Makers ol Farm, Poultry and Ornamental Fence and Gates 

Dept, L, Hamilton, On!., Winnipeg, Man. 



The advertiser would like to know where you saw his advertisement — tell him. 



FARMER'S— ADVERTISING SECTION 




Our 160-Page Book on Concrete 
Is Yours for the Asking- 




IN order to make known to those who most need to know the uses of Con- 
crete, we've prepared a wonderfully complete book for the special benefit of the 
Farmer. It's interesting, full of handsome illustra- 
tions and useful hints. Ordinarily sold at 50 cents a copy, 
these books — a limited supply of them— are being sent by 
us free to any Farmer who will take the trouble to write 
us to ask for one. 



The book is called "What the Farmer Can Do With 
Concrete," and it tells, among other things, how to construct 
with Concrete such farm buildings and farm utilities as: — 



Barns 


Feeding Floors 


Root Cellars 


Steps 


Cisterns 


Gutters 


Silos 


Tanks 


Dairies 


Hitching Posts 


Shelter Walls 


Troughs 


Dipping Tanks 


Horse Blocks 


Stables 


Walks 


Foundations 


Hens' Nests 


Stairs 


Well Curb. 


Fence Posts 


Houses 


Stalls 


etc., etc., etc. 



D WHAT THE ° 

FAR.M E,R 

v CAN DO WITH— n 

CONCRETE 

D aJ=, ^a 




The Canada Cement 



BANQUE NATIONALE BUILDING 



FARMER'S— ADVERTISING SECTION' 



137 



Improve Your Farm 

By The Use of Concrete 



DID you ever stop to think of the many things you can accom- 
plish with Concrete — and at slight cost? 
Have you a notion how very useful this modern building ma- 
terial is to the Farmer who understands it? 

Do you realize that practically every farm utility 
can be made of Concrete — IS, in fact, BEST 
MADE OF CONCRETE? 

Best, because concrete is inexpen- 
sive, easy to manipulate, and be- 
cause articles or buildings of 
Concrete are most dur- 
able, the most cleanly, 
the most sanitary, 




the most artistic 

— and they 

are abso- 

1 u t e 1 y 

fi r e- 

proof. 



COMPANY, LIMITED 



MONTREAL, CANADA 



i3» 



FARMER'S— ADVERTISING SECTft >N 



He Kicked the Bucket 

He Wasn't Mad Just Tickled to Death 




BECAUSE 



He installed a little wrinkle that saved time 
and labor in watering stock by hand. 



Here 
Ills 



WOODWAR 

WATERING -' a 
1 -PAT'D M AR. 19 , 1691. 



jQNTWIND ENGINEiPUMPq. 




Our Woodward Watering Basins not 

only save time and labor, but they in- 
crease flow of milk at once. That means 
greater profits The little valve in each 
basin prevents water flowing from one 
basin to another — so no spreading of 
disease through water. 



87% OF MILK IS WATER. SEE IMPORTANCE OF SMALL 
CONTINUAL SUPPLY OF WATER ? OUR BASINS GIVE IT. 

Ask us— we will tell you all about it 

ONTARIO WIND ENGINE & PUMP CO., LIMITED 

Winnipeg - TORONTO - Calgary 



The advertiser would like to know where jou saw h : s advertisement — tell him. 



FARMER'S— ADVERTISING SECTION 



139 



We Will Pay For 

your attendance at any 
Canadian Agricultural 
College. Possibly you 
would rather take a Cor- 
respondence course in 
some other subject ? You 
can not afford to neglect 

Your Education 



Whichever course you 
would like to take, let us 
know. We are here to 
help the farmer and his 
family. Learn how to 
obtain a FREE education 
by writing 

FARMERS MAGAZINE 

143 University Ave. Toronto, Ont. 



Why you should use 

BITTER-LICK 

Because— It is cheap. 

(That fatten* your pocket book.) 

Because— It is not a food. 

(You raise that yourself.) 

Because — It is a conditioner. 

(Good condition adds dollars.) 

Because — It is a grand tonic. 

(Your stock may need just this.) 

Because— It aids digestion. 

(That means less waste.) 

Because — It is a worm destroyer. 

'There is no money in worms) 

Because — It is cheaper than stock foods, 
Condition or Worm Powders. 

(Its cost does not exceed ONE CENT 
A WEEK per head for horses or 
cattle, and ONE > ENT A MONTH 
for a sheep or a goat.) 

Because — It insures your stock against 
disease. 

(Can you find any cheaper insur- 
ance ?) 

Wm. Cooper & Nephews 

TORONTO 




that will make your hens lay in sea- 
son and out. Give Pratts Poultry 
Regulator every day. It will put 
your hens in fine shape and they'll 
lay all winter long when eggs are 
scarce and high — when busy hens 
show dollars and dollars of profit. 

pratts, 

Poultry Regulator 

means that your hens will be real 
money makers instead of just paying 
for their feed. 

Make a test this season : Give Pratts 
Poultry Regulator to a part of your fowls and 
compare their profits with that on the rest of 
the flock. Do this at our risk, for Pratts 
Poultry regulator is 

Guaranteed 
or Money Back 

Your dealer will promptly refund full pur- 
chase price if you are not more than satisfied. 

Let Pratts Poultry Regulator make money for you 
this season. A 25-lb. pail costs $2.50 — sold also in 
smaller packages and 100-lb. bags. Ask your dealer. 

Drop a postal for our free book- "POULTRY WRINKLES." 

PRATT FOOD CO. OF CANADA, LTD. 

Dept. 66 TORONTO 



In writing Advertisers mention Farmer's Magazine. 



140 



FARMER'S— ADVERTISING SECTION 



Manufacturing Progress 

What of the Future of Manu- 
facturing in the Dominion? 



Will 'manufacturing in Canada con- 
tinue to keep pace, in the future, with 
the growth and development of this 
country of ours? If, as predicted by 
the Bishop of Halifax, a few days ago, 
the population of Canada will reach 
one hundred millions before the end 
of the present century, will the manu- 
facturers be able to supply, even as 
great a proportion of the requirements 
of the country as they do at the pres- 
ent time? If the population doubles 
and redoubles, increasing, as is ex- 
pected, by leaps and bounds, will the 
necessary capital, courage, enterprise 
and skill be forthcoming to keep the 
factories always abreast of the times, 
and meet the ever-increasing demands 
upon them? If the past may be taken 
as an augury for the future, the ques- 
tion may be satisfactorily answered 
in the affirmative, although in some 
lines such expectations might not be 
realized. In regard to agricultural 
implements there can be no doubt as 
to what the future will develop — pro- 
vided the same forethought, prudence 
and care are exercised as in the past, 
by manufacturers, legislators and the 
people. By legislators to assist and 
conserve this great national asset ; by 
manufacturers in continuing to im- 
prove the quality of their goods ; by 
the people in supporting their native 
industries, knowing that the more they 
grow, and the greater the volume of 
their output, the lower the cost of their 
production and the cheaper their goods 
become. This has been history for 
the past half-century, and doubtless 
will repeat itself in the next. The 
history of the Massey-Harris is a 



striking example of this, and their 
success is the best guarantee of the 
future. Since the inception of the 
company, in 1891, up till the present 
time, it has always met the ever-in- 
creasing demand for its goods. In 
every year they have added to their 
manufacturing capacity, adopting the 
newest styles of modern machinery, 
increasing their output, improving its 
quality, and giving to its clients at 
lowest prices, what are acknowledged 
•the world over as the best and most 
satisfactory goods. Commencing in 
1891 with a capital of three million 
dollars and a factory floor space of 
about ten acres, the company has in- 
creased until the combined floor space 
of its four factories is now about forty 
acres, and the capital employed ex- 
ceeds twelve million dollars. As its 
line of manufacture includes nearly 
every implement that a farmer may re- 
quire, and as these implements are 
made to suit the needs of every pro- 
vince from the Atlantic to the Pa- 
cific, it is clear that almost every farm- 
er in the Dominion has one or more 
Massey-Harris implements now in use. 
We present to our readers on the 
two opposite pages, illustrations show- 
ing the buildings in which the two 
chief constituent companies com- 
menced business — the Massey Co.. in 
1857, at Newcastle, and the Harris 
Co., in 1857, at Beamsville — then, 
after the removal of these companies 
to Toronto and Brantford, and finally 
the four immense factories as they 
now exist at Toronto, Brantford and 
Woodstock. This is a vivid and most 
intresting picture of manufacturing 



In writing Advertisers mention Farmer's Magazine. 



FARMER'S— ADVERTISING SECTION 



141 



GROWTH IS NOT THE RESULT OF CHANGE 








The remarkable growth of the 
Massey-Harris Industries has not 
been the result of chance. The 
four splendid factories shown on 
another page, and the chain of 
branch houses encircling the 
globe, are not due to any freak 
of fortune, or to accident. 



ORIGINAL MASSEY WORKS AT NEWCASTLE IN 1847 

THERE IS A REASON 

and that reason can be summed up 
in a few words : 

MASSEY-HARRIS 
IMPLEMENTS 

GIVE SATISFACTION 

The implements produced by the 
sturdy pioneers, working in the small original HARRfs works at beamsville. 18S7 
shops shown herewith, gave satis- 
faction in your father's and grand- 
father's time— the modern line of MASSEY-HARRIS HIGH-GRADE FARM 
IMPLEMENTS will continue to give satisfaction to ever-increasing numbers 
for years to come. 




mmtmk m 





MASSEY WORKS IN 1881 HARRIS WORKS IN 1881 

SEE NEXT RIGHT-HAND PAGE FOR PRESENT MASSEY-HARRIS FACTORIES 



It is to your advantage to mention Farmer's Magazine. 



M-' 



FARMER'S— ADVERTISING SECTION 



progress. Notwithstanding this enor- 
mous and continual expansion, all the 
Massey-Harris factories are too small, 
and every one of them is being en- 
larged and extended to take care of 
the business that is pouring in to this 
old reliable and thoroughly Canadian 
institution. These demands coming, 
not only from the development of 
Canadian territory, but from every 
part of the world. To accomplish this 
wonderful expansion, whole city blocks 
have been purchased, roadways have 
been acquired, streets have been bridg- 
ed and tunnelled, long rows of houses 
and stores have been demolished or 
removed, so that factories and ware- 
houses might take their places, un- 
til now the Massey-Harris Co. has the 
largest plant in the Empire devoted 
exclusively to the manufacture of 
farming implements. 

It is a thrilling narrative — how the 
two little shops in the two quiet Cana- 
dian villages have grown into the sec- 
ond largest industry of its character 
in the world, with its annual wage bill 
running into the millions, with its 
warehouses and salesrooms in thous- 
ands of Canadian towns, and with 
branch offices and agencies in every 
grain-growing country in the world. 

With ample capital, long experi- 
ence, keen judgment, and thoroughly- 
equipped factories, the company is in 



better shape to push its business than 
ever before. In a comparatively new 
country like Canada, where the tilled 
acreage is increasing year by year, 
where labor is scarce, and consequent- 
ly the demand for labor-saving farm 
implements is constantly on the in- 
crease, it has been noted that the Mas- 
sey-Harris Co., Ltd., has continually 
increased its manufacturing facilities 
to such an extent that the supply has 
kept well up with the demand. Al- 
though, temporarily, its customers 
have been frequently obliged to pur- 
chase elsewhere, it was only until new 
additions could be made to factories 
and new machinery could be installed 
to enable the company to take care of 
the increasing demands for their 
goods. 

And we repeat that the past is the 
guarantee of the future. The thought, 
the energy and the courage and the 
skill that has done so much during 
the past to provide the necessary 
capital and plant and factory space 
to enable the Massey-Harris Co. to 
meet the demands of this growing, 
strenuous Canada of ours, are still 
available, and will be used unstinted- 
ly in the future, as in the past, to 
give to its patrons the world over the 
best implements that money and brains 
can produce. 




It will pay you to answer advertisements. 



FARMER'S— ADVERTISING SECTION 



H3 




MASSEY- HARRIS 
IMPLEMENTS 

ARE THE RESULT OF 

A THOROUGH KNOWLEDGE OF THE 

FARMERS' NEEDS- 
LONG EXPERIENCE IN THE MANU- 
FACTURE OF FARMIMPLEMENTS-- 
SPLENDID FACILITIES FOR MANU- 
FACTURING- 
SKILLED WORKMEN- 
CAREFUL SUPERVISION- 
BEST OF MATERIALS— 

AND 

A determination to use these 
facilities and advantages 
in the manufacture of 

A LINE OF FARM IMPLEMENTS 

THAT CAN BE DEPENDED ON 

TO DO THEIR WORK RIGHT 

AND DO IT ALWAYS. 




Massey-Harris Go,, Ltd. 

TORONTO, MONTREAL, MONCTON, 

WINNIPEG, REGINA, SASKATOON, 

CALGARY, EDMONTON. 








Say you saw the ad. in Farmer's Magazine. 



U4 



FARMER'S— ADVERTISING SECTION 







C 
H 
R 
I 

5 



"There's a 




Christie 
Biscuit 



for every taste, and ^<^ 
they all taste delicious. " 



Note the quotation marks, 
madam ! 



Thousands of Canada's particular housewifes — ladies you would 
be proud to know — make that statement every day. A million 
Canadians eat Christie Biscuits every day. What's the reason? 

The best wheat of the best wheat lands on earth, rolled into 
flour in the best Canadian mills — these flours sifted, blended and 
tested in the Christie scientific way — that's the foundation of 
Christie Biscuit excellence. 

But — that's not all, madam ! Every ingredient entering our bakes must 
be of the high standard quality you insist on for your own table 
— nothing less would sustain Christie reputation. Quality and Purity — 
these are the first considerations in the Christie factory — the biggest, brightest 
and cleanest in all Canada 

If you have visited the home of Christie biscuits — hundreds of housewives 
visit it every year — you know that our employees 
are healthy, happy and contented, and devoted, heart 
and soul, to Christie ideals. No 
wonder they call Christie Bis- 
cuits : — " The Purest of all 
Pure Foods." 



W 



c 
u 



-S3 



Christie's 
Waft" - 



>. 



Christie, Brown & Co. 

Limited 



3*l,' c -N~-i=>~ 1. 



T 
i 

5 



j 



Say you saw the ad. in Farmer's Magazir 








Awn fo uowi f&ee? 

MiiniuiuiHUHiiimimiiiiiiiKiHiiiiiii •umiiiV.i niuiiiiuiniiiiiiiriuii 



■ MIHIIIIIIfUHMIMB 



S 5 

1 i 



S ! 



A 



RE you connected with the markets — with your friends — with the 
outside world— by telephone? Or is there no telephone system in 
your community? There has been a marvellous growth of the tele- 
phone in the rural districts of Canada during the past two years. 
The telephone problem may be of interest to the city man, but it is of 
even more interest to the man who lives in the comparative isolation of the 
rural districts. SVe believe the only reason why you have not a community- 
owned system in your own locality is on account of your not being in a position 
to secure sufficient data on the subject of organization and construction. 

FARMERS! 



THERE is no further need of your 
not knowing how to proceed with 
the organization and construction 
of a rural telephone system of your 
own, because if you simply write for 
our Bulletin, the whole story is there, 
a plain and simple story of how to 
start a community-owned telephone 



system going and how to keep it 
going. Hundreds of such companies 
are now doing business throughout the 
Dominion, and it is only a question of 
your having the essential facts down in 
detail to enable you to secure the in- 
terest and support of your neighbours 
and to organize a companv of your own. 



THE FARMER'S PHONE 



The No. 1317 type 
telephone set, specially 
adapted for Rural 
Telephone work, 
is of the very lat- 
est design and is 
the most powerful 
and efficient set on 
the market to-day. It 
is the very acme of tele- 
phone construction. 
Because we make the 
best telephone specially- 
adapted for rural^use, 




over 90 of the rural 
telephones used in 
Canada to-day come 
from o ur factorv. The 
president of the Iarp- 
est telephone company 
in the world could not 
have a more perfect 
instrument for his own 
private use. The de- 
tails of this set are 
clearly set forth in the 
Bulletin mentioned 
above. 

THE, 



This 
Bo k is 
FREE 
for the 
Asking. 

All you 
have to do 
is to ask 
for Bulle- 
tin No. 1180 and we will 
mail you free the whole 
story of how to organize and 
construct Rural Telephone 
lines. Do not hesitate to 
ask if you want the book — 
a postal card will bring it. 




MONTREAL 



and MANUFACTURING CO. limited 

Manufacturer and supplier of all apparatus and equipment used in the 
construction, operation aod maintenance of Telephone, lire Alarm 
and Electric Railway Plants. Address our nearest house. 219 
TORONTO WINNIPEG REGINA CALGARY VANCOUVER 



Let The Peerless Way Show You 
How to Make a Success of Poultry 
Raising In Canada Q Q Q 

THE PEERLESS WAY of co-operative raising and marketing of poultry will absolutely 
guarantee success to every poultryman who will carry it out complete. Whether you 
have never kept poultry — whether you have kept poultry and made a failure of it — 
whether you have kept poultry merely in a haphazard way — or whether you are now doing 
well but might do better — The Peerless Way can help you to greater profits. For The Peerless 
Way shows how to hatch— feed — care for— fatten and kill and HOW TO MARKET. 



^^^ Send right away for a full 
f\JW description of this money- 
W^jm making method. Let us ex- 

^■^ plain to you just exactly why 
The Peerless Way will get you more 
profits, and let us send you our big, 
plain-spoken Free Book containing 

Some Facts, Their Proofs, 
and an Interesting Offer 

that will enable you to put the Peerless Way to 
work for yourself at a cost so low as to be scarcely 
worth considering. This book is very frank; it 
tells you iuat what you can do, and what you cannot 
do, and if you have any leaning whatever towards 
poultrying as either a business or a side-line, you 
will be interested in the straightforward way it comes 
out with information that is vital to your success. 







LEE 

HinufacturiDi \ This Book is 

Compauy, Ltd. >v 

SS8 Pembroke Rd. \ ITRF^F 1 

Pembroke, Ont. \ 1 lAljlJ 

Gentlemen: Without ^v , 

obligating myst If , you may N. Use the 

send me your boo!;, "When N. Coupon 
Poultry Pavs,"and fieproot of 
how Tlie Peerless Way has suc- 
cessfully co-operated with others. 

Name 

Address 

Town ,m Province- 




J 



It Will Cost You Little to 
Adopt The Peerless Way 



^^■^^ You don 1 ! need 
0* -A agreatlotof cash 
m -j9 to make the right 

^H^r poultrying; the 
knowledge of what to do 
and what not to do is far 
more essential. But you do 
not need to be an expert; 
for we are ready to supply 
you with all the necessary 
knowledge. If you have 
just a little money, and a 
pretty fair amount of com- 
mon-sense, added to enough 
diligence to look after things 
properly. The Peerless Way 
can make poultry profitable 
for you. 



Co-Operation 

In Raising and Marketing 

^^^^ The Peerless Way is a great deal 
^^^ fQ more than merely a system of 
fc K --rf^w poultry-raising; it is also a practical 
^kt^^r method of co-operatn e marketing 

a system that will make you inde- 
pendent of combines, and enable you to obtain 
top notch prices for large or small quantities of 
eggs and poultry by showing you how to 
market to the very best advantage. 

The Peerless Way Has 

Over 15,000 Successful 

Users 

Over fifteen thousand poultrymen 
in Canada have made a success of 
^-£^F poultry-raising by The Peerless 
Way. They have made no heavy 
investments — they hat e started with 
no elaborate equipment nor have they given 
up a big tract of land to their poultry yards. 
They have simply done what you, or any other 
capable person, can do- -adopted our system, 
followed the plain, practical method it teaches, 
and used freely the advice of our experts. 
Most of them, without knowledge or ex- 




perience, have stepped into the business that 
guarantees high dividends on a small inteit- 
ment. Some of them are devoting only part 
of their time to it, and a few of them are 
devoting all their time to it— though mighty 
few of them gave it all 
their time on the start. 
But every man who has 
consistently followed our 
plan has achieved success. 



Tbe Peerless Incubatorfguaranteed 

for tea years) that has helped 

15,000 Canadian Poultrymen to 

greater profits. 




You Can 
Have Free 
Advice From 
Our Poultry 
Advisory 
Board 



^^^^ If you are a user of The Peerless 
^^^ *ll Way, you are entitled to consult 
t^Tj^F out poultry experts at any time 
li^ 1 Peerless Way 

covers everything in poultry-raising 
that it is possible for any method to cover: 
but if, at any time, a point comes up that is 
peculiar to you alone, all you have to do is to 
write us. Our experts will consider your case 
individually and write you personally. This 
service is free to every member of the Peetless 
Family. 

We Will Show You How 

To Market Your Poultry 

and Eggs 

^^± The Co-operative Marketing plan. 
^^* <fl that forms so important a part of 
# jB The Peerless Way. has helped our 
K^jv 1=5,000 co-workers to make more 
^Qmr money than any one of them could 
have made working individually. The poultry 
market is a real market — if you know how to 
take advantage of it. We are constantly over- 
run with orders for both eggs and poultry. As 
a matter of fact, poultrying as a business is 
a long way from being over-done in Canada — 
there is plenty of room to make good money 
out of it. Be sure and send for our book. 



LEE 



MANUFACTURING CO., Ltd, 
106 Pembroke Road 



PEMBROKE 



42 

ONTARIO 
CANADA 



Twenty Cents a Copy 



Two Dollars per Yeai 




THE MACLEAN PUBLISHING CO., Limited, 



MONTREAL, TORONTO,. WINNIPEG 



Dr Thomas 



ECLECTRIC OIL<l 



'"\7"OU may lead a horse to water but you 
Y cannot make him drink" is a true say- 
ing, as any farmer will testify. 
So, too, you can lead people by flowered 
phrases and extravagant claims to the con- 
sideration of a new remedy, but to induce 
them to actually trust it is quite another thing. 

This has been proved over and over during 
the long and successful career ot Dr. Thomas' 
Eclectric Oil. Countless new so-called rem- 
edies have come and gone, but this time-tried, 
wonderful healing oil has increased in sales 
year by year until to-day nowhere in this 
broad land is there a similar remedy which 
can compare with it in the remarkable extent 
of its use and the truly wonderful record of 
its cures. 

Dr. Thomas' Eclectric Oil has not built its 
success upon extravagant statements, but upon 
facts as proved by its daily record. 



It is not a cure-all but a sure and safe rem- 
edy for certain ills which it never fails to benefit. 

External wounds, such as burns, cuts, 
scratches, stings, skin troubles, etc., find it a 
remedy marvellously soothing. Coughs, colds, 
sore throat, neuralgia, toothache, earache and 
countless other agonizing troubles have been 
completely banished by its persistent appli- 
cation. Whatever is claimed for Eclectric 
Oil, that it WILL do. You can depend upon it 
— always safe — always sure — always the same. 

Pain and suffering is too serious a matter to 
be trifled with. Nature calls for a true 
NATURAL remedy Dr. Thomas' Eclectric 
Oil is composed of those comforting ingre- 
dients which go right to the seat of the trouble 
and do their good work. 

Dr. Thomas' Eclectric Oil is sold every- 
where in 25 cent bottles. Buy it this very day 
and keep it in the house. 



PREPARED ONLY BY 



NORTHROP & LYMAN CO., Limited, Toronto 



BUY A "BT" LITTER CARRIER 




and save yourself the dirtiest 
and most disagreeable job about 
the farm. No stable is complete 
without a system of overhead 
tracking in it for handlings man- 
ure and feed, and a litter carrier 
is no longer a luxury but a 
necessity. 

The "BT" LITTER CARRIER 

always pleases and is built to 
last a lifetime. It is simply con- 
structed — nothing to get out of 
order, and the material used in 
it is the very best. 



The "BT" LITTER CARRIER 
has many excellent features of 
advantage over other makes, 
which we would like to tell you 
about. Our new catalogue ex- 
plains these fully and if you will send us your name and address we will be pleased to mail a 
copy of same to you. 



WRITE US TO-DAY for catalogue and complete information^ to 



BEATTY BROS. 



Fergus, Ont. 



W« alto manufacture Steel Stalls, Stanchions and Hay Tools. 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE— ADVERTISING SECTION 



WE AIM TO HELP 



every farmer's 
Son and Daughter 



to get equipped with a complete 
business training (by correspon- 
dence if desired). Modern farm- 
ing methods are calling for 
more business ability each year, 
and our school is thoroughly 
up-to-date and in a position to 
give you that specialized training 
that makes tor success. 

School open all year round. 
Students admitted at any time. 

Tuition at moderate rates in 
any desired subject. 

Write for our illustrated catalog 

Britisb-Jlttierican Business 
College 

Y. M. C. A. Building, Yonge Street 
TORONTO 





Sound Education Amidst Refined Home 
Surroundings. 




BALMY BEACH COLLEGE 
SCHOOL of MUSIC and ART 




This is an undenominational school, where each 
pupil may attend any church chosen by her parents. 
The teachers are all selected for eminence in teach- 
ing ability and scholastic qualifications and the 
school course includes : 

Piano, V lolin, V oice. Theory, 
Physical Culture, Expression, Art 

and preparation for Entrance Examination. 

Children of any age are admitted and we main- 
tain special courses for adults. 

Fall Term commences Nov. 18 
Enter any time. 






"Write for particulars to 

MRS. COURTICE, Directress 

59 Beach Avenue, Toronto, Ont. 




|l 1 






THE PICTURES ARE POST CARD SIZE 

3A FOLDING BROWNIE 

Takes pictures VA x 5% inches. Equipped with meniscus achro- 
matic lens, F.P.K. automatic shutter with bulb release, automatic 
focusing lock and reversible finder. Has all the Kodak advantages of 
daylight loading and unloading, and is made and tested by Kodak 
workmen. 

Price with meniscus achromatic lens, $10.00; with Rapid Rectilinear lens. 
$12.00 : other Brownie Cameras. $1.00 to $11.00. 



$10.22 



CANADIAN KODAK CO, Limited 

Catalogue of Kodaks and 

Brownies free at the dealers or by math 



TORONTO, CAN. 



In Auto, Sleigh or Wagon on Cold Days 



Use a Clark Heater— 



It is neat, compact, attractive and un- 
breakable; supplies the heat without 
flame, smoke or smell. 
We make 20 styles of these heaters from 90c each to $iO. Most of them have 
attractive carpet covers with asbestos lining. They have been on the market ten years and. 
please every purchaser. We guarantee 
that you will be pleased or money refund- 
ed. They fit in at the feet, occupy little 
space and are just the thing. 






DON'T SHIVER AND BE UNCOMFORTABLE 




when one of these heaters will keep you 
warm and cozy and comfortable on every 
business or pleasure trip in cold weather. 

Ask your dealer for a CLARK HEATER— the only kind that will last indefinitely, never get out of order, and heat 
as much oras little as you want. Insist on the CL\RK. Write for complete catalog— a postal brings it. WRITE NOW. 

CHICAGO FLEXIBLE SHAFT COMPANY 95 LA SALLE AVENUE, CHICAGO 



It is to your advantage to mention Farmer's Magazine. 



FARMER'S M\GAZINE— ADVERTISING SECTION 




STRONG CLEAN -SANITARY -DURABLE 

Every farmer will find that it pays to replace his old wooden tanks and 
troughs with our everlasting 

Steel Tanks and Troughs 

Their cost is very reasonable, they never -^ 
leak, never rot, are weather-proof and 
frost-proof , and any ice is easily removed. 

We make in all 
shapes and sizes to 
hold anywhere from 
1 to 100 barrels— 

STORAGE TANKS, 

ROUND TANKS, 

CISTERNS, 

OIL or GASOLINE 

TANKS, 

TROUGHS 

for watering, 

HOG TROUGHS, 

STABLE TROUGHS, 

WASH SINKS, 

GRAIN FEED BOXES, 

MILK COOLING TANKS, 

WHEY TANKS, 
HEAVY STEEL PAILS, 
and DAIRY UTENSILS. 




SQUARE WATER TROUGHS 

Just what you want to replace 
those old, leaky, water-soaked, 
unsanitary, disease - breeding 
wooden troughs. Made 8 to 12 
feet|long, 14 to 22 inches wide — 
holding from 80 to 190 gallons. 
Frost-proof, leak-proof, rust- 
proof. Guaranteed 5 years. 
No trough so good at so low a 
price anywhere else. 

ASK FOR PRICES 



THE PERFECT 
STEEL HOG TROUGH 

Trough is made of un- 
breakable galvanized 
steel, and to prevent hogs 
from crowding and lying 
in trough, steel bars are 
fastened across. Steel 
tubing along sides makes 
nice finish to feed over. 
A trough that hogs can't 
chew! Cost so little and 
are so immeasurably 
better than sour, rotten, 
half-gnawed wooden 
troughs that you should 
get one at once. 




There are many 
things in our de- 
scriptive catalog 
you're sure to 
want. Send to- 
day for a copy 
of Catalogue "S" 
FREE. You'll be 
glad to get it! 




UP-TO-DATE 
FEED COOKER 

A necessity 
on every up- 
to-date farm. 
Foods cook 
quickly, as 
tank fits 
directly over fire. Econ- 
omical on fuel. Can be 
brick-lined and fitted 
with grate to burn soft 
coal to heat water for 
spraying. Capacity 45 or 
60 gallons. 



GENERAL PURPOSE 
BARN AND TANK CISTERNS 

Made of best quality gal- 
vanized steel, very strong, 
rigid and entirely self-sup- 
porting. Braced to prevent 
bulging. - • i I 

Made in ail sizes — square or 
round, with any desired 
capacity. 



All Goods Guaranteed 
Prices Very Low. 

The Steel Trough & 
Machine Company 

TWEED, ONT. 



Say you saw the ad. in Farmer's Magazine. 



Farmer s Magazine 



- W. S. Jacobs 


40 


Gordon C. Keith 


56 


- G IV. Odgen 


72 


Thos. Hepburn 


78 


- E. Hungerford 


82 


T. H. Browne 


88 


- Allen Graham 


91 


Mrs. Houston 


118 


H. J. Pettypiece 


51 


E. C. T>rury 


59 


- F. T. Skinner 


93 


T. C. Carter 


103 


C. C. James 


114 



vol. i. Contents for Booemfeer, 1910 No - 2 

EDITORIAL. 

Our Purposes — Help the Government — Protection Favoured — For Better Education — Taxes 
and the Railways — What the Dominion Does — Some Tariff Considerations — Watch 
the Monopolists — Breed the Best — Crop Experts Needed — Profits of Cultivation — 
Let the Farmers Help - - Cost Accounting — The Doctors Lead — Encourage More 
Building — The Farmers and the Navy — Egg Problems - - - - Q 

AGRICULTURAL SPECIALS. 
Farming Without Rain - 

White Coal for the Farmer ... - 

Range Sheep-Raising is Profitable 

Wool is Graded When Shorn - - - - 

The Unpoetic Potato is Valuable - 
The Reasoning Power of the Horse ... 
Motor Cars for the Farmers ... 

The Poor Man's Farm .... 

POLITICAL AND SOCIAL. 
Railway Protection .... 

Tariff Reduction in Canada is a Necessity 
A Wool Tariff Means More Sheep? 
What Does it Cost to Feed Canadians? 
It is not Charity to Develop Agriculture 
Canada Gets the Box but not the Socks - - Jlrthur Conrad 1 20 

BUSINESS AND FINANCIAL 
Safe-Guarding Investments - - - R. G. Dingman 1 00 

SERIAL STORY. 
The Trail of '98 Robt. W. Service 24 

SHORT STORIES. 

A Pair of Spendthrifts .... Oswald Wildridge 88 

Flaherty's Promotion - Burton E. Stevenson 65 

The Lights of Jerusalem ----- Violet Jacob 94 

A Strange Tip - - - - W. Hastings Webling 1 06 

A Westerner's First Visit to the Theatre - - C. B. Lucas 1 2 7 

OF INTEREST TO THE HOME. 

Does Food Cause and Cure Diseases ? - - Brander de Tfennes 84 

Brooms are Easily Spoiled - - - - - - 85 

False Teeth and False Hopes - - - - Dr. J. C. Bayles 86 

The Diseases of Childhood - - Dr. Helen MacMurchy 1 25 

POEMS. 

A Fugitive Moment - - 50 A Sonnet - - - 93 

Let Us Smile - - 81 The Birds of Aengus Og - 102 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Provincial Premiers - - 32 Diary of a Back Bencher - - 34 

Issued monthly by The MacLean Publishing Company. Limited ; John Bayne MacLean, President. 
Publication Office. 143-149 University Ave., Toronto. Montreal Office: Eastern Townships Bank Building. 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE— ADVERTISING SECTION 

f Are YOU looking ahead? -^ 

Ambition to excel is a trait in the character of every 
young man and woman deserving of the fullest encour- 
agement. But self-improvement unaided is not always 
easy to accomplish. 

Do you realize that the successful farmer of to-morrow is 
the man who specializes to-day? Read the accompany- 
ing list! Would you like to study any of these subjects? 

We Pay for Your Education 

We will pay the entire cost of any of these courses of instruction if 
you will do a little congenial work for us in the line of getting- a few 
subscriptions for "Farmer's Magazine" among your friends and 
neighbors. 

Opposite each subject you will find the number of subscriptions re- 
quired. The annual subscription price is $2. Choose your subject, 
send us the coupon marked, and we will do the rest for you. We 
will pay your railway fare to any college chosen. Each twenty 
miles of first-class return travel will require only one additional 
subscription. 

"Farmer's Magazine" aims to be a home magazine for the farmer 
and his family, to provide them with information, entertainment and 
instruction, to advocate their special interests in economic, social and 
political conditions. Study this copy carefully, cover to cover. 

Take the first step towards the realization of your ambition to-day, 

by sending for full particulars to College Department, 

FARMER'S MAGAZINE 

143 UNIVERSITY AVE. : : TORONTO, ONT. 

CUT OUT AND MAIL THIS COUPON-AND DO IT NOW. 



No. Subs. 
at $2. each 


SUBJECT 


Hark 
Coarse 
Wanted 


10 

14 
20 

23 
23 
60 


Two weeks' course in Stock and Seed Judging at the Ontario Agricultural Col- 
lege, Guelph, or an equal period at any other Agricultural College in Canada. 
(Including board, books, etc.) 

Full correspondence course in either Arithmetic or Business Letter Writing. 
Four weeks' Poultry Course at the Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph, or an 
equal period at any other Agricultural College in Canada. (Including board, 
books, etc.) 

Correspondence Course in Home Photography. 
Correspondence Course in Bookkeeping in all its branches. 

Three months" Dairying Course at the Ontario Agricultural College. Guelph. 
or an equal period at any other Agricultural College in Canada. (Including board, 
books, etc.) 





FARMER'S MAGAZINE— ADVERTISING SECTION 




YOU NEED A 
BUSINESS 
EDUCATION 



r 



F YOU wish to remain on the farm you 
need a thorough training in Book- 
keeping, Rapid Figuring, Arithmetic, 
Writing, Letter Writing, English and Banking, NO FARMER CAN BE 
REALLY SUCCESSFUL who lacks this practical commercial training 

Do You Want to Enter the Business World ? 

You must have a thorough business training. We offer you, right AT 
YOUR HOME, A MORE COMPLETE BUSINESS EDUCATION than you 
would get at any business college, and it will cost you about one-third as 
much. Read the following testimonial. THIS IS PROOF : 

Qualified for a Position - 

Parkdale. Lun. Co.. N.S., July 4, 1907. 

Gentlemen : — It is with pleasure I state my perfect satisfaction with your course in Short- 
hand and Typewriting. I have found your study papers amply lucid, without sacrificing, in the 
least, the essential quality of conciseness. I have pursued the course with increasing interest 
and pleasure, and now find myself qualified for a position in an office at about one-third the 
cost of a residential course. 

Wishing you continued success and many students, I am, 



Placed in a Position 

Winnipeg. Man., Oct. 12. 1907. 

Gentlemen :— I beg to advise you my address is 
changed from Parkdale, Lun. Co., N.S.. to the 
above, for the present. 

You will pardon me for neglecting to inform 
you of my successful location before. 

1 arrived in Winnipeg Saturday, August 24th, 
started work Tuesday. 27th. on the strength of 
your letter of recommendation alone, not even 
having to show my diploma. _ 

Thanks to your excellent training, I am filling 
a position in C.P.R. office at $55.00 per month. 
even though they use tne Empire Machine, while 
I learned the Underwood. 

I can take my notes with ease and shall al- 
ways be grateful for your very efficent training. 
With best wishes. 

Yours respectfully. 

VERNON B. RHODENIZER. 



What we have done for MR. RHODENIZER 
we can do for YOU. 

Underline on the accompanying coupon the 
course which interests you— fill in your name 
and address — cut out the coupon and mail to us 
to-day for free particulars. 

MARK THE COUPON 



Sincerely yours, 

VERNON B. RHODENIZER. 



ITS ALL^he COUPON 



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Farmer's Mag. 



It will pay you to answer advertisements. 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE— ADVERTISING SECTION 



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or for the cost of repairs to your machinery, 
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On sale in all Can. Pac. Ry. Stations 



More 




The amount of butter you get out of your cream 
depends much on the kind of churn you use. 

There are more " FAVORITE " Churns used in 
Canada than any other. Because the farmers 
and dairymen know that the "FAVORITE" is 
best, and they won't use any other. Foot 
tread and hand lever — 8 sizes. 

Our new "CHAMPION" is the champion of all 
washing machines. Easiest, quickest hand washer ever made. 
Write us if your dealer does not have them. 



DAVID MAXWELL & SONS, 



ST. MARYS, ONT- 



POTASH MEANS PROFIT! 



• ^ Harvesting a crop of wheat on the farm of 
Emslie Bros., Oakville, Ont. 




This photograph shews wheat grown after "roots," to which was 
applied a "Complete Fertilizer" containing POTASH. 



The PROGRESSIVE farmer knows 
this and uses a " Complete Fertilizer" 
containing a large percentage of 
POTASH. 

Are You a Progressive Farmer? 

Have You Tested the Truth of This 
Statement ? 

POTASH may be obtained from 
all reliable fertilizer dealers and seeds- 
men in the highly concentrated forms of 

Muriate of Potash 
and Sulphate of Potash 

Write us on any subject relating to 
the cultivation of the soil and get 
copies of our free bulletins including : 

"Artificial Fertilizers," "Farmer's 
Companion," " Records of Fertilize) 
Experiments," etc., etc. 



Dominion Agricultural Offices of The Potash Syndicate, H05 Temple Bidg , Toronto 



Reading advertisements is profitable to you. 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE— ADVERTISING SECTION 



You Can Do the Weekly 
Washing in Six Minutes. 

The 1900 Gravity Washer cuts out labor and saves 
money. Does a big family washing — and wring- 
ing too — in short order. 

The 1900 Gravity washes a tubful spotlessly clean 
in six minutes. Prove it at our expense. 

Any woman can have a 

1900 GRAVITY WASHER 

on 30 days' free trial 

Don't send one cent. Try it first at our expense — 
if you are responsible. We'll pay the freight. See 
the wonders it performs. The Gravity does beauti- 
ful work, handles anything from heavy blankets to 
daintiest laces. Every housewife should have one. 
Thousands are in use. and every user delighted 
We are constantly receiving letters from hosts of 
satisfied customers. 

The 1900 Gravity Washer is sold on small payments. Send 
to-day for our fascinating Free Book and generous offer of 
a Washer on free trial. Write me personally — 

F. M. C. BACH, Manager, The " 1 900 " Washer Co. 

357 YONGE ST., TORONTO, CANADA 

This offer is not good in Toronto, Montreal, Winnipeg and Vancouver, and 
Suburbs, as we have branch offices in these places. Special trial arrange- 
ments are made in these districts. 2175 



'J'HE secret of "New Empress" satisfaction is in its 
correct design and careful construction. Just study the 
combination of good points that are to be found exclusively 
on the 



ft 



"NEW EMPRESS 

STEEL RANGE 



This range is fitted with duplex grates and burns either 
wood or coal; the fire box has an extension at the back to 
take sticks of extra length; the fuel-box bricks are reinforced 
with heavy knobs that double their life; the reservoir (you 
can buy this range with or without it) is on the front right by 
the fire — saves heat; every 'New Empress" has an oven 
Thermometer and drop-shelf oven door; and the oven itself 
is lined with pure asbestos, ensuring an even, perfect-bak- 
ing heat and saving fully one-third your fuel. 

The National Manufacturing Co., Ltd. 

OTTAWA, ONTARIO 

Brockville Barrie Edmonton Regina Moncton 





We also make Sovereign 
Ranges, ' Scales, Capital 
Cream Separators, Fanning 
Mills, etc., and will be glad 
to send you catalogues deal- 
ing with any of these lines 
in which you may be 
interested. 

Send for catalog "N" 

if your dealer does not car- 
ry the "New Empress." 



In writing Advertisers mention Farmer's Magazine. 



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ARMER'S MAGAZINE was started with 
one or two express purposes in mind and 
these will be carried out in our every is- 
sue. In the first place, we intend to enter 
the political field on behalf of the farmer. 
This does not mean that we are going to 
take any party stand on these questions. 
It does mean that we intend to fight with 
the farmers in their agitations for better 
recognition at the hands of every Govern- 
ment in Canada. We do not care which party is in power ; we 
ask that laws be passed and money be provided that will be for 
the direct furtherance of agriculture in the Dominion. We will 
fight every combination which will be in any way an obstacle 
to the advancement of Canadian agriculture. 

It will also be our aim to take up the different phases of farm 
operations and practices, showing the cost of these to the farmer. 
Then will follow the profits or losses from these different opera- 
tions. Farming is just as much of a business as is manufactur- 
ing, and we wish to bring the business and the technical por- 
tions of agriculture more together than they have been in the 
past. 

In the social field our aim is to assist in making the home 
of the farmer as comfortable, as cheerful, and as convenient as 
the home of the city dweller. The great drawback to social 
life on the farm is isolation. We hope to be able to draw the 
farm homes closer together by providing good fiction, and also 
by showing that the country home can have all the modern con- 
veniences of the city home at a trifling cost. 

We will give business and financial talks every month. We 
are providing a page of patterns for the women of the home. 
They will also receive much information, which they cannot re- 
ceive elsewhere, from the special articles which will be written 
for our columns. In short, the aim of FARMER'S MAGAZINE 
is to be the home magazine of the farmer and his family, pro- 
viding the best of reading and working for the co-operation of 
the farmers in asserting their rights. 

As the magazine is being edited by the farmers, for the farm- 
ers, we want to hear from them all. Send us in your experiences, 
showing the cost and profits from your farm operations. Ask 
us all the questions you like and we will answer them for you 
through the columns of the magazine. We do not care what 
the question is, so long as it pertains to life and practices of the 
farm. FARMER'S MAGAZINE experts are at the disposal of 
our readers and we want the farmers to make use of them. 



I'Ak.MER'S MAGAZINE 



HELP THE GOVERNMENT 

WE are ; ! to hoid in contempt those who in our estimation are 
til vhat they should be. We often hold them up to ridicule 
and openly sneer at them. Perhaps they are vile and con- 
ble. Perhaps they have done us some wrong. It may be that 
we are jealous of them because they have beaten us in some of our 
undertakings. It may be that we feel that we are just a little better 
than they are. Whatever the cause they are treated as enemies by 
us and we have no intention of confiding in them. 

There never was a man so bad that had not some good qualities, 
nor was there ever a man so good but had some faults. We can 
learn from both. They both have their place in the world. Each 
is trying to have the world as he thinks it should be. They do not 
get together and see what would be the best for the two of them. 
They work independently and much of their efforts are wasted. 

It is much the same with the different classes and associations 
of men. Each class will form a secret society to determine what 
will be best for their own good. They do not ask for information 
from outsiders, but keep on trying to better the world in their own 
way. Farmers are sure that the merchants are holding them up ; 
merchants believe that the manufacturers are asking from them the 
highest prices possible; manufacturers are convinced that the labor 
unions are daylight robbers in their demand for higher wages; labor 
unions regret that the farmer is making so much money out of what 
they have to buy to live. In the melee, the Government, which is 
trying to solve the difficulties of all for the good of the whole coun- 
try, is getting no information to guide them. Why should not the 
different organizations in each province get together and thresh out 
all problems? If they would do this the public would get some 
valuable information and the Government would have something to 
guide them when it came to law-making time. Is this not worth the 
effort ? 



^W^ 




PROTECTION FAVORED 

THERE are ways of wasting money in every business, but the 
farmer's has the majority. Many of these leaks can be stopped 
if we go about it right. When we make a mistake which costs 
us money we are not liable to make the same mistake again. Ask 
yourself these two questions — How much are your farm implements 
worth ? How much do you lose every year by wear and tear and 
how much by lack of care ? 

Let us take the binder as an example. The cash price of the 
binder is somewhere in the neighborhood of $125. Wear and tear 
on the average binder for the work it performs in the season costs 
10 



EDITORIAL 

the farmer, yearly, about five per cent of his investment. This means 
tiiat the binder is worth about $6.25 less at the end of every season, 
providing it gets every care and shelter. At this rate the binder will 
last for fifteen or eighteen years before another is needed to replace 
it. On the other hand, if little or no shelter is given, we must deduct 
another 5 per cent, for deterioration from this cause. Thus the 
value of the binder which is used during the season and allowed to 
stand out all winter is $12.50 lower at the end of the year. At this 
rate the machine does well if it lasts eight or ten years. In other 
words the man who does not take care of his machine will use up 
three while his careful neighbor will wear out two. He invests $250 
in binders while the other pays out $375. In the use of one machine 
the careless man loses, every year, $6.25 more than his neighbor. 
When we consider the number and cost of the machines used on the 
farm we will see that in one or two years we would lose more than 
would build a good shelter for these implements. We should pro- 
vide this shelter for there are few of us so wealthy that we can afford 
to throw away money all the time. 



® ® 



FOR BETTER EDUCATION 




THE average tax rate 
in Canada is $67 
per mile. At this 
rate Ontario railway 
taxes amounted to $400,- 
902.71. Ontario figures 
are typical of the differ- 
ent provinces in Cana- 
ada. We find that half 
of this amount went to 
the general fund of the 
treasury. From the other half is taken the keep of friendless inmates 
of asylums, and the balance is distributed amongst the municipalities 
according to their population at the last census. Because of this the 
amount shared by the municipalities in 1908 was $72,999,38. 

By such a distribution the cities and towns receive the lion's 
share. In 1901 the population of Ontario was 2,182,947, while that 
of Toronto was 298,040. Therefore of this $72,999.38, which was 
divided amongst the municipalities, Toronto received $7,934, while 
the township of Bosanquet was richer by only $45. As there are 
268 cities, towns and villages in Ontario, it will be seen that the 
farmers residing in the 580 townships received very little benefit 
from the taxes collected from the railways. It is true that $323,000 
was collected from the railways by the different municipalities but 
a goodly portion of this goes to the different incorporated towns and 
villages. 

We do not wish to criticize the use made of this money, yet we 
believe that it could have been placed to better advantage. Why 

11 * 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE 

should not the whole of it be given to the teachers of rural schools? 
In Ontario there are 6,107 rural school teachers who were in 1908 
receiving an average salary of $398.44 per year. To give each the 
thousand dollar salary, which Farmer's Magazine believes should be 
the minimum paid rural teachers, would require an additional $600 
per teacher, or a total of $3,664,200. 

If we take the suggestion offered in the article, "Do the Railways 
Own Canada?" in our October issue, we will assess the railways at 
half value and levy a rate of 11 mills on the dollar, which rate is a 
shade less on the average than the farmer pays. This will give us 
$2,448,072 on the 8,000 miles of railways in Ontario, exclusive of 
Government owned. Add to this the $500,000 succession duties and 
we will have a sum large enough to give each rural school teacher 
a salary of $1,000 per year. This $500,000 succession duties is only 
half of these duties collected in Ontario . The universities are 
allowed half of these duties and the other half should go to the 
rural teachers. 

The farmers are willing to hand over their share of the railway 
taxes received if the railways are willing to shoulder their little 
share of the fund. Members of the Provincial Legislatures! It is 
your move. What are you going to do? 



® ® 



TAXES AND THE RAILWAYS 




C 



ANADA is not yet ready for Government 
ownership, but she is ready for Govern- 
ment control. The United States have suf- 
fered too much from monopolies for us to fol- 
low suit. We must keep all Canadian com- 
panies under control or they will soon con- 
trol us. 

Canadian railways have so far been able to 
convince the members of parliament that they 
should not be taxed. In the United States the 
railways are taxed 275 times as high as are the 
Canadian railways, according to the population 
per mile of railway. Yet even with this tax 
they are able to control transportation as they 
please. The Canadian provinces have, accord- 
ing to the British North America Act, the right to tax all properties 
in the province. 

The figures given in the article in this issue, "Railway Pro- 
tection," have been provided by the Railway Department at 
Ottawa and have not as yet been published in Blue Book 
reports. They should, therefore, be of interest. Notice that the 
province of Prince Edward Island taxes the railways at the rate of 
40 cents per mile ! Contrast this with the lowest rate of taxation in 
the United States, which is $148 per mile. 

Different methods of taxation for railways have been offered. 
The assessment system was mentioned in our October issue. This 
12 




EDITORIAL 

seems to be good, and practical. Another system, and one which 
the railways themselves think is more satisfactory, is taxing the 
gross receipts. They claim that the taxes should be according to 
the road's earning power. It does not matter which system is used 
as long as the railways pay their share for carrying on the Govern- 
ment. 

The people of Canada have been very generous to the railways. 
To date they have given or assisted them to the extent of $64,902,- 
019. At the present time they are paying taxes at the rate of about 
3.5 mills on the dollar with an assessment of half their value. The 
farmers are paying almost three times this amount. Is this fair? 
The railways are as much dependent on the farmers as the latter are 
on the railways. Members of the Provincial Legislatures have been 
neglecting their duty in the past and have allowed the people who 
elected them to their positions to pay the greater part of the taxes 
which go to develop this country. Surely the railways are now 
past the experimental stage in Canada and are able to assist with the 
government of the country ! All we ask for 
is fair play. No class should have to pay a 
heavier rate of taxes than another class. Rail- , 
ways do not need any more petting and coax- 
ing. They say they are willing to do anything 
reasonable. It is reasonable that they pay 
as much taxes as the farmer. Then they 
should do so. 



® ® 
WHAT THE DOMINION DOES 

THE estimates of the Dominion Government for the year ending 
March 31st, 191 1, totaled $105,565,104. Of this large sum 
only $1,001,675 were voted for the direct use of the farmers. 
And even of this small amount there had to 'be deducted $372,675 as 
salaries of officials and clerks in the departmental offices at Ottawa. 
This left only $629,000 to be spent in the direct furtherance of agri- 
culture in the Dominion of Canada. That is, there was 63 cents 
spent per farm ! 

What about other years? For the year 1909, the sum of $1,778,- 
399 was spent by the Department of Agriculture at Ottawa. From 
this we must extract the $370,000 for the actual running of the 
department. This leaves $1,408,399 for the actual furtherance of 
agriculture. This is more than was voted for the whole expenditure 
of the present year. What! Are we retrograding? Just a little 
comparison. 

The Department of Militia and Defence, in 1909, spent $6,578,- 
574 which is almost four times as much as was spent on agriculture. 
This may be as much for the benefit of the farmers as it is for the 
other classes of citizens in Canada, but the returns to the country 
are practically nothing. What returns are made to the people of 
Canada for this investment ? True we are proud of the position our 
soldiers occupy in the army of the Empire, but if it is necessary that 
we expend so much money in the maintaining of our army, we should 

13 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE 

spend equally as much for the benefit of the farmers, who are doing 
the pioneer work in opening up the Dominion. Canada is worth the 
$6,578,574 which was spent for her defence during 1909. Then, 
surely her agriculture is worth developing at a little faster rate than 
$1 ,778-399 every year. 

For the best use of any extra money voted, we have a remedy 
suggested by C. C. James, in an article in this issue. He asks 
that the Dominion Government divide yearly one million dol- 
lars amongst the provinces for the development of agricultural 
resources. This should be divided according to the amounts voted 
by the different provincial governments. Then the province which 
spent the largest amount of money in the interest of the farmers 
would receive the greatest portion of the Dominion grant. As far 
as the Dominion Government is concerned it is up to the Minister 
of Agriculture, Hon. Sydney Fisher. If he asks for this money he 
will get it. If he asks for it and does not get it we promise him that 
there will be such a hue and cry raised all over the country that 
those members of parliament who voted against the measure will 
have a harder time at the next election than they ever had before. 
Agriculture is the foundation of successful Canada. Give us the 
money to advance it. We are thankful for the 63 cents per farm 
which is now spent, but we want to see a few hundred cents added. 



® ® 



SOME TARIFF CONSIDERATIONS 




J 



UST now all classes in Can- 
ada are fighting for a reform 
in the tariff which will give 
them a better advantage in the 
markets of the world. Each class 
advocates that the tariff as they 
want it will be the best thing for 
the Dominion. The farmers are 
in the deal, too. This is right, 
for the farmers have as much or 
more right to Government consideration than any other class. 
Two articles in this issue will appeal to those interested in tariff 
agitations. "Tariff Reduction in Canada is a Necessity," by E. C. 
Drury, gives reasons why we should have a lower tariff in this 
country. Mr. Drury is one of Canada's best farmers and his 
reasons are well given. "Canada Gets the Box, but not the Socks" 
shows exceedingly well that Canada has had the worst of the argu- 
ment in the case of every treaty which she has made with the 
United States. 

Many farmers are of the opinion that the manufacturers are an 
unscrupulous organization and are pulling all the wires they can to 
get things as they want them no matter what the cost to the country. 
Too many manufacturers look upon the farmer as an ignorant sel- 
fish being who cares for nothing but the money he can keep the 
manufacturer from getting. These two statements are as far from 

14 



EDITORIAL 

the truth as sheep are from making beef. True, there may be some 
unscrupulous manufacturers and a few ignorant farmers, but these 
are in the great minority. 

Mr. Drury says, — The farmer does not object to carrying his full 
share of our national burdens, but he does object to paying a heavy 
tax for the benefit of avaricious manufacturers, and to the injury of 
our young nation. All right thinking people will agree with this 
pithy summary of the case. Canada is the country where the people 
rule and therefore the farmers have as much say in the fixing of 
tariff rates as have the manufacturers. The money collected from 
the tariff goes towards the Government of the Dominion. Are the 
farmers paying more towards this fund than are the manufacturers ? 
If the farmers are paying more duties according to the amount 
invested in their farms than the manufacturers are paying for their 
investment, then they are paying more than their full share. 

"There is little doubt that the farmers are correct enough in their 
suppositions that combines and trusts, whose object is to control p r z- 
duction and to eliminate competition, exist very zvidely among Cana- 
dian manufacturers. If these combines exist they are for the re- 
straint of trade. The new anti-combine law provides for such cases 
as this. If six or more men will sign a written statement of their 
case and ask for an enquiry into the matter, a judge will be appoint- 
ed to look into the case. His duties are to inquire as to the advis- 
ability of a thorough investigation by me'.ns of a commission. If 
this commission is appointed and find the existence of a combine the 
companies in the combine are subject to a fine of $1,000 per day 
after the first ten days, till they disband. Besides this, the Govern- 
ment pledges itself to lower duties in these lines of goods to such 
an extent that combines are impossible. 

We welcome this article of Mr. Drury's. After reading this 
excellent presentation of the lower tariff case, our readers will be 
anxious to hear the other side of the issue. Farmer's Magazine 
has made arrangements for an article dealing with the tariff from 
the view of those who wish to keep it where it is Our aim is to give 
both arguments so that the farmers will be able to reason for them- 
selves which tariff will be best for them. 





WATCH THE MONOPOLISTS 



THE story of hydro-electric power in Canada makes very inter- 
esting reading. It is not a story alone. It is real. Ontario 
has done pioneer work in this connection. She had to do so. 
In that province there is little or no coal. All this has to be imported 
from the United States. Coal is the chief source of power in 
Ontario. Suppose that the United States were to prohibit the export 
of coal ; suppose that, because of this action of the United States, 

15 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 

Ontario was deprived of her power ; suppose that the people of that 
province had to buy coal from British Columbia and Nova Scotia, 
what would happen? Her factories would close for lack of power; 
her homes would be cold for lack of heating material ; her families 
would suffer from lack of properly cooked food. 

To the farmer who has a woodlot these may seem foolish sug- 
gestions, but the woodlot is fast disappearing. Ridiculous as they 
all may appear, such a course has been mentioned in the United 
States. When that country ceases to export coal the people of 
Ontario will see the true value of encouraging the development of 
electricity by our water powers. The Government has done some 
work for the preservation of water powers from private monopoly. 
They should do more to encourage development of power but should 
retain control to prevent monopoly. 

In the United States a company of capitalists has been formed 
to buy as many water powers as possible. They buy the best in 
different localities. Their representatives go to Congress every 
year to plead for the removal of restrictions which prevent these 
men from acquiring a monopoly of public power. They are begin- 
ning to operate in Canada. Already they have made a bid for the 
lion's share of the international w^ter powers. We must keep them 
in control. 





BREED THE BEST 

WE are, as a rule, too easily discouraged. This is one of the 
greatest drawbacks to success in life. We must get over it. 
Worry will not help us. We fret and are annoyed because 
others are ahead of us. Stop it! Get right down to hard work; 
study carefully all details ; stick to it and we are bound to succeed. 

There is no doubt that it is the desire of most men on the farm 
to raise the best registered stock. The stockman aims to gain a 
reputation and money by his enterprise. This is good, but where 
one succeeds there are many who fail and the reason is very plain. 

The successful man first makes sure of the ground upon which 
he is to build his herd. He carefully studies all the fundamental 
principles of breeding, feeding and care of the animals which he 
contemplates keeping. Then he sees that all details are well looked 
after so that nothing will be lacking to make success. He is content 
with gradual and steady gain. He starts with one female. By care- 
ful selection of sire to mate with this female he gets, an offspring 
which is an improvement on either parent. This youngster is care- 
fully guarded. Nothing is given or withheld which will stunt 

16 



EDITORIAL 

growth. Success does not come from careful selection and breeding 
alone. The animals must have every care. This costs time, money 
and labor, but it is sure success. 

The man who loses sight of details will never be a success. He 
may attain some prominence as a breeder but will not gain the same 
enviable reputation which the other man enjoys. He may know the 
general and fundamental principles of feeding and breeding, but 
because the necessary details are neglected his stock will not become 
famous in the show ring nor in the herd building. The unsuccessful 
man usually starts with a flourish. He sells off all his grade stock 
and buys good pure-bred animals. His aim is to take show ring 
honors from the old showmen. He is defeated. He wonders why. 
He has good animals but the details of care have been neglected. His 
defeat discourages him and he says there is nothing in breeding pure- 
bred animals. Very soon his herd is not as good as the grade herd 
he once had, This man started in wrong and was too easily dis- 
couraged, He was not a sticker. That is why he failed.. 



® ® 



CROP EXPERTS NEEDED 




W 



'E have a few men who have spent their 
time in improving farm crops for the 
farmers of Canada. We owe a great deal 
to Prof. C. A. Zavitz, of the Ontario Agricul- 
tural College ; to Dr. Chas. E. Saunders, of the 
Central Experimental Farm, and to several others 
who have made a special study of farm crops. Dr. 
Saunders has studied the wheat plant and has some excellent results 
to show for his patient work. Prof. Zavitz has to his honor the 
introduction and improvement of many kinds of farm seeds. Yet 
we have done very little for seed improvement as compared with 
some other countries. These men have to look after the betterment 
of all classes of grains. Why can we not have, in addition to what 
we already have, a specialist for each class of crops grown? 

We are pleased to learn that Geo. H. Clark, Dominion Seed Com- 
missioner has been successful in securing the services of Dr. M. O. 
Malte, from the Svalof Experiment Station in Sweden. Dr. Malte'; 
specialty is fodder crops. It might be here stated that the Svalof 
Station is one of the most advanced of its kind in the world. There, 
every crop has its specialist. One man and a corps of workers are 
doing their best for the improvement of the wheat plant ; another 
expert is looking after the oat crop; each crop has its special staff; 
and in this way the Swedes have so advanced their farm crops till 
their average yield per acre is as high or higher than any other 
country. 

At present the work of Dr. Malte will be educational. This is 
good. But why not give him a farm, a staff of helpers and allow 
him to select and breed fodder crops? Every improved strain could 
be distributed to the farmers and soon we would have a big increase 
in the yield in Canada. The seeds which are now distributed to the 

n 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 

farmers are good, but they have not been specially selected or bred. 
They r.re from the best yielding variety after several years experi- 
menting. It would cost the country very little more to have an 
expert grade up each crop and grow a few hundred bushels every 
year for free distribution amongst the farmers. Even if each 
farmer received only five pounds of the very best of seed he would 
-oon have sufficient to seed his whole place. It is the duty of every 
farmer in Canada to see his Parliamentary representative and urge 
this upon him before the House meets in December. When the 
estimates for agriculture are being discussed, members of parliament 
should increase instead of cutting them down as is too often the 
case. An expert for each crop is what we need and what we must 
have — the sooner the better. 

In the year 1909 we had in Canada 269,650 acres of fodder corn. 
This gave us a yield of 2,779.500 tons, or 10.3 tons per acre. 
This was valued at $5.43 per ten, or a total of $15,115,500 
for the fodder corn grown in Canada in 1909. The value of one 
acre of fodder corn is $55-93 according to these figures. S'lnpose 
that Dr. Malte, or some other fodder expert, were to give Canada a 
new variety or a new strain of corn which would yield just 2 tons 
per acre more than the variety we grew in 1909 under the same con- 
ditions. This would mean an additional 539,300 tons of corn from 
the same acreage at an increased value of $2,928,399 or $10.86 per 
acre. Surely Canada can afford to pay for an expert who could do 
this good service for the farmers. 




PROFITS OF CULTIVATION 

IT does not matter how much fertilizer we apply to the soil it will 
never grow good crops unless we do considerable cultivating. 
The action of cultivating is valuable in two ways. In the first 
place, it kills the weeds. Canadian weeds are said to be valued, 
annually, at $27,000,000. In other words there is an annual loss of 
this amount to the farmers of Canada. This is a very conservative 
estimate for it amounts to only $27 per farm ! Suppose that every 
farmer were to spend an extra two days every year cultivating the 
worst weed field on his farm. This would be at a cost of $10 for 
man and team. On the average farm there would be about this 
value of weeds destroyed or so well checked that they would do little 
damage to the crop. Besides the loss in plant food and the soil 
moisture which would be saved for the crop there is the gain in not 
allowing the weeds to go to seed. Another saving which is import- 
ant will be that of binder twine. There is no use in cutting and 
binding the weeds with twine costing ten to fifteen cents per pound. 
Cultivation, besides killing the weeds, will liberate plant food for 
the use of the crop which is growing on the soil. It is hard to value 
the action of cultivation from this point of view. Every cultivation 
given will bring the soil to a finer tilth; will be the means of saving 
moisture for the crop; and will give freedom to a greater amount of 

18 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 

nourishment for the plants. If we can save moisture by proper 
cultivation it will pay us. In parts of the west this year the whole 
crop was lost because of lack of proper cultivation ! It is estimated 
that from this cause alone there are 50,000,000 bushels of wheat less 
in Canada than there were last year when there was abundance of 
rain. Farm implements that can save to the farmers of one country 
at least $50,000,000 in one year should be used more. See that they 
are being put in proper shape for use next spring. Each plant grow- 
ing as a weed costs the farmer at least two cents per year. How 
many two-cent pieces are growing on your farm? 




LET THE FARMERS HELP 



AMALGAMATIONS are not always the best things for the 
betterment of the country. Sometimes the incorporation of 
several associations into one is best for every class. All honor 
is due to the men who organized the Provincial Board of Trade for 
the Province of Ontario. Each city or town Board of Trade sends 
a delegate to the central board which has for its object the advance- 
ment of the province, the same as the local boards have for their 
object the advancement of the municipalities. The membership of 
these local boards consists of manufacturers, merchants, labor union- 
ists and other men of the cities and towns. This is good as far as 
it goes, but more should be done. 

Let us have a few farmers on these provincial boards. Agricul- 
ture is the mainstay of the Dominion and farmers should be able to 
give some valuable suggestions which would greatly help the 
"boosting" of Canada. Let every Farmers' Institute in the province 
appoint a delegate as a member of a Provincial Board of Trade. 
The farmers receive as much benefit from the advancement of Can- 
ada as do the city people. They are just as proud of the Dominion 
as are their city cousins. They are willing to do their share in 
building up this country. Then they should have a few suggestions 
to make which would assist the people of the city very much. Agri- 
culture as an occupation has been neglected in the past so let us 
commence these boards right and ask the farmers to offer their serv- 
ices for Canada. 

19 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 

Then why should there not be fanners on every Board of Trade? 
They are just as proud of their home town as are the people who 
live in that town. They know that the more manufacturing done in 
the town and the more business done, the better for themselves. We 
know of one farmer who, when speaking to an audience in his home 
town, told the town people that they should beautify the town by 
planting trees along the streets. The following spring the advice 
was taken and that town to-day is known far and wide for the num- 
bers of bhade trees along its streets. This is just ©ne instance of 
what the farmers might do if they were allowed a little say once in 
a while. The secret is to work together. What is good for the town 
is good for the country. All should do their best for the advance- 
ment of Canada. 

® ® 
COST ACCOUNTING 




T 



HE farmer who is alive to the 
possibilities and opportunities 
of his business will not 
neglect to have an accurate check 
on the dairy. The remarkable varia- 
tions in the earnings of cows render 
an accounting method imperative. 
Otherwise there is no means of pro- 
tecting against loss. In no other de- 
partment of the farm is reliable 
>?*data more necessary. Instances 
have been reported of profits from 
average cows in the same herd varying from .15 to $49.72. It has 
been found in some cases that 40 per cent, of the cows in a herd have 
been kept at an actual loss. The conditions by which real progress 
can be made in the dairying industry are peculiar and rarely exist in 
other lines of business. The country merchant can tell fairly well 
what his gain is, but the records of the scale and Babcock test for 
each cow is the only safe guide for the dairyman. 

Rule of thumb methods in business, by entailing waste and leak- 
age, vastly increase the cost of the products intended for market. 
These numerous leakholes — many of them small — taken in the 
aggregate make a sieve. The profits drip through this sieve, form 
a rivulet to the gutter, and are lost. The problem before the farmer 
is to get at the source of the difficulty and make the dollars flow into 
his pocket. 

The farming community is not the only class that is in this posi- 
tion. Many mercantile establishments that are presumed to be 
capably managed have losses from similar causes. 

The high cost of present day living is accounted for, in part, by 
the scarcity of food stuff's. It would be interesting to know what 
proportion of this shortage is caused by loose-jointed ways of con- 
ducting farming operations. The figures would doubtless be 
startling. 

Do you board cows purely for their company? 
20 





THE DOCTORS LEAD 

THE old idea that it was necessary for all children to fall vic- 
tims to the usual diseases of childhood, is happily fast van- 
ishing. Under modern education, people are realizing facts 
and daily becoming more capable of dealing with them. 

This issue contains an article by Doctor Helen MacMurchy, 
on a subject which calls for the attention of all thinking 
mothers, as well as the father and son, who come in for a 
timely bint and suggestion. Canadian cities have lately 'been 
bestirring themselves considerably as regards attention to the pub- 
lic health. Many improvements have been and are being made, 
from which we can look for direct benefit, with a stronger degree 
of confidence, for truth to tell, they have been a long time on the 
way. It is always easy to criticize, almost as easy as to give good 
advice, and both are met in much the same spirit, as a rule, if given 
on common grounds. But no one who possesses any degree of 
intelligence can deny the importance and call for our due consider- 
ation in all matters appertaining to the public health. It would 
appear that the natural thing would be a judicious prevention on the 
part of the authorities of all matters prejudicial to the health of the 
child. 

No better thing could happen in Canada than a crusade against 
children's diseases and the country could have no better allies than 
the farmer and his wife. If Dr. MacMurchy can only call them to 
her aid and ensure their co-operation the country will, indeed, owe 
her a debt of everlasting gratitude. The children whose mothers 
she has helped with her sympathy and knowledge will be a living 
tribute to her many evidences of public spirit and deep concern 
with the health of Canada's children. 



® ® 

ENCOURAGE MORE BUILDING 



f VJ. great deal to do with the upbuilding 

UN< - L, ;MST' °f the Canadian west. In Manitoba 

k^pn w^ii—^'^^il-A v an d British Columbia taxes are levied on 
^ ' ^-%s^3g*--^' f; '*i the value of the land and not on the value 

of the improvements. This encourages 
the erection of better buildings and the keeping of them in better 
state of repair. The landowner is sure that, no matter how many 
improvements he puts on his farm, the taxes will not be raised be- 
cause of this. He can put up a fine big frame barn with a com- 
fortable stable underneath, and also a splendid brick house, and be 
sure that his taxes will be the same as the year before. Not so in 

21 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



Ontario and the east, where improvements of all kinds are taxed 
to the limit, if not beyond. What does this mean? A comparison 
in figures may have some educational value in the matter. 

A. and B. have farms lying side by side. A's farm is in a town- 
ship where the land only is taxed, while B's farm is in the neighbor- 
ing township where they tax the land and all improvements made on 
it. The land assessment of both farms is $2,000, but B's farm is 
assessed at $4,000 on account of the buildings which are on it. 
Because of the land assessment only, A's tax rate is 17 mills on the 
dollar and therefore his taxes amount to $34. This is the amount 
of his taxes even if he erect a new house costing $40,000. On the 
other hand, B's tax rate is only 10 mills on the dollar and the taxes 
amount to $40. This is what he has to pay on the land and buildings 
he now has. Suppose he erects a new house costing $2,000. His 
assessment would then be increased to $5,000 and his taxes would 
immediately jump to $50. That is, because he was progressive 
enough to furnish himself with a com- 
fortable home, he had to pay an extra $10 
in taxes every year. These figures are not 
extreme. Surely the eastern portion of 
Canada is not going to allow the west 
to keep ahead of her in this respect. 





THE FARMERS AND THE NAVY 

SOME people think that Bourassa's success in his Quebec cam- 
paign against the navy was due to French-Canadianism. But 
suppose the same circumstances arose in Ontario. Suppose a 
man, as gifted as Bourassa, rose among the farmers of Ontario and 
commenced a similar campaign. What would be the result? 

Of course, Ontario is Tory. It would probably go out of its 
way to condemn Laurier, anyway, just as the Liberals once con- 
demned Sir John Macdonald — just as most of the pewholders in 
either of the party congregations would pray for the destruction of 
the other party. But, leaving party politics aside, would the Cana- 
dian farmer condemn the navy or approve it? We think he would 
be inclined to support an Ontario "Bourassa," if one came. He 
would condemn it. 

The navy is begun. The first two ships have arrived, and Canada 
is "in for it." Now that we have it, the thing to do is to take good 
care of it. It will do no one any good to wrangle about what it 
should have been. Having bought it, let us pretend we want it. It 
is as though an implement agent had talked us into buying a 
thresher on the instalment plan, and now, when the "spell" is gone 
we wonder why we did it. 

There were two things to blame: the German scare (in which 
the British shipbuilders and divers politicians are said to have been 

22 



EDITORIAL 

peculiarly interested) — and Earl Grey. His Excellency runs to Im- 
perialism. The German scare made the whole Empire run to ships. 
Australia bought 'em, New Zealand bought 'em. Each of us tried 
to outdo the other in the latest fashion — ships. His Excellency, we 
have reason to believe, wielded more than the approved influence 
of Governors-General in favor of a Canadian navy-ism. 

When you consider it carefully, it seems that the Premier came 
off very well. He compromised. We escaped buying a floating 
elephant in the shape of a Dreadnaught, but we have secured 'two 
young hippipotami in the shape of cruisers. So we have something 
for which to be thankful. 

But, all around, it seems likely that if the German scare and 
Earl Grey had not given everybody such a fright, we would not 
now be contracted for the "keep" of the Niobe and the Rainbow. 





EGG PROBLEMS 

THERE has always been a considerable loss in shipping eggs, 
especially in hot weather. Towards fall, eggs are sometimes 

held for a week or more with the hope of increased prices. 

This results in a greater loss of spoiled eggs. To stop this loss 
the produce merchants are asking for a law to make it unlawful to 
offer for sale eggs which are unfit for food. These merchants are 
going after this reform in the wrong way. We do not need any law 
to stop the loss — what we do need is a different method of buying 
eggs. Let the merchants buy the eggs according to their quality 
and grading and they will soon see an improvement in the condition 
of eggs. 

At present all eggs are bought for the same price whether they 
are fresh or stale ; whether they are large or small ; or whether they 
are white or brown. What the farmer wants is a simple method to 
guarantee the soundness of his eggs. He can have it for the sum of 
one dollar. Buy a small rubber stamp with his name and address 
on it — seventy-five cents — and an inking pad — twenty-five cents — 
and the outfit is complete. When you are placing your eggs in the 
packing cases grade them as to size and color and at the same time 
stamp your name and address on each egg. This is as good as a 
guarantee that the eggs are fresh. Market them often and you will 
he able to secure from i to 10 cents per dozen extra for your eggs. 
The first cost of the outfit is $i ; the extra time required for marking 
and grading will amount to about three minutes per dozen, valued 
at i cent; the extra amount received for the eggs averages five 
cents per dozen. Therefore the extra profit will pay for the stamp- 
ing outfit when 25 dozen eggs have been sold. After that there is 
a net extra profit of four cents per dozen on the average. Change 
the system to encourage quality instead of putting a premium on 
dishonesty. Fewer eggs will then be dumped into the lakes. 



f — .^ 

The Trail 




Robert W. Service 

Author of "The Songs of a Sourdough" 
and "Ballads of a Cheechako." 



(Registered in accordance with the Copyright Act by Robert W. Service. 
Canadian serial rights owned by The MacLean Publishing Company.) 



BOOK I 



THE ROAD 10 ANYWHERE 

This is the laiv of the Yukon, and ever she makes it plain ; 

' ' Send not your Joolish and feeble ; send meyour strong and your sane. 

Strong for the red rage of battle ; sane, for I harry them sore ; 

Send me men girt for the combat, men ivho are grit to the core ; 

Swift as the panther in triumph, fierce as the bear in defeat, 

Sired of a bulldog parent, steeled in the Jurnace heat. 

Send me the best of your breeding, lend meyour chosen ones ; 

Them ivill I take to my bosom, them ivill I call my sons ; 

Them will I gild nvith my treasure, them ivill I glut avith my meat; 

But the others — the misfits, the failures — I trample under my feet.'"'' 

— ' ' Songs of a Sourdough. ' 



T 



PRELUDE. 

HE north wind is keening over- 
head. It minds me of the howl of 
a wolf-dog under the Arctic 
stars. Sitting alone by the glow of 
the great peat fire I can hear it high 
up in the braeside firs. It is the voice, 
inexorably scornful, of the Great 
White Land. 

Oh, I hate it, I hate it ! Why can- 
not a man be allowed to forget? It is 
near ten years since I joined the Eager 

24 



Army. I have travelled: I have been 
a pilgrim to the shrines of beauty; I 
have pursued the phantom of happi- 
ness even to the ends of the earth. 
Still it is always the same — I cannot 
forget. 

Why should a man be ever shadow- 
ed by the vampire wing of his past? 
Have I not a right to be happy? 
Money, estate, name, are mine, all 
that means an open sesame to the 
magic door. Others go in, but I 
beat against its flinty portals with 



THE TRAIL OF '98 



hands that bleed. No ! I have no 
right to be happy. The ways of the 
world are open ; the banquet of life is 
spread ; the wonder-workers plan 
their pageants of beauty and joy, and 
yet there is no praise in my heart. I 
have seen, I have tasted, I have tired. 
Ashes and dust and bitterness are all 
my gain, I will try no more. It is the 
shadow of the vampire wing. 

So I sit in the glow of the great 
peat fire, tired and sad beyond belief. 
Thank God! at least I am home. 
Everything is so little changed. The 
fire lights the oak-panelled hall ; the 
crossed claymores gleam ; the eyes in 
the mounted deer-heads shine glass- 
ily; rugs of fur cover the polished 
floor ; all is comfort, home and the 
haunting atmosphere of my boyhood. 
Sometimes I fancy it has been a 
dream, the Great White Silence, the 
lure of the gold>-spell, the delirium of 
the struggle ; a dream, and I will 
awake to hear Garry calling me to 
shoot over the moor, to see dear little 
mother with her meek sensitive mouth, 
and her cheeks as delicately tinted as 
the leaves of a briar rose. But no ! 
The hall is silent. Mother has gone 
to her long rest. Garry sleeps under 
the snow. Silence everywhere ; I am 
alone, alone. 

So I sit in the big, oak-carved chair 
of my forefathers, before the great 
peat fire, a peak-faced drooping figure 
of a man with hair untimely grey. My 
crutch lies on the floor by my side. 
My old nurse comes up quietly to 
look at the fire. Her rosy, wrinkled 
face smiles cheerfully, but I can see 
the anxiety in her blue eyes. She is 
afraid for me. Maybe the doctor has 
told her — something. 



No doubt my days are numbered, so 
I am minded to tell of it all : of the 
Big Stampede, of the Treasure Trail, 
of the Gold-born City ; of those who 
followed the gold-lure into the Great 
White Land, of the evil that befell 
them, of Garry and of Berna. Per- 
haps it will comfort me to tell of these 
things. To-morrow I will begin ; to- 
night, leave me to my memories. 

Berna! I spoke of her last. She 
rises before me now with her spirit- 
pale face and her great troubleful grey 
eyes, a little tragic figure, ineffably 
pitiful. Where are you now, little 
one? I have searched the world for 
you. I have scanned a million faces. 
Day and night have I sought, always 
hoping, always baffled, for, God help 
me, dear, I love you. Among that 
mad lusting horde, you were so weak, 
so helpless, yet so 'hungry for love. 

With the aid of my crutch I imlatch 
one of the long windows, and step out 
onto the terrace. From the cavernous 
dark the snowflakes sting my face. 
Yet as I stand there, once more I have 
a sense of another land, of imperious 
vastitudes, of a silent empire, unfath- 
omably lonely. 

Ghosts ! They are all around me. 
The darkness teams with them, Garry, 
my brother, among them. Then they 
all fade and give way to one face. . . 

Berna, I love you always. Out of 
the night I cry to you, Berna, the cry 
of a broken heart. Is it your little 
pitiful ghost that comes down to me? 
Oh, I am waiting, zvaiting. Here will 
I wait, Berna, till zve meet once more. 
For meet we will, beyond the mists, 
beyond the dreaming, at last, dear 
love, at last. 



THE ROAD TO ANYWHERE 

Can you recall, dear comrade, ivhen <we tramped God'' s land together, 
Andnve sang the old, old Earth-Song, for our youth ivas very siveet; 

When ive drank and Jought and lusted, as ive mocked at tie and tether, 
Along the road to Anywhere, the ivide world at our feet. 

Along the road to Anywhere, ivhen each day had its story; 

When time ivas yet our vassal, and life's jest ivas still unstale; 
When peace unfathomed filled our hearts as, bathed in amber glory, 

Along the road to Anywhere ive watched the sunsets pale. 



25 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 

Alas', the roa.i to Anywhere is pitf ailed with disaster; 

There's hunger, want, and weariness, yet O we loved it so! 
As on -we tramped exultantly, and no man was our master, 

And no man guessed what dreams -were ours, as swinging heel and toe, 
We tramped the road to Anywhere, the magic road to Anywhere, 
The tragic road to Anywhere such dear, dim years ago. 

— " Songs of a Sourdough. 



CHAPTER I. 

As far back as I can remember I 
have faithfully followed the banner of 
Romance. It has given colour to my 
life, made me a dreamer of dreams, a 
player of parts. As a boy, roaming 
alone the wild heather hills, I have 
heard the glad shouts of the football 
players on the green, yet never ettled 
to join them. Mine was the richer, 
rare joy. Still can I see myself in 
those days, a little shy-mannered lad 
in kilts, bareheaded to the hill breezes, 
with health-nbright cheeks, and a soul 
happed up in dreams. 

And, indeed, I lived in an enchanted 
land, a land of griffins and kelpies, of 
princesses and gleaming knights. 
From each black tarn I looked to see 
a scaly reptile rise, from every fear- 
some cave a corby emerge. There 
were green spaces among the heather 
where the fairies danced, and every 
scaur and linn had its own familiar 
spirit. I peopled the good green 
wood with the wild creatures of my 
thought, nymph and faun, naiad and 
dryad, and would have been in nowise 
surprised to meet in the leafy coolness 
the great god Pan himself. 

It was at night, however, that my 
dreams were most compelling. I 
=trove against the tyranny of sleep. 
Lying in my small bed, I revelled in 
delectable imaginings. Night after 
night I fought battles, devised page- 
ants, partitioned empires. I gloried 
in details. My rugged war-lords 
were very real to me, and my adven- 
tures sounded many periods of his- 
tory. I was a solitary caveman with 
an axe of stone ; I was a Roman 
soldier of fortune ; I was a Highland 
outlaw of the* Rebellion. Always I 
fought for a lost cause, and always 
my sympathies were with the rebel. 

26 



I feasted with Robin Hood on the 
King's venison ; I fared forth with 
Dick Turpin on the gibbet-haunted 
heath ; I followed Morgan, the Buc- 
caneer, into strange and exotic lands 
of trial and treasure. Il was a wond- 
erful gift of visioning that was mine 
in those days. 

It was the bird-like flight of the 
pure child-mind to whom the unreal 
is yet the real. 

Then, suddenly, I arrived at a 
second phase of my mental growth in 
which fancy usurped the place of im- 
agination. The modern equivalents 
of Romance attracted me, and, with 
my increasing grasp of reality, my 
gift of vision faded. As I had hither- 
to dreamed of knight-errants, of cors- 
airs and of outlaws, I now dreamed of 
cowboys, of gold-seekers, of beach- 
combers. Fancy painted scenes in 
which I, too, should play a rousing 
part. I read avidly all I could find 
dealing with the Far West, and ever 
my wistful gaze roved over the grey 
sea. The spirit of Romance beaconed 
to me. I, too, would adventure in the 
stranger lands, and face their perils 
and brave their dangers. The joy of 
the thought exulted in my veins, and 
scarce could I bide the day when the 
roads of chance and change would be 
open to my feet. 

It is strange that in all these years 
I confided in none. Garry, who was 
my brother and my dearest friend, 
would have laughed at me in that 
affectionate way of his. You would 
never have taken us for brothers. We 
were so different in temperament and 
appearance that we were almost the 
reverse of each other. He was the 
handsomest boy I have ever seen, 
frank, fair-skinned and winning, 
while I was dark, dour and none too 



THE TRAIL OF '98 



well favoured. He was the best run- 
ner and swimmer in the parish, and 
the idol of the village lads. I cared 
nothing for games and would be 
found somewhere among the heather 
hills, always by my lone self and near- 
ly always with a story book in my 
pocket. He was clever, practical and 
ambitious, excelling in all his studies ; 
whereas, except in those which appeal- 
ed to my imagination, I was a dullard 
and a dreamer. 

Yet we loved each other as few 
brothers do. Oh, how I admired 
him ! He was my ideal, and too often 
the hero of my romances. Garry 
would have laughed at my hero- 
worship ; he was so matter-of-fact, 
effective and practical. Yet he under- 
stood me, my Celtic ideality, and that 
shy reserve which is the armour of 
a sensitive soul. Garry in his fine, 
clever way knew me and shielded me 
and cheered me. He was so buoyant 
and charming he heartened you like 
Spring sunshine, and braced you like 
a morning wind on the mountain top. 
Yes, not excepting Mother, Garry 
knew me better than any one has ever 
done, and I loved him for it. It seems 
overfond to say this, but he did not 
have a fault : tenderness, humour, en- 
thusiasm, sympathy and the beauty of 
a young god, all that was manfully 
endearing was expressed in this 
brother of mine. 

So we grew to manhood there in 
that West Highland country, and 
surely our lives were pure and simple 
and sweet. I had never been further 
from home than the little market town 
where we sold our sheep. Mother 
managed the estate till Garry was old 
enough, when he took hold with a 
vigour and grasp that delighted every 
one. I think our little Mother stood 
rather in awe of my keen, capable, 
energetic brother. There was in her 
a certain dreamy wistful idealism that 
made her beautiful in my eyes, and to 
look on she was as fair as any picture. 
Specially do I remember the delicate 
colouring of her face and her eyes, 
blue like deep corn-flowers. She was 
not overstrong, and took much com- 



fort from religion. Her lips, which 
were fine and sensitive, had a particu- 
larly sweet expression, and I wish to 
record of her that never once did I see 
her cross, always sweet, gentle, smil- 
ing. 

So our home was an ideal one; 
Garry, tall, fair and winsome; myself, 
dark, dreamy, reticent; and between 
us, linking all three in a perfect bond 
of love and sympathy, our gentle, 
delicate Mother. 



CHAPTER II. 

So in serenity and sunshine the days 
of my youth went past. I still main- 
tained my character as a drone and 
a dreamer. I used my time tramping 
the moorland with a gun, whipping 
the foamy pools of the burn for trout. 
or reading voraciously in the library. 
Mostly I read books of travel, and es- 
pecially did I relish the literature of 
Vagabondia. I had come under the 
spell of Stevenson. His name spelled 
Romance to me, and my fancy etched 
him in his lonely exile. Forthright I 
determined I too would seek these ul- 
timate islands, and from that moment 
I was a changed being. I nursed the 
thought with joyous enthusiasm. 1 
would be a frontiersman, a trail- 
breaker, a treasure-seeker. The vir- 
gin prairies called to me; the susurrus 
of the giant pines echoed in my heart; 
but most of all, I felt the spell of those 
gentle islands where care is a stranger, 
and all is sunshine, song and the glow- 
ing bloom of eternal summer. 

About this time Mother must have 
worried a good deal over my future. 
Garry was now the young Laird, and 
I was but an idler, a burden on the 
estate. At last I told her I wanted to 
go abroad, and then it seemed as if a 
great difficulty was solved. We re- 
membered of a cousin who was sheep- 
ranching in the Saskatchewan valley 
and had done well. It was arranged 
that I should join him as a pupil, then, 
when I had learned enough, buy a 
place of my own. It may be imagined 
that while I apparently acquiesced in 

27 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE 



this arrangement, I had already deter- 
mined that as soon as I reached the 
new land I would take my destiny in- 
to my own hands. 

I will never forget the damp journ- 
ey to Glasgow and the misty landscape 
viewed through the streaming window 
pane of a railway carriage. I was in 
a wondrous state of elation. When 
we reached the great smoky city I was 
lost in amazement not unmixed with 
fear. Never had I imagined such 
crowds, such houses, such hurry. The 
three of us, Mother, Garry and I, 
wandered and wondered for three 
days. Folks gazed at us curiously, 
sometimes admiringly, for our cheeks 
were bright with Highland health, and 
our eyes candid as the June skies. 
Garry in particular, tall, fair and 
handsome, seemed to call forth glanc- 
es of interest wherever he went. Then 
as the hour of my departure drew 
near a shadow fell on its. 

I will not dwell on our leave-taking. 
If I broke down in unmanly grief, it 
must be remembered I had never be- 
fore been from home. I was but a lad, 
and these two were all in all to me. 
Mother gave up trying to be brave, 
and mingled her tears with mine. 
Garry alone contrived to make some 
show of cheerfulness. Alas ! all my 
elation had gone. In its place was a 
sense of guilt, of desertion, of uncon- 
querable gloom. I had an inkling 
then of the tragedy of motherhood, 
the tender love that would hold, yet 
cannot, the world-call and the ruth- 
less, estranging years, all the memor- 
ies of clinging love given only to be 
taken away. 

"Don't cry, sweetheart Mother," I 
said ; "I'll be back again in three 
years." 

"Mind you do, my boy, mind you 
do." 

She looked at me woefully sad, and 
I had a queer, heart-rending prevision 
I would never see her more. Garry 
was supporting her, and she seemed 
to have suddenly grown very frail. 
He was pale and quiet, but I could see 
he was vastly moved. 

28 



"Athol," said he, "if ever you need 
me just send for me. I'll come no 
matter how long or how hard the 
way." 

I can see them to this day standing 
there in the drenching rain, Garry fine 
and manly, Mother small and droop- 
ing. I can see her with her delicate 
rose colour, her eyes like wood violets 
drowned in tears, her tender, sensitive 
lips quivering with emotion. 

"Good-bye, laddie, good-bye." 

I forced myself away, and stumbled 
on board. When I looked back again 
they were gone, but through the grey 
shadows there seemed to come back 
to me a cry of heartache and irremed- 
iable loss. 

"Good-bye, good-bye." 



CHAPTER III. 

It was on a day of early Autumn 
when I stood knee-deep in the heather 
of Glengyle, and looked wistfully over 
the grey sea. 'Twas but a month later 
when, homeless and friendless, I stood 
on the beach by the Cliff House of 
San Francisco, and gazed over the 
fretful waters of another ocean. Such 
is the romance of destiny. 

Consigned, so to speak, to my cous- 
in, the sheep-raiser of the Saskatche- 
wan, I found myself setting foot on 
the strange land with but little heart 
for my new vocation. My mind, 
cramful of book notions, craved for 
the larger life. I was valiantly mad 
for adventure ; to fare forth hap 
hazardly ; to come upon naked dang- 
er ; to feel the bludgeonings of mis- 
chance ; to tramp, to starve, to sleep 
under the stars. It was the callow 
boy-idea perpetuated in the man, and 
it was to lead me a sorry dance. But 
I could not overbear it. Strong in me 
was the spirit of the gypsy. The joy 
of youth and health was brawling in 
my veins. A few thistledown years, 
said I, would not matter. And there 
was Stevenson and his glamorous 
islands winning me on. 

So it came about I stood solitary on 
the beach by the seal rocks, with a 



THE TRAIL OF '98 



thousand memories confusing in my 
head. There was the long train ride 
with its strange pictures : the crude 
farms, the glooming forests, the 
gleaming lakes that would drown my 
whole country, the aching plains, the 
mountains that rip-sawed the sky, the 
fear-made-eternal of the desert. Last- 
ly, a sudden, sunlit paradise, Cali- 
fornia. 

I had lived through a week of 
wizardry such as I had never dreamed 
of, and here was I at the very throne 
of Western empire. And what a place 
it was, and what a people — with the 
imperious mood of the West softened 
by the spell of the Orient and mellow- 
ed by the glamour of Old Spain. San 
Francisco! A score of tongues 
clamoured in her streets and in her 
byeways, a score of races lurked aus- 
terely. She suckled at her breast the 
children of the old grey nations and 
gave them of her spirit, that swift 
purposeful spirit so proud of past 
achievement and so convinced of glor- 
ious destiny. 

I marvelled at the rush of affairs 
and the zest of amusement. Every 
one seemed to be making money easily 
and spending it eagerly. Every one 
was happy, sanguine, strenuous. At 
night Market Street was a dazzling 
alley of light, where stalwart men and 
handsome women jostled in and out 
of the glittering restaurants. Yet 
amid this eager passionate life I felt a 
dreary sense of outsideness. At times 
my heart fairly ached with loneliness, 
and I wandered the pathways of the 
park, or sat forlornly in Portsmouth 
Square as remote from it all as a 
gazer on his mountain top beneath the 
stars. 

I became a dreamer of the water 
front, for the notion of the South Seas 
was ever in my head. I loafed in the 
sunshine, sitting on the pier-edge. 
with eyes fixed on the lazy shipping. 
These were care-free, irresponsible 
days, and not, I am now convinced, 
entirely misspent. I came to know 
the worthies of the wharfside. and 
plunged into an under-world of fas- 
cinating repellency. Crimpdom eyed 



and tempted me, but it was always 
with whales or seals, and never with 
pearls or copra. I rubbed shoulders 
with eager necessity, scrambled for 
free lunches in frowsy barrooms, and 
amid the scum and debris of the 
waterside found much food for sober 
thought. Yet at times I blamed my- 
self for thus misusing my days, and 
memories of Glengyle and Mother 
and Garry loomed up with reproach- 
ful vividness. 

I was, too, a seeker of curious ex- 
perience, and this was to prove my un- 
doing. The night-side of the city was 
unveiled to me. With the assurance 
of innocence I wandered everywhere. 
I penetrated the warrens of under- 
ground Chinatown, wondering why 
white women lived there, and why 
they hid at sight of me. Alone I poked 
my way into the opium joints and the 
gambling dens. Once I stumbled on 
an alley of the unsexed. Men, flushed 
and gloating, were streaming up and 
down it. for its shame was screened 
from the public street. Nearly 200 
windows were there, and in each 
were the wares displayed as alluringly 
as might be. I wondered what my 
grim, covenating ancestors would have 
made of it. I never thought to have 
seen the like, and with my high-flown 
notions it was like a shock to me. God 
knows I have seen enough since to 
make me callous to such things. 

My nocturnal explorations came to 
a sudden end. One foggy midnight, 
coming up Pacific Street with its glut 
of saloons, I was clouted shrewdly 
from behind and dropped most neatly 
in the gutter. When I came to, very 
sick and dizzy in a side alley, I found 
I had been robbed of my pockerbook 
with nearly all my money therein. 
Fortunately I had left my watch in the 
hotel safe, and by selling it was not en- 
tirely destitute ; but the situation 
forced me from my citadel of pleas- 
ant dreams, and confronted me with 
the grimmer realties of life. 

I became a habitue of the ten-cent 
restaurant. I was amazed to find how 
excellent a meal I could have for ten 
cents. Oh for the uncaptious appetite 

29 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



of these haphazard days! With some 
thirty odd dollars standing between 
me and starvation, it was obvious I 
must become a hewer of wood and a 
drawer of water, and to this end I 
haunted the employment offices. They 
were bare, sordid rooms, crowded by 
men who chewed, swapped stories, 
yawned and studied the blackboards 
where the day's wants were set forth. 
Only driven to labor by dire necessi- 
ty, their lives. I found, held three 
phases — looking for work, working, 
spending the proceeds. They were 
the Great Unskilled, face to face with 
the necessary evil of toil. 

One morning, on seeking my favor- 
ite labor bureau, I found an unusual 
flutter among the bench-warners. A 
big contractor wanted fifty men im- 
mediately. No experience was re- 
quired, and the wages were to be two 
dollars a day. With a number of 
others I pressed forward, was inter- 
viewed and accepted. The same day 
we were marched in a body to the 
railway depot, and herded into a 
fourth-class car. 

Where we were going I knew not ; 
of what we were going to do I had no 
inkling. I only knew we were south- 
bound, and at long last I might fairly 
consider myself to be the shuttlecock 
of fortune. 



CHAPTER IV. 

I left San Francisco blanketed in 
grey fog and besomed by a roaring 
wind ; when I opened my eyes I was 
in a land of spacious sky and broad, 
clean sunshine. Orange groves rushed 
to welcome us ; orchards of almond 
and olive twinkled joyfully in the 
limpid air; tall, gaunt and ragged, the 
scaly eucalyptus fluttered at us a 
morning greeting, while snowy houses, 
wallowing in greenery, flashed a smile 
at us as we rumbled past. It seemed 
like a land of promise, of song and 
sunshine, and silent and apart I sat to 
admire and to enjoy. 

"Looks pretty swell, don't it?" 
I will call him the Prodigal. He 
was about my own age, thin, but sun- 

30 



browned and healthy. His hair was 
darkly red and silky, his teeth white 
and even as young corn. His eyes 
twinkled with a humorsome light, but 
his face was shrewd, alert and ag- 
gressive. 

"Yes," I said soberly, for I have al- 
ways been backward with strangers. 

"Pretty good line. The banana belt. 
Old Sol working overtime. Blossom 
and fruit cavorting on the same tree. 
Eternal summer. Land of the Man- 
ana, the festive frijole, the never- 
chilly Chili. Ever been here before?" 

"No." 

"Neither have I. Glad I came, even 
if it's to do the horny-handed son of 
toil stunt. Got the makings?" 

"No, I'm sorry; I don't smoke." 

"All right, guess I got enough." 

He pulled forth a limp sack of 
powdery tobacco, and spilled some 
grains into a brown cigarette paper, 
twisting it deftly and bending over the 
ends. Then he smoked with such en- 
joyment that I envied him. 

"Where are we going, have you any 
idea?" I asked. 

"Search me," he said, inhaling 
deeply; "the guy in charge isn't exact- 
ly a free information bureau. When 
it comes to peddling the bull con he's 
there, but when you try to pry off a 
few slabs of cold hard fact it's his 
Sunday off." 

"But," I persisted, "have you no 
idea?" 

"Well, one thing you can bank on, 
they'll work the Judas out of us. The 
gentle grafter nestles in our midst. 
This here's a cinch game and we are 
the fall guys. The contractors are a 
bum outfit. They'll squeeze us at 
every turn. There was two plunks to 
the employment man ; they got half. 
Twenty for railway fare ; they come 
in on that. Stop at certain hotels : a 
rake-off there. Stage fare : more 
graft. Five dollars a week for board : 
costs them two fifty, and they will be 
stomach robbers at that. Then they 
will ring in twice as many men as they 
need, and lay us off half the time, so 



THE TRAIL OF '98 



that we just about even up on our 
board bill. Oh, I am onto their curves, 
all right." 

"Then," I said, "if you know so 
much why did you come with us?" 

"Well, if I know so much you just 
bet I know some more. I'll go one 
better. You watch my smoke." 

He talked on with a wonderful vivid 
manner and an outpouring knowledge 
of life, so that I was hugely interested. 
Yet ever and anon an allusion of taste 
would betray him, so that at no time 
did I fail to see that his roughness was 
only a veneer. As it turned out he 
was better educated by far than I, a 
Yale boy taking a post-graduate 
course in the University of Hard 
Luck. 

• My reserve once thawed, I told him 
much of my simple life. He listened, 
intently sympathetic. 

"Say," said he earnestly when I had 
finished, "I'm rough-and-ready in my 
ways. Life to me's a game, sort of 
masquerade, and I'm the worst mas- 
querader in the bunch. But I know 
how to handle myself, and I can jolly 
my way along pretty well. Now, 
you're green, if you'll excuse me say- 
ing it, and maybe I can help you some. 
Likewise you're the only one in all the 
gang of hobos that's my kind. Come 
on, let's be partners." 

I felt greatly drawn to him and 
agreed gladly. 

"Now," said he, "I must go and 
jolly along the other boys. Aren't they 
a fierce bunch? Colored gentlemen, 
Slavonians, Polaks, Dagoes, Swedes — 
well, I'll go prospecting, and see what 
I can strike." 

He went among them with a jabber 
of strange terms, a bright smile and 
ready banter, so that I could see that 
he was to be a quick favorite. I en- 
vied him for his ease of manner, a 
thing I could never compass. Present- 
ly he returned to me. 

"Say, partner, got any money?" 

There was something frank and 
compelling in his manner, so that I 



produced the few dollars I had left, 
and spread them before him. 

"That's all my wealth," I said 
smilingly. 

He divided it into two equal por- 
tions and returned one to me. He 
took a note of the other, saying: 

"All right, I'll settle up with you 
later on." 

He went off with my money. He 
seemed to take it for granted I would 
not object, and on my part I cared 
little, being only too eager to show I 
trusted him. A few minutes later be- 
hold him seated at a card-table with 
three rough-necked, hard-bitten-look- 
ing men. They were playing poker, 
and, thinks I : "Here's good-bye to my 
money." It reminded me of wolves 
and a lamb. I felt sorry for my new 
friend, and I was only glad he had so 
little to lose. 

We were drawing in to Los Angeles 
when he rejoined me. To my surprise 
he emptied his pockets of wrinkled 
notes and winking silver to the tune of 
twenty dollars, and dividing it equally, 
handed half to me. 

"Here, says he, "plant that in your 
dip." 

"No," I said, "just give me back 
what you borrowed; that's all I want." 

"Oh, forget it ! You staked me, and 
it's well won. These guinneys took 
me for a jay. Thought I was easy, 
but I've forgotten more than ever they 
knew, and I haven't forgotten so much 
either." 

"No, you keep it, please. I don't 
want it." 

"Oh, come ! put your Scotch scru- 
ples in your pocket. Take the money." 

"No," I said obstinately. 

"Look here, this partnership of ours 
is based on financial equality. If you 
don't like my gate, you don't need to 
swing on it." 

"All right," said I tartly, "I don't 
want to." 

Then I turned on my heel. 

(To be Continued.) 

t I 31 




The following is the first instalment of a series of articles writ- 
ten from Ottawa for Farmer's. It is the Diary of a Back- 
Bencher, scribbled on odd bits of paper as he sits in the House 
listening, or trying not to listen, to somebody's speeches. From his 
vantage point at the back of the Chamber he often gets a view of 
things that is interesting. This particular member is a Liberal, but 
that does not prevent him from saying what he pleases. In this 
month's instalment he describes the 'Making of a Back-Benchcr." 
He tells, in his oivn way, just as though he were merely talking to 
himself, or to his desk, how he came into the House of Commons, a 
nezu member, and hozu from being an ambitious youngster, anxious 
to mend all the cracks in the Nation's affairs, he drifted into one of 
the good fellows in the last few rows. 



I'M going to quit whittling the top 
of this desk. It's a nervous habit. 
Time I stopped. Remember I used 
to do that when I was a kid at school, 
— carving my initials and the initials 
of the little girl across the aisle. But 
when a man can't smoke what can he 
do? There's Ned Macd'onald from 
Pictou talking, talking, talking — My 
word! you'd think it was Mark An- 
tony's oration. You can't smoke and 
you can't play cards in here. The 
other fellows are mostly writing 
letters, although little "What's His 
Name," the French-Canadian from 

34 



Quebec, who sits beside me, he's 
drawing horses on his blotter. He 
can't bear sitting in here and listening 
to long speeches either. He draws 
good horses, that fellow does, only he 
doesn't draw their hind legs right, 
makes the knees bend the wrong way. 
Still, he makes a better horse than I 
can, so I needn't say anything. Spent 
a whole hour last week while Fielding 
was talking about something, trying 
to draw one but I couldn't. It looked 
like one of those vaulting arrange- 
ments they have in gymnasiums. 

People have queer notions about 
members of Parliament. I used to 



THE DIARY OF A BACK BENCHER 

In Parliament there are three classes of men. There are the suc- 
cessful Parliamentarians, those who lead attacks and repel them; 
those who are masters of statistics, like George Foster, and those 
who can kill time pleasantly and hold off the ringing of the Division 
Bell. They are in the first class. 

In the second, — a pathetic sort of class, are the men who are 
trying to amount to something but the most of whom never will. 
They include the man with hobbies, the man with an impediment in 
his speech, the Frenchman who is trying to exercise his English, — 
and others. 



have them. Used to think that what 
was wanted 1 in Parliament was honest 
men. Used to figure out that I was 
fair to middling honest myself and I'd 
be a good sort of an addition to the 
House of Commons. That's why I 
let them put me up and elect me, al- 
though, I suppose I might as well be 
honest with myself and admit that my 
wife wanted the honor in the family 
and I wasn't averse myself to having 
it said I'd been to Parliament and sat 
for the Seat of North-West Branfrew. 
That'll be when I'm dead and that 
son of mine runs the mills. But it's 
three years since I came, — came in on 
the last election, and you learn many 
things in Parliament in that space of 
time. 

Remember coming up to Ottawa 
for the opening of the Session with 
my wife. They didn't introduce me 
to the House for a few days so we 
looked around. Neither of us had been 
in the town before. Saw "The Hill" 
and walked all around it. Went 
through Booth's Mill and the Eddy 
Mill and held the wife by the shoulder 
when we looked over the bridge at 
the Chaudiere Falls — she always 
says she's afraid she'll jump in, when 
she sees water running fast under a 
bridge. Booth people showed me 
their system for checking costs. I 
adapted it to my own mill down in 
Branfrew. Using it yet. Good sys- 
tem too, for — but then it's bad policy 
to tell people how you run your busi- 
ness, and besides they are never in- 
terested in it as you are yourself. 



In about two weeks they introduced 
me into the House. Maud wanted to 
stay in the Gallery and see me come 
in, so I let her, more fool ! Minute 
the green baize doors opened with 
me on Laurier's arm and Tommy 

, the Whip for my part of 

the country, on my other side, I could 
just feel her eyes on me, watching 
how I walked, how I shoved my hand 
ouito the Speaker, and how I took 
my seat. I knew I was blushing like 
a little chit of a girl — and me a busi- 
ness man and forty ! She told me 
afterward that she remembered that 
there was a button off my vest which 
must have showed. It worried me 
then but it wouldn't now. 

At that time I felt rather satisfied. 
The Chief (Laurier) has a way of 
taking your arm, or resting his long 
thin hand on your shoulder, that 
makes you feel easy. All the fellows 
on our side of the House pounded 
their desks as soon as I was inside the 
door, and it made me feel a little bit 
scared, like when you show a new 
broken colt the new set of harness. I 
tripped on the old ragged carpet go- 
ing back to my seat, but when I got 
there I felt all right again and Maud 
said I looked all right, so I guess I 
didn't make a fool of myself. 

I used to listen to the speeches 
pretty close then. Used to read the 
blue books and dig up all sorts of 
data in the Library of Parliament. 
But I soon got over that. Listen ! 
There's Ned Macdonald at it yet, and 
am I hearing what he says? Listen- 

33 



i ; \.RMER'S MAGAZINE 

Bin in the third class arc "the back-benchers" the men who 
occupy the last rows of scats on cither side. They never make 
speeches. They sit quiet in committee and take nobody's side until 
it conies to a vote. Then, they stand up with the rest of the men on 
their own side, unless the matter be a local issue in their own con- 
stituencies and their vote will be noticed. How they hold their seats 
in the House is sometimes a mystery. But they do. They spend 
zveeks in every session carefully going over the voters' lists in their 
own districts, writing letters of condolence to some obscure voter's 
family when a death lias occurred, and mailing tons of hand-selected 



ing? My word'! he's talking about the 
protection of the rights of the people, 
the elimination of "sectional differ- 
ences" or something and our duty to 
our King and our "glorious flag." 
No sir ! After the first two speeches 
have 'been delivered on either side in 
the debate on a new topic nobody 
needs to say any more, so far as I'm 
concerned. That's why al'l these 
desks are whittled to bits and ah these 
other Back Bench men are writing 
so many letters home. And that's 
why little Francois Xavier keeps on 
drawing horses wi'rh bad legs. 

II. 

Sit here three years and you'll see 
the process of making great men and 
back-benchers. I'm a back-bencher, 
but I've no regrets. I like sitting here 
and just 'watching things. Look at 
Laurier, look at little Mackenzie 
King. Look at George Graham — I 
like that fellow — and' look at us fel- 
lows in the back row. There are 
three of us in the last string of seats 
that ought to amount to something; 
they've only been in the House a 
little while. But the rest of us are 
going to sit in these seats and say noth- 
ing till the crack of doom or until the 
Government gets beaten, or our 
people throw us down. Down in 
those seats a little nearer the front 
are some fellows who haven't realized 
yet how hopeless they are. Nice fel- 
lows most of them, though I have my 
own opinion about that man from 
North Herbert, and they are allowed 
to talk ■whenever they won't do any 

36 



harm. There's a sort of a "Children's 
Hour" in the House of Commons 
when the little fellows are allowed to 
get up and talk their heads off with- 
out doing any harm. They think they 
are born to lead some great movement 
or do away with some terrible abuse. 
They conceive many private bills and 
deliver them as national saviours. 
They want to amend the Banking 
Act or some other Act so as to pro- 
tect the widows or the orphans or the 
public. If such an amendment were 
passed it would probably mean that 
the economics of the country would 
be yanked forty different ways. 
There'd be panics and money famines 
and so on, but they can't see it. They 
want that Act changed and they say 




ON PARLIAMENT HILL- 



THE DIARY OF A BACK BENCHER 

'Hansard" to the most intelligent and the weakest-minded in the 
constituency for the edification of the voter and the safety of the 
next election. They smoke and play an affable game of bridge or 
pinochle or something else. They can tell a good story in the smok- 
ing room and turn a finger at Billiards. But the Chamber of the 
House itself is to them bitter as Hemlock. 

Sometimes they are forced to attend. That is, when the Whips 
expect a Division on some matter and come hunting through the 
corridors, the smoking rooms, the restaurant and the private rooms, 
to gather up the votes; or zvhen he has to come in for company. But 



so. They quote from all sorts of 
books and they make all sorts O'f 'Com- 
parisons. They play with the debate 
like a puppy biting a ball of wool. 
They chew at it weakly and roll on it 
as though it was catnip. They growl 
gurgly growls and pretend to be very 
savage, but after all they aren't. 
Fielding or Laurier, or Graham or 
whoever has been left in the House 
to take care of things, waits till they 
get tired, or worn out, or till they are 
getting too dangerously near calling 
for a Division, and then gets up and 
says he thinks the honorable gentle- 
man would probably accept "this 
amendment" to his motion, and sug- 
gests a six months' hoist, which 
means — death to the bill. The mem- 




THE MONUMENTS 



ber protests or tries to. He struggles 
a little bit under the chloroform but he 
takes it finally and becomes very 
quiet as he sees his little Bill — a really 
nice little Bill, too, the child of his 
Brain and his Conscience, with his 
Ambition for a God Mother — taken 
out and strangled and sent back to 
him, lifeless. 

Those fellows never will learn. If 
they did they'd become Back Bench- 
ers with the rest of us. 

III. 

The House of Commons is like an 
old-fashioned country school-house 
where all the classes sit in one room. 
There is as much difference between 
the head men and the little fellows as 
there is between the head boys at 
school and the infant class. And 
when you first enter you have a great 
deal to learn. 

P-.ople said I made a good c peech 
on the platform. May say I thought 
so myself. I came to Parliament 
without any id?a of particularly up- 
setting the foundat ous of the country 
or anything like that, but. l thought 
I'd £tand by, in ev-.MV question that 
wa* hi ought up, and would delivei 
my own judgment on it, from the 
i"i?\;hl of my ow.i common sense, so 
to speak. I told my electors that I 
\v:i» a party man, l.Mt that I'd v>:e on 
intelligence only and wouldn't just be 
a party automaton. The Conservative 
candidate who was running against 
me had George Foster down to speak 
at one of his meetings and Foster 

37 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE 

the trial of the Back Bencher is when he has to put out his cigar 
and file in — with the flock — ahead of the Chief Whip of his own 
side, and then sit there while the Leader of the Government and the 
Leader of the Opposition jockey up to the point where the Speaker 
orders the bell rung. The back-bencher takes his seat and 
waits for that time. If it is a serious debate he is bound 
to sit quiet and pretend to listen but, as a rule, he scribbles on his 
blotter, or writes a letter home, or carves his initials in the desk, — 
they have different ways of filling in the time. If it is not a serious 
debate, or there is only some small fry addressing the Speaker, the 
back-benchers gather in little knots at the back of their respective 
sides of the House and chuckle over the latest story. 

Some of the best men in Parliament are back-benchers. Some 
of them are masters of the passing art of reasoning by "horse sense." 



said, says Foster: "You just ought to 
see how loyal those Grits are to their 
leaders. Why if a certain hill comes 
in that the Leaders want put through, 
through it goes. If he doesn't, out it 
goes. It's a case of Simon says 
thumbs up ! and all the thumbs go up ; 
or Simon says thumbs down ! and 
down they go." 

I laughed at Foster then. But I 
know better now. Mind you that is 
no more a Liberal practice than a 
Conservative practice. It is part of 
the party system in this country and 
the only way that a member can get 
along in the House is to be loyal to 
it, unless and until, he is able to step 
out and lead the House successfully 
in some other direction than the one 
in which the accredited leaders want 
it to go. You have to follow the 
leader or take his place yourself. 
That's what's the matter with the 
Tories at this minute. 

It was a Scotchman who had been 
eating- onions who caused me to make 
my first speech. I've made three in 
three years. I've listened to others. 
A fellow on our side would get up 
and make a speech and it would 
sound convincing. It'd! have me con- 
verted for as much as five minutes — 
until some other man on the far side 
would answer it. Tf the men were 
evenly matched you'd find that there 
was as much "for" the bill as 
"ajgainst" it unless you went out into 

38 



the corridor and had a smoke so as 
to coax up your own judgment again 
and 'get your own opinion on the 
thing. But that sort of thing worried 
me. Platform speeches are all very 
well but I knew that the speech I 
would need to make would have to 
hold water and stand bombarding. 

I wrote home and asked Maud 
about it. She said, "Billy, you make 
a speech !" but I hung off. I asked 
the Chief Whip and he said "Sure, 
Bill ! What do you want to talk 
about ?" 

"Oh, I don't know," I said, rather 
uneasy-like, "Any old thing, I guess." 

"How'd the Seed Law do?" 

"Seed ! Why I don't know one 
plant from another, much less the 
seed." 

"Yes, but Bill m' boy, if a man's 
going to be a good debater he's got to 
be able to dig something interesting 
about anything — rats, or telegraph 
poles, or bead-work for ladies, or 
railroad construction." 

"Oh, I know," I replied, "but I 
guess I'll leave well enough alone 
just at present." 

So I did. But MacPherson came. 

IV. 

MacPherson is a Scotchman with 
red hair and a red beard, who lives 
like a sort of a hermit back in my 
riding. He sent a dirty piece of 



THE DIARY OF A BACK BENCHER 



paper into the House one day with 
his name scrawled on it and the smell 
of onions coming from it. When I 
looked up, after the page had handed 
it to me in my seat, I saw MacPher- 
son's red head sticking through the 
swinging baize doors behind the 
speaker's chair, just under the Press 
Gallery, and the Major— that's the 
old door-keeper with the side-whisk- 
ers, was tugging at him from 'behind, 
trying to pull him out without making 
a scene, for MacPherson's unholy 
boots were profaning forbidden terri- 
tory. 

"Would you like to see the build- 
ings?" I asked my constituent, after 
having led him into safer regions. 

"No." he says, "but I'm wantin' t' 
meet some of the great men, and I'm 
wantin' t' know why ye never make 
any speeches in the House." 

He spoke as my moral and physical 
mentor. 

I was up against it. I made up lies 
for all the Cabinet Ministers except- 
ing Graham — and Graham has such a 
good sense of humor that I knew he 
would not mind. He didn't. He told 
MacPherson some stories, traced up 
a family connection somewhere or 
other and gave MacPherson a pre- 
scription for his sick horse, which 
made the party strong with MacPher- 
son for life. 

But suddenly the man whisked out 
a question. 

"Why disna' our member make 
speeches, big speeches?" he demand- 
ed. 

I tried to laugh it off and Graham 
sought to help me out by telling how 
hard I'd been working in the com- 
mittees. But MacPherson wanted to 
know about the speeches. 



"Y' know, Mister Graham," he 
said, "This man can make better 
speeches than I ever haird in my lif* 
and I've heard quite a many." 

I saw that I really owed it to 
my constituents, and I saw, too, for 
the first time that every Member of 
Parliament is the personal chattel of 
every voter in his riding. 

I made the speech. It was on fac- 
tory inspection. After that I made 
other speeches. But every one of 
them it seemed to me was lame. My 
stuff was always old. If I left my- 
self go I was sure to forget my most 
important points and if I didn't I was 
wooden. The Press Gallery laid 
down their pencils when I stood up 
and a tall fellow with a moustache 
and spectacles near the end of the 
Tory side of the Gallery used to pass 
remarks to a little plump fellow with 
a long nose from one of the Toronto 
papers. It was evidently something 
witty, and something about me, but 
I didn't care, I didn't pretend to make 
speeches and I was only doing my 
duty. I sent Hansard copies home to 
MacPherson and a few others and 
that was all. I soon dropped out of 
the habit of making speeches. Mac- 
Pherson didn't seem to mind, and 1 
saw that unless they were speeches 
that would cause the other members 
to follow my leadership there was no 
use advancing anything in them that 
was at all at variance with what the 
Government proposed to do, I might 
as well jam my head into a stone wall, 
for not only would I probably lose my 
own case but I would be lessening my 
prestige with the party. 

(To be continued.) 




VSuv mi nq ^Witfioiit^ 





e: 



By W.3.cT&cobs 



The arid regions of the west arc gradually being 
brought under cultivation. It has been learned in re- 
cent years that soil moisture can be retained in the soil 
by means of cultivation. This has driven out the ranch- 
ers because more money can be made from the culti- 
vated fields than from pasture. Population has in- 
creased materially where these methods have been 
practised, and the increased value to the country can- 
not be estimated in dollars and cents. 

Mr. W. S. Jacobs has made a study of Dry Farm- 
ing conditions in the State of Arkansas. He is note 
in the West and is familiar with conditions there. 



THE term "Dry Farming" is a 
misnomer. That is a "dry" 
farmer is really a "wet" farmer. 
This sounds like a paradox but is it? 
For many years the men who tried to 
farm, or rather raise crops in South- 
ern Alberta did not understand the 
principles underlying dry farming. 
Consequently their efforts were not 
successful and after several spasmodic 
efforts gave up in disgust, concluding 
from their experience that the coun- 
try would not raise crops, never had 
and even with the most careful hand- 
ling never would. Remember, too, 
these farmers had some justification 
for these conclusions, for had they not 
found out through bitter experience? 
But why did they fail so utterly when 
right on the same land to-day. with 
identical meteorological conditions, 
farmers are raising from thirty to fif- 
ty bushels of wheat and seventy-five 
to one hundred and twenty-five bush- 

40 



els of oats per acre? The answer is 
simple. They did not understand 
their own conditions and did not take 
the necessary steps to insure a crop 
before the seed was put in the ground. 
To attempt to adopt Manitoba o: 
even Saskatchewan methods to con- 
ditions in Southern Alberta is to in- 
vite certain failure. Breaking was 
done in the usual manner. Two or 
three inches deep is the first step in 
the wrong direction. Instead, they 
should have gone down six or eight 
inches and results would in all prob- 
ability have been very much different. 
Then instead of allowing the land to 
lie during the hot summer and fall 
months, permitting what little mois- 
ture was stored to evaporate, pre- 
caution should have been taken in the 
nature of persistent surface cultiva- 
tion to have established a non-con- 
ducting surface mulch, they would 
have pre\ented the escape of the 



FARMING WITHOUT RAIN. 



precious moisture and disaster might 
have been avoided. But the principles 
were not known and for many years 
vast areas in Southern Alberta which 
are now producing excellent crops of 
wheat and oats were considered 
to be absolutely worthless except for 
ranching purposes. 

Then came Campbell preaching his 
doctrine of "Dry Farming" and the 
Mormons practicing it. As soon as 
it was demonstrated 1 that crops could 
be produced successfully, land values 
took a decided upward slant and have 
been increasing ever since. Now what 
is the secret of the success of these 
so-called dry farmers? Just this — 
They know that all the moisture to be 
depended upon for growing the crop 
must be stored in the soil before the 
seed is put in. They know from ex- 
perience that it is of no use to depend 
on the rainfall during the growing 
season. They know, too, that unless 
the soil is full of moisture (not water) 
down to a depth of two feet or over 
there is no use expecting a crop. 
Having these two points in mind it is 
merely a matter of storing up a suffi- 
cient supply of moisture in the soil to 
last at least for one crop. By taking 
all precautions, preserve all the rain- 
fall which takes place during the 
growing season for the use of the 
next crop. 

Now how does the dry farmer do 
this? In the first place he has a soil 
which lends itself admirably to his 
purposes. Of such physical texture 



that it has the faculty of drinking in 
moisture very readily and also of 
holding it very tenaciously so that 
with the least effort possible a large 
quantity can be stored. In fact, prac- 
tically every drop that falls can be 
preserved for future use if reasonable 
precautions are taken for its conser- 
vation. 

First of all, he breaks deep. He 
knows that his land is practically de- 
void of moisture, therefore he plows 
eight to ten inches deep in order to 
loosen up a large amount of soil which 
will drink in the rainfall. Not only 
does he want the soil to drink in the 
moisture which falls : but he wants to 
keep it there. In order to prevent it 
escaping he follows his breaking im- 
mediately with the disk to break up 
the large pieces of sod thrown up by 
the plow and to level and pulverize the 
surface. This done, it is necessary to 
bring this loosened soil into closer 
connection with the underlying sub- 
soil and the packer is put on. In this 
way the moisture, when it starts 
downward, will not stop when it 
reaches the bottom of the furrow. By 
lying in close connection with the bot- 
tom of the furrow, the saturated up- 
per soil will give up some of its mois- 
ture to the unsaturated sub-soil. Thus 
does the moisture travel downward. 
The whole aim of the dry farmer is 
to deepen the point of saturation in 
the soil, for the deeper this point the 
longer he can crop his land without 
resorting to the aid of the "summer 




A TYPICAL ALBERTA FARM 



41 



F VRMER'S MAC \/.IXF. 



fallow." li is not necessary to lose a 
season's crop in order to insure a 
crop during the following year. 

It is estimated that the average 
rainfall in Alberta, that is in the 
Southern part of the province, is from 
twelve to fifteen inches annually. 
Most of this falls during the spring 
months o\ May and June. As seed- 
ing is done in April and May, the crop 
is growing on the land during the 
time of the heaviest rainfall, if no 
Mops were taken to preserve this 
moisture it is very obvious that a 
large part of it would be lost. What 
the <\rv farmer do? As soon as 



instead of leaving the stubble to catch 
the snows of winter as is done in 
other parts of the West, the dry 
farmer of Southern Alberta is aware 
of two facts — First, that there is but 
little snow during the winter to be 
caught and secondly, he can gain 
more moisture by preserving that al- 
ready in the soil by ■ establishing his 
mulch again. Therefore it is his aim 
to plow the land as soon as possible 
and by the use of his disc, packer and 
harrow work up this mulch which 
will effectively prevent loss. The 
stubble is turned this time to as great 
a depth as possible in order to loosen 




BREAKING THE FIRST FIELD ON THE FARM 



the surface becomes dry enough so 
that the horses will not destroy the 
grain by trampling it, he drives on 
with harrows right over the growing 
grain and cultivates in order to main- 
tain that blanket of loose dirt and 
thus prevent the loss of moisture 
through evaporation. Of course 
some of the grain is pulled out by the 
harrows, but there is always enough 
left to make a first-class crop. After 
the grain attains a height of three to 
six inches there is sufficient vegetation 
to protect the soil from the violent 
action of the sun's rays. 

From four to five months after 
seeding, harvest is complete. Now, 

42 



the soil deeply and thus not only have 
a larger area for the absorption of 
moisture but also a larger feeding 
area for the roots of the plants. Then 
the treatment of the previous summer 
is duplicated and the result is that 
the summer fallow is the exception 
rather than the rule. When summer 
fallowing is practiced, however, it is 
not unusual that a supply of mois- 
ture is stored up which will extend 
over a period of several years. This 
depends largely on the amount of 
precipitation during the time and the 
extent to which the reserve has been 
drawn upon. However, as the sum- 
mer fallow has other uses, such as the 



ARMING WITHOUT RAIN. 




SIXTY BUSHELS PER ACRE 

killing of weeds and preparing the 
land for seeding fall wheat which 
must he sown before the spring-sown 
crop is harvested, it is an operation 
which entails little if any loss to the 
farmer and should not be considered 
in the light of a necessary evil. 

Now what has the era of dry farm- 
ing meant to Alberta as a Province? 
It is true that the land could be used 
as ranching land were it not suitable 
for raising crops. But consider the 
difference in returns from an acre of 
land farmed and an acre of used in 
ranching. In ranching it is usually 
considered fairly safe to allow to one 
full grown animal from five to ten 
acres of pasture land. This animal 
growing crops, seven acres in oats 
at maturity would sell at from $75 
to $100. Using the same land for 



with an average yield of sixty 
bushels, which by the way is a very 
conservative estimate, these would 
bring at the lowest twenty-five cents 
per bushel and the difference is ap- 
parent. 

What dry farming has done and 
is doing for Alberta cannot be esti- 
mated in mere dollars and cents. The 
increase in population is of vastly more 
importance than a mere increase in 
dollars and cents. Population, repre- 
sents a working capital for years to 
come, the value of which cannot even 
be comprehended. The vaVre of a 
thickly settled community to a state 
or province as compared to a sparsely 
settled one is so obvious that further 
comment would be superfluous. 

The country gives much to the few 
who first successfully demonstrated 
the principles of dry farming. While 
there is much that remains yet to be 
discovered and made apparent, the 
underlying rules are so generally 
known that now instead of the sec- 
tion being avoided as unsuitable for 
agriculture it is doubtful if there is 
any part of the province to-day so 
much in demand and so thickly 
settled. It is true that there are vast 
areas yet to be opened up and brought 
into cultivation, but it will be merely 
a matter of time and a very short 
time at that before the entire South- 
ern part of Alberta is in fact, as well 
as name, the granary of the Empire. 




43 



A Pair of Spendthrifts 



A Story of the Cumberland Dales 



By Oswald Wildridge 



HE was a tourist, by all the marks 
of the craft, and when he halted 
by the bridge at Burnfoot with a 
request for direction on his way, he 
informed us that ours was the third 
dale he had traversed since sunrise. 
He had also passed through the wilds 
of Black Sail — which may account in 
part for certain impressions of life 
that he had gathered — and he stated 
with pride that he had "seen every- 
thing and missed nothing." After- 
wards, he perched himself on the para- 
pet of the bridge, and favored us with 
a homily on the influence of environ- 
ment, from which we learned that 
the ' severity of the mountains must 
make also for severity of character. 
He told us something of the slum life 
of great cities, and showed us how, 
by a natural process, the people who 
dwelled within their squalid depths 
were as graceless as their homes, their 
conduct void of beauty, and their 
hearts empty of love. He then pro- 
ceeded to construct what he called "a 
parallel," and, swinging his pointing 
finger around the amphitheatre from 
Scawfell Pike to Crinkle Crags, he 
demonstrated to us how the men of 
the hill country must be strong men, 
but also hard and barren of all ten- 
derness. 

He was a young man, this tourist 
body, with a fine gift of speech, a 
brand new alpenstock, and Henry 
Jenkinson's "Guide to the Lakes," and 
we listened to him with the humility 
we always rendered to the voice of 
instruction ; but when he had gone 

44 



upon his way to explore the heights 
of Wrynose Pass we thought with 
gratitude of some of the men and 
women living their lives upon the foot- 
hills and in the inner solitudes of the 
fells, of Margaret Steele, of Grayrigg, 
of John Fletcher, of Hunday, of David 
Branthwaite, our doctor, whose man- 
ner was certainly as rough as the 
hills, but whose heart was as tender 
as that of the gentlest of the women. 
Also, we wondered whether it might 
be that in the slums of the great cities 
Love was, after all, more powerful 
than squalor and distress. 

While we debated the problem, who 
should drive around the bend but 
David Branthwaite himself; and when 
he pulled up for a word, Andrew Mat- 
terson, of Nepghyll, mentioned the re- 
velations made by the discursive tour- 
ist. David listened with obvious im- 
patience, growled something about a 
"featherheaded gommeral," and de- 
clared that in the whole of the dale 
he was only acquainted with one real- 
ly hard case — Martin Dockwray, of 
Brackenthwaite — and he was not even 
certain about the depth of Martin's 
hardness. 

"But there," he added, "I've no 
time to stay and listen to such stuff. 
I've a mighty long round just now, 
what with Nicholson's work on top 
of my own. I've the full length of 
Kirkdale to go yet, with a call on the 
little schoolmistress at Down-in-the- 
Dale at the end of it." 

And then, anticipating an assured 
inquiry, he added: "The lassie's bad, 



A PAIR OF SPENDTHRIFTS 



and to-day Pve got a hard job before 
me — the hardest of all next to telling 
a body that there's no hope for the 
one that canna be spared. Pve got to 
pronounce sentence of banishment. It 
takes a strong man to stand the win- 
ters we get up here, and if she's to 
keep her life she'll have to leave the 
dale." 

In David's day Kirkdale was a law 
unto itself in the schooling of its chil- 
dren. At the Twin Hamlets we had 
no difficulty, for our dale is one of the 
kindly ones, with a fine spread of 
homes on the foothills and a cluster 
in the valley itself, so that the school 
is large enough to carry a school- 
house by its side. But over on the 
further side of the Screes the homes 
of Kirkdale are widely scattered ; all 
told, there is only a handful of them, 
and in those other days the dalesfolk 
met the demands of the situation by 
making a portion of their payment in 
kind. A homeless wanderer, the 
teacher passed from house to house, 
and when he had been entertained for 
a term at each one, he began the cir- 
cuit of the dale afresh. It was a hard 
life, even for a strong man, though 
not without abundant compensation ; 
and when the men in authority pro- 
moted a slender slip of a girl from the 
south country to be the first school- 
mistress of Kirkdale, we were stricken 
with amazement, and predicted dis- 
aster. There was offence also, for 
certain of the dalesfolk were persuad- 
ed that they were being treated with 
scorn, and at many firesides there were 
heard the mutterings of revolt. 

As a matter of course, the spirit of 
opposition extended from the system 
to the individual, and Joan Naylor 
was threatened with a show of the 
cold shoulder because she was coming 
to attempt the work that only a man 
could perform. Never, however, did 
rebellion have so short a life. As one 
of the leaders of the movement, 
Thomas Fairish was deputed to meet 
the stranger at Dalefoot, and it was 
generally agreed that if any man was 
qualified to "put the madam in her 
proper place," and show her that 



"she'd cum where she wasn't wantit," 
Thomas was the one. But when 
Thomas found himself looking down 
into the wistful face of a tired and 
delicate girl he remembered his own 
daughter, and instead of a stern 
"Good-day, ma'am," it was a case of 
"Pse glad to see you." Afterwards he 
tucked her snugly in his gig, and when 
they passed through Nether Kirkdale 
he was telling her that she had come 
to a hard place, but the dalesfolk 
would do their best to smooth the road 
for her. 

It was arranged that Joan should 
spend her first fortnight with Eliza- 
beth Key at Down-in-the-Dale, and 
when the gig pulled up Elizabeth 
opened her door, armed with a dour 
manner and a battery of frigid words ; 
but somehow the dourness melted, and 
the words of thinly-veiled hostility 
became words of the kindliest wel- 
come. 

"Eh, my bairn," she murmured, 
"thoo does luik tired, and Pse warrant 
thoo's hafe famished. Nivver mind 
your traps. Thomas mun see to them. 
Just you cum inside and rest yourself, 
and I'll have a cup o' tea ready in 
neah time." For the remainder of 
that eventful evening Joan found her- 
self "mothered," almost as much as 
if she had been in her own home, and 
when her first letter went out of the 
dale it carried to the mother in the 
south an assurance that "if her girl 
wasn't looked after it wouldn't be the 
fault of Elizabeth Key." Among the 
others it was agreed by the end of 
the first week that the new school- 
mistress seemed to be a "likeable las- 
sie," and in the matter of her work 
judgment was suspended by consent. 
With a month gone by Joan Naylor 
could count on an open door at every 
home and a welcome at every hearth. 

After the lapse of days, moreover, 
we learned that the mother in the 
south was an invalid and a widow ; it 
was also noticed that the life of Joan 
Naylor had no luxuries ; that her gar- 
ments, though neat, bore the marks of 
hard wear ; that she was a famous 
hand at giving to an old gown or an 

45 



FARMER'S MAC \ZINE 



hat the grace of a new one ; and 
it was observed that on the day she 
received her salary she never missed 
a visit to the postoffice at Nether Kirk- 
dale, whence, according to the gos- 
sips, a large share of the money earn- 
ed among the mountains of the north 
was transferred to the plains of the 
south. Another incident of note lay 
in the fact that, by certain devious 
means, some of the dalespeople man- 
aged to obtain the address of the in- 
valid mother, and now and again a 
hamper carefully packed with real 
Cumbrian butter, eggs laid on fell- 
side farms, a cut from a native ham, 
or a chunk from a flitch of home- 
cured bacon, was despatched from 
Dalefoot, the gift being significant not 
only of sympathy for a suffering mo- 
ther, but also testifying to affection 
for a daughter of quality. 

And now, here was David Branth- 
waite, with his sentence of banishment 
and the task from which he shrank. 
It was made known to us later on by 
Elizabeth Key how he managed it, 
and from that day there was added 
another link to the chain which bound 
us to the doctor. 

"He's a masterful man is David 
Branthwaite," said Elizabeth, "and a 
gey rough type with his tongue when 
he's got a cross-grained body to deal 
with ; but his faithfulness is as stead- 
fast as the hills, and his tenderness 
is past the power of words to tell. The 
schoolmistress says that he minds her 
most of the shadow of a rock in a 
weary land." 



II. 

One drab November night we gath- 
ered around the kitchen hearth at 
Nepghyll, and for an hour we did 
our best to extract the marrow from 
a few political bones. At the end of 
the hour, however, the talk began to 
flag, and the gathering was threat- 
ened with conversational failure until 
old Michael Scott, of Ellerkeld, came 
to the rescue. "I doot," said Michael, 
"that politics isn't seah verra tempt- 

46 



ing to-neet, and I'se thinking we'd bet- 
ter be talking aboot men — they're oalus 
interesting." And then, like the wily 
being that he was, he added: "I met 
Peter Waugh to-day, and he toald me 
a nice crack aboot t'oald doctor." This 
was quite enough. For the rest of 
the evening, until Mistress Matter- 
son had supper on the board, we dis- 
cussed David Branthwaite and his 
mixed manners. And while we all 
agreed with Michael Scott that David 
was "the most through-and-through 
man in all the dales," we also agreed 
with Robinson Graham that he wis 
"a rare mak' of inconsistencies." 
Again and again had we found him 
professing indifference about many 
things which really cut him to the 
quick, and it was said of him that he 
would sleep like a top over his own 
troubles and worry through a sleep- 
less night over those of his people. 

About the time that the schoolmis- 
tress of Kirkdale tendered her resig- 
nation, the doctor appeared to strike 
a new vein of irritability, and there 
were certain of his patients who de- 
clared that there was no pleasing him. 
It was clear that he had something on 
his mind, and one day, as he drove 
out Hardknot way, with Dash in the 
gig by his side, he gave old Meg a 
loose rein and took the terrier into 
his confidence. 

"I've been a ait too free with my 
money, laddie," he said, "and I'm be- 
ginning to feel the pinch. I must 
really try and save a bit, though sav- 
ing's a stiff job at my time o' life. 
And I've had a lot o' calls lately. 
There w ? as that operation on Martha 
Jackson. Sir Robert's fee ran to 
twenty pounds, and I hadn't the heart 
to let John know that it cost niair 
than ten, for I'll warrant the lad was 
hard put to it to find that much. I 
couldn't stand by and see the woman 
slip away and leave a houseful o' 
bairns, could I, laddie? And the look 
that John gave me when I told him 
that Martha would live was worth ten 
pounds of anybody's money. Then I 
bought that new electric contrivance 
to treat Tossy Adair with. And — oh, 



A PAIR OF SPENDTHRIFTS 



clear me, this want o' money's a ter- 
rible thing." Then he smiled grimly. 
"Wish you and me could only tumble 
doon a gold-mine, Dash." 

With another mile ground cut he 
began again. "There's no help for 
it. I'll have to call on John Fletcher, 
though it's a shame, for I'm always 
getting my hand into his pocket. Still, 
he'd be hurt if I didn't do it, and the 
little schoolmistress must be given her 
chance and her mother must be saved 
from heart-break. So we'll call it 
settled, laddie. I think I can manage 
about twenty pound myself, and to- 
morrow we'll away to Hunday and 
I'll ask Fletcher for the rest." 

Now it happened that just at this 
moment he glanced up the flank of the 
hill on whose breast the house of 
Brackenthwaite stands, and at once 
the corners of his lips tightened. 

"The selfish carl," he muttered. 
"What a power of good lies in his 
hands, and he'll not use it. He's 
grown so near that he wouldn't part 
with the reck off his porridge if he 
could help it. He's just the man I 
want, but — •" 

The frown upon the doctor's face 
flickered into a sort of smile. This was 
followed by a chuckle of some sig- 
nificance, and David slapped his leg. 
"I'll let John Fletcher bide a dav or 
two," he said ; "just while I have a 
shot at Martin Dockwray." And then 
he again addressed himself to the ter- 
rier. "Dash, my laddie, to-morrow 
we'll have a night out. I'm going to 
sleep in one of Martin Dockwray's 
beds, and you shall stretch on his 
hearthrug. I've done a bit of blood- 
letting : n my time, and now I'm go- 
ing to e if I can fetch it from a 
stone. 

Accordingly it happened on the fol- 
lowing night that about the hour 
wherein most of the dalespeople 
sought their beds, the doctor's gig 
lumbered along the lonning to Brac- 
kenthwaite, and the doctor demanded 
the hospitality which no one in the 
dale ever denied him — a bed for him- 
self, a stall for Meg, and house-room 
for his dog. 



Among the homes of the dale wc 
counted Brackenthwaite a place of 
quality, and its master might have 
ruled in our midst, a leader of men, 
if he would have paid the price which 
real leadership exacts. Instead, he 
preferred the way of the selfish life, 
with no interests outside the boun- 
daries of his own acres, and no love 
except that which he concentrated on 
his only child. In his case, as in so 
many others, fatherhood stood for re- 
demption. 

He was perplexed by the doctor's 
visit, for he suspected that if David 
had followed his bent he would have 
picked an old grandfather's chair in 
a farmhouse kitchen rather than a 
seat of luxury in the Brackenthwaite 
dining-room ; but it was not until the 
night was far spent that he delivered 
himself into his visitor's hands with 
a reference to the hardships of the 
doctor's life. 

"Hard?" David pulled himself to- 
gether for the blow he had prepared. 
"Ay, hard enough. Nobody but the 
doctor knows how hard — but — I 
canna help thinking that it's harder 
for the folk. T tell you what, Martin ; 
ye should count yourself one of the 
lucky ones. You've had your share 
of sickness to battle with, but you've 
been spared the agony of poverty, and 
of all the agonies there's none so great 
;i: sickness and poverty when they 
go hand in hand. It's a fearful cruci- 
fixion when the best-loved is doon and 
in want o' things that cost money and 
there is no money to buy them with. 

"As for the doctoring, it's simply a 
heart-break — when I order a woman 
body to rest if her life has t' be spared, 
and there's a pack of wee bairns call- 
ing for every minute of her time and 
every ounce of her love, and the mo- 
ther's rest means neglect of them. And 
again, when I tell an over-worked 
man that it's no physic he needs, but 
chickens and soups and jellies to build 
up his strength, and all the time I 
ken that when the rent's paid ,md the 
bread-and-butter have been bought 
there's varra little left — 1 tell ye, man, 
that at times like these words seem to 

47 



1 UtMER'S M KG \XI.\K 



be a mockery and doctoring a sham. 
If it wasn't for the men with the help- 
ing hand I've got about me I couldn't 
bide it. I'd be running away. Of 
course, I've never bothered you, Mar- 
tin, but there's been no disrespect in 
that. I've known full well that you'd 
be having folks in plenty pulling at 
you, and there's reason in everything 
— even in charity and helpfulness." 

Across the intervening strip of 
hearth Martin Dockwray threw a look 
of amazement. For the moment, in- 
deed, resentment was disarmed by per- 
plexity. This was surely a new David 
Branthwaite that he was entertaining. 
The old David was a man of the vol- 
canic type — one whose scorn was bru- 
tal, whose blows fell hard like the beat 
of a sledge-hammer; but this was one 
of the crafty men who dealt in words 
of subtle irony. 

"I've got a case on hand just now 
that's worrying me a lot." While Mar- 
tin wrestled with astonishment, David 
was off again. "It's the little school- 
mistress of Kirkdale. Mebbe you'll 
have heard that Nicholson's indoors 
with his bronchitis again, and I'm 
working his round. She's a fine las- 
sie, is the schoolmistress, but she's 
not tough enough for life in the dale. 
Our keen winds and the hard round 
have nearly killed her, and I'm hav- 
ing to send her home till her mother. 
Worst of it is, the mother herself is 
a sickly sort of body who never has 
a day's health from year-end till year- 
end; and, bit by bit, I've wormed it 
out of little Joan that there isn't 
enough money for one of them, let 
alone the pair. You ken her, don't 
you ?" 

Dockwray nodded his head. He was 
frowning and fidgeting because of 
embarrassment, but he was losing none 
of the story. 

"Ay, I thought you couldn't have 
missed her. Somehow, she reminds 
me of your own lassie ; got a glint of 
the same blue in her eye, the same 
lilt in her voice; and when she looks 
up at you sVs got that same wistful 
] ".t'e tr ck tiiiit ->l-:s your own Mary 
•■ff so fine. Man. what a mercy it is 

48 



you've been able to give your bairn 
all she needs. What if she had been 
like the schoolmistress, who'll die if 
she stays up here and who's got to 
starve if she goes home!" 

"A hard case, certainly — a very 
hard case — but," Dockwray floundered 
among his words badly, "but there 
ought to be some way of meeting it. 
Is there no organization — ?" Here he 
detected the storm-signal as it flashed 
into being, and covered his b'under 
with a hasty question, "Is she going 
home?" 

"That I can't tell ye at present. 
What she ought to have is a sea voy- 
age ; it'd set her up. But that's out 
of the question. Next best thing is a 
month on the south coast, with plenty 
to eat, nothing to do, and a free mind, 
so that she could pick up her strength 
and get fit to earn her living again, 
and I'm away in the morning to Hun- 
day to beg another Good Samaritan 
turn from John Fletcher. He has a 
fine notion of using his money, has 
John, and I've never known him re- 
fuse me the help I've asked of him. 
It's true that I'd rather not do it, for 
I'm terrible hard on him, but I can't 
let the lassie slip away for the want 
of a few bits of gold and silver." 

So far as direct application to the 
case of Joan Naylor goes this was 
David's last word. For a brief spell 
he lapsed into silence, only it was not 
the silence of surrender. After the 
manner of his own terrier, he was 
merely changing his grip. When he 
spoke again he had what appeared to 
be a new theme. 

"It seems like old times, Martin," 
he said, "to be sitting in your room 
with vourself on the other side of the 
hearth." 

"It's fine to see you here," Martin 
responded genially. "It must be quite 
a handful of years since you and I 
spent a night together." 

David gazed reflectively into the 
fire, as though he might be reckoning 
up the time. He was a man without 
mercy when it suited his purpose, and 
he meant to be very hard now. "I'm 
just thinking," he said at last. "I 



A PAIR OF SPENDTHRIFTS 



mind one time — when I was here 
alone for a while. It's one of the 
things that helps me to think well of 
humanity. That night, as I sat in this 
very corner, I looked straight into the 
heart of a woman and saw the store 
of love that lay within it." From this 
point David slipped deeper into the 
Doric of the dales — one of his tricks 
when he was strongly moved. "You 
were upstairs yersel,' Martin, and 
your life was hangin' by a wee bit 
thread. I'd been with you the day 
throo and I kenned full well that in 
another hour you'd be at grips wi' 
death. So I slipped away for ten 
minutes to' prepare for what I knew 
was in front. And by an' by Margaret 
followed me intil the room an' doon 
she dropped by me side and, laying 
her hands on my knees, she tried t' beg 
for your life. It was mighty little 
speech that sorra had left her, but, 
eh, man, what she did say was full o' 
power. T canna do without him, 
David,' she cried, and then she told 
me a bit aboot the wonderful love 
you'd given her and your devotion to 
your bairn. And after this her voice 
grew quite awesome and a new sort 
of trouble crept intil her bonny eyes 
and she toald me of her hopes for 
you. 'He's a good man,' she said, 
'but away fro his own home he's been 
a bit careless, not hard, but a little bit 
careless. He's missed his chances — 
that's it — he's just missed his chances 
— but he's young yet, and if he's spar- 
ed I'm sure he'll grow into a man of 
power — One of those who help to 
keep the world sweet and clean. So, 
you'll do your best, David, won't you, 
if only to give him his chance?' Eh, 
man, it must be fine to ken that there's 
one body in the world who thinks of 
you as Margaret thought of yoursel'." 

Dockwray made no movement. He 
was sitting with clasped hands, his 
head down-bent, a man bereft of 
speech. After a pause David began 
again : 

"I mind another time I sat here. 
Your bairn had need of me then. And 
it was yourself who came and begged 



me to do that which I was willing 
enough to do without any asking fra 
anybody. I mind hoo you paced the 
floor in your agony of mind and hoo 
you opened your 'heart to me. You 
said you'd been living a selfish sort 
of life, with little thought for the 
weary and heavy-laden ootside your 
own walls, and you promised that if 
only God would spare the life of your 
bairn you'd use the power that had 
been given to you, so that the weary 
should be helped to their rest and the 
heavy-laden be eased of their load. 
No doot you've kept the promises you 
made. I haven't heard much of your 
benefactions, I'll own. but then you'll 
be just like other folk I could name, 
and not be for letting your left hand 
ken what your right hand is doing." 

One more count in the indictment 
still remained. It concerned the night 
whereon Margaret Dockwray went 
home and the promises that were then 
renewed ; but half-way through the 
doctor pulled out his watch and then 
rose sharply to his feet. "Good 
gracious, man," he exclaimed, "I've 
talked the morning in. Just get me 
my candle, and I'll away to my bed. 
I dinna ken hoo you can listen till my 
havers." 

Now it happens that when the mas- 
ter of Brackenthwaite left the doctor 
at his bedroom door he himself re- 
turned to his sitting-room, and there 
remained until the light of dawn was 
breaking on the hills. It also happens 
that when David resumed his journey 
in the morning Martin Dockwray had 
a message for him. 

"Thank you for your call, David 
Branthwaite," he said, "and I'm hop- 
ing that again you will make my home 
a resting place on your way. When 
Mary returns she shall come and see 
you and tell you the same thing. You 
have reminded be of many things I 
had forgotten, and I am making no 
more promises — only, in the matter of 
the schoolmistress, I have this to say 
to you : You shall not go to Hunday, 
nor shall you ask John Fletcher for 
his help. I have nothing more to say 

49 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE 



— you are at least gifted with dis- 
cernment. Now then, away with you 
to your sick folk." 

Three days later David again drove 
up the hill to Brackenthwaite, and 
again was Martin Dockwray assailed 
with reproach, only this time the doc- 
tor's manner did not at all agree with 
the words he used. 

"Ye're a downright spendthrift," 
he cried, "and a miserable schemer in- 
to the bargain. No doubt you think 
it was a clever trick going all the way 
to Netherport to carry out your plots 
and plans, but I saw through it all, 
even the mask of the Netherport post- 
mark." 

Here the doctor held out his hand. 
"I'll have a wag of your paw, Martin 
Dockwray, an' it's a joy to ken you. 
Eh, man, but it's mighty. A voyage 
to the West Indies and back for the 



little schoolmistress and her mother, 
and a bundle of crinkly-crankle Bank 
of England notes into the bargain. 
And you didn't sign your name till 
your gift. Just put a bit note inside 
which said: 'A Thank-offering from 
the Man who Forgot.' You've given 
the dale a rare puzzle ; the folks '11 
spend the winter in trying to guess 
the name of that man." 

"You must never tell it, David — 
never," Dockwray begged. "You have 
saved me from myself — and it's just 
between you and me." 

"I'd like to shout it from the walls 
of Gath and cry it from the roofs of 
Ascalon," the doctor gravely respond- 
ed ; "but — I think I understand ye, 
and I've no fancy for spoiling your 
reward." And then, as a sort of dis- 
connected afterthought, he added: 
"I'm thinking of your wife's faith, 
Martin. Margaret kenned her man." 



THE FUGITIVE MOMENT. 

The spindling lamps of autumn lit the wood ; 

All tranced it stood, 
Ripples of green in spring-like under-places, 

Hill-blue for wonder-spaces. 

Thin curly leaves, they floated on the stream 

In a soft dream, 
Dreaming themselves a golden argosy, 

Or pirate-ships that flee. 

SemMance of footsteps stirred the quietness, 

Vaguer and less 
Than twilight birds asleep. Whispered and spoke 

SmaM ghosts of tiny folk. 

The large magnificent sun poured Tike a spate ; 

Played intricate 
Staves of rich sunset color, nobly blent, 

Then, of a sudden, went. 

How grey and grave and empty grew our wood ! 

Cathedral-like it stood. 
Radiance of music, window, people, gone, 

An old stooped verger gathering books alone ! 
— Florence Wilkinson. 



50 



Railway Protection 



By 
H. J. Pettypiece 



LAST month's article on "Do the 
Railways Own Canada?" was 
closed by dealing with one or two 
of the arguments used by railway law- 
yers against any reasonable amount 
of taxation being imposed on railway 
property. 

Another much-used argument has 
been to make comparisons in density 
of population as compared with rail- 
way mileage in the United States and 
Canada, and from these comparisons 
attempt to show that railway taxes 
are already as high, proportionately, 
in Canada as in the United States. 
One of the modes of these corporation 
lawyers is to select a group of several 
of the most populous States, with a 
combined area equal to that of the 
Province of Ontario, and to make a 



comparison between that group and 
the Province of Ontario, including all 
the still unsettled area of the province. 

Here is a comparison made from 
the latest available official reports, that 
may prove interesting. The Provinces 
of Prince Edward Island, Nova Sco- 
tia and New Brunswick, are situated 
very similarly to the three States of 
Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont, 
and the two groups are almost equal 
in size: (See bottom of page). 

In the Canadian group there are 
410 population to each mile of railway, 
and in the U. S. group 335 to each 
mile. The very great difference in 
the comparative amounts paid in taxes 
in the two respective groups should 
effectively dispose of any argument in 
regard to "density of population." 



Group No. I. 

Province. Sq. miles Popu. 

P. E. Island 2,133 110,000 

Nova Scotia 20,907 455,000 

New Brunswick 27,174 321,200 

Totals 50,214 886,200 

Group No. 2. 

State. Sq. miles. Popu. 

Maine 33,040 695,000 

New Hampshire 9,3°5 412,000 

Vermont 9.565 344,ooo 

Totals 51,910 1,441.000 



Miles of Railway Rate per 

Railway Taxes Mile. 

267 $100 $ .40 

861 926 1.08 

1 ,000 782 .78 



2,128 


$1,808 ; 


iv. .88 


Miles of 


Railway Rate per 


Railway 


Taxes 


Mile. 


2,083 


$654,090 


$314 


1,190 


467,237 


379 


1,024 


210,260 


205 


4.297 


$1,231,587 


av.$290 

51 



VRMER'S MAGAZINE 



Other similar comparisons could be 
given, did space permit. 

Below is given an official statement 
of the amount of taxes paid during the 
year ending June 30th, 1909, by each 
railway in each province in the Do- 
minion. The figures given here have 
never heretofore appeared in print, 
neither in any publication nor in any 
Government report, but have been 
furnished to the writer by the Railway 
Department at Ottawa for use in this 
article. 

Taxes paid by railways in the dif- 
ferent provinces for the year ending 
30th June, 1909: 

NOVA SCOTIA. 

Dominion Atlantic $861.54 

Halifax & Southwestern . . . 50.00 
Liverpool & Milton 15.00 

Total $926.54 

NEW BRUNSWICK. 

Canadian Pacific $642.95 

Dominion Atlantic 35-34 

N. B. & P. E. 1 67.00 

North Shore 37-5Q 

Total $782.79 

PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND. 

Canadian Pacific $100.00 

Total $100.00 

QUEBEC. 

Atlantic and L. Superior. .$ 85.65 
Can. Northern Quebec ... 5,1 13.43 

Carillon & Grenville 20.80 

Canadian Pacific 214,308.26 

Canadian Atlantic 4,477.22 

Grand Trunk 100,000.00 

Hereford 1,691.40 

Lotbiniere & Megantic ... 915.02 

Massawippi Valley 1,953-79 

Montreal & Atlantic 1,861.82 

Montreal & Province Line. 3,725.00 
Montreal & Vermont June. 900.00 

Napierville Junction 1,905.52 

Orford Mountain 13.23 

Quebec Central 9,183.10 

Quebec & Lake St. John . . 2,701.76 

Rutland & Noyan 8.23 

St. Lawrence & Adirondack 3,572.60 
52 



Stanstead, Shefford & 

Chambly 1,200.00 

Temiscouata 3,683.88 

Total $357,320.71 

ONTARIO. 

Algoma Central & Hud- 
son's Bay $ 3,152.61 

Brockville, Westport & 

Northwestern 1,068.09 

Bay of Quinte 3,°33-33 

Canada Atlantic 31,745.07 

Canada Southern 43,074.29 

Canadian Northern 16,832.74 

Can. Northern, Ontario . . 10.684.14 

Canadian Pacific 276,108.56 

Central Ontario 3-701. 95 

Grand Trunk 323,852.47 

Irondale, Bancroft & Ot- 
tawa 1 16.41 

Kingston & Pembroke .... 3,049.73 
L. Erie & Detroit River... 14,605.16 
London & Port Stanley . . 3,049.45 
Manitoulin & North Shore. 268.93 
Nosboning & Nipissing . . 27.50 

Ottawa & New York 1,785.85 

St. Clair Tunnel 888.43 

Thousand Islands 76.10 

Toronto, Hamilton & Buf- 
falo 3,578.71 

Total $740,699.52 

MANITOBA. 

Brandon, Saskatchewan & 

Hudson's Bay $ 1,638.68 

Canadian Northern 36,402.83 

Canadian Pacific 88,277.81 

Gt. Northwestern of Mani- 
toba 1,763-52 

Total $128,082.84 

ALBERTA. 

Alberta Railway & Irriga- 
tion Co $26,164.91 

Canadian Northern 1,692.74 

Canadian Pacific 70.180.74 

Total $98,083.39 

SASKATCHEWAN. 

Canadian Northern $48,817.57 

Canadian Pacific 5 J -99 

Total $48,869.56 



RAILWAY PROTECTION 



BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

Bedlington & Nelson $ 1,556.90 

Canadian Pacific 97,072.43 

Crow's Nest Southern .... 5,544.44 

Kaslo & Slocan 3,448.80 

Nelson & Fort Sheppard . 5,736.69 
New Westminster Southern 732.35 

Red Mountain 1,184.51 

Spokane & B. C 559.15 

Vancouver, Victoria & 

Eastern 38,045.65 

Victoria Tunnel Railway & 

Ferry Co 144-15 

Total $154,025.07 

YUKON TERRITORY. 

British Yukon $ 5,820,20 

Klondyke Mines 200.70 

Total $6,020.90 

RECAPITULATION. 

Nova Scotia $ 926.54 

New Brunswick 782.79 

Prince Edward Island . . 100.00 

Quebec 357,320.71 

Ontario 740,699.52 

Manitoba 128,082.84 

Alberta 98,038.39 

Saskatchewan 48,869.56 

British Columbia 154,025.07 

Yukon Territory 6,020.90 

$1,534,866.32 

An analysis of these figures by pro- 
vinces shows an amazing difference 
between the lowest and the highest 
rates per mile : 

Rate 
Ry. Total per 

Miles. Taxes. Mile. 
Quebec .. ..3,663 $357,320 $97.00 
Ontario . . .8,230 740,670 90.00 
B. Columbia .1,800 154,000 85.00 
Alberta .. ..1,321 98,000 74.00 

Yukon . . . . 90 6,000 66.00 

Manitoba . .3,200 129,000 40.00 
Saskatche'n .2,631 48,870 19.00 

Nova Scotia. 1,350 926 .70 

N. Brunsw'k. 1,547 782 .50 

P. E. 1 269 100 .37 

Dominion .24,000 $1,534,866 $64.00 



In Quebec, $109,890, or $30 pc. 
mile, is imposed under a Provincial 
Act, and the balance, $247,430, by 
municipal assessment. 

In Ontario, $416,936 was paid to 
the province under an Act, imposing 
from $5 to $60 per mile, according to 
location and other conditions, such as 
second track, etc., and the balance, 
$3 2 3>734> by municipal assessment. 

In Manitoba, the taxation is based 
on the gross earnings, at a rate of two 
per cent., or if so determined by the 
Lieutenant-Governor, three per cent. 
In Saskatchewan, the tax is based 
on gross earnings, varying from one 
and one-half to three per cent., but no 
rate is imposed on any railway until 
it has been five years in operation. 

In Alberta, railways are taxed on a 
rate of one per cent, on their actual 
value. 

In British Columbia, there is a spe- 
cial Act for the assessment and taxa- 
tion of railways. The main feature is 
the taking of the real estate, the per- 
sonal property and the income of each 
railway as a whole and assessing it at 
a uniform rate of $10,000 per mile for 
main track, and $3,000 per mile for 
sidings and switches. The rate levied 
on these assessments is one per cent, 
in accordance with the General As- 
sessment Act.. 

In Nova Scotia and New Bruns- 
wick, railway property (land only) is 
assessed for municipal purposes on the 
same basis as any other property. 

Prince Edward Island apparently 
has a system peculiarly its own. 

Information as to the Yukon is not 
at present available. 

However, the fact stands out that 
in those provinces where any real ef- 
fort to tax the railways has been made 
there are no two systems alike. 

When the Ontario Commission on 
Railway Taxation visited some ten of 
the neighboring States, in 1904, in 
quest of information on the subject, 
what kinds of systems of assessment 
and taxation were in effect after twen- 
ty years of active legislation and agi- 
tation. The consensus of opinion of 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE 



both tax commissioners and railway 
managers appeared to be that the most 
fair and equitable mode of taxation of 
railways would be a percentage tax on 
the gross earnings of each individual 
railway. It was explained, however, 
that owing to intricate Federal and 
State laws, the general adaptation of 
this system could not be adopted. Re- 
ferring to this difficulty, the chairman 
of the Inter-State Commerce Commis- 
sion at Washington said to the On- 
tario visitors: "In Canada, with your 
clear-cut and well-defined constitution, 
you should not have any trouble of 
that kind." He referred, of course, 
to the B. N. A. Act, which gives each 
province the exclusive power of tax- 
ing all property within its boundaries. 

At Baltimore, the Ontario Commis- 
sion interviewed Mr. H. L. Bond, the 
second vice-president of the Baltimore 
& Ohio Railway, who spoke very 
frankly and interestingly on the sub- 
ject, and with a knowledge gained by 
many years of most practical experi- 
ence. He pointed out that the B. & O. 
paid taxes in New York, Pennsyl- 
vania, Maryland, District of Colum- 
bia, Virginia, Ohio, Indiana and Il- 
linois, and in no two of those states 
was the system the same. He showed 
the difficulty, from the standpoint of 
the railways, as well as from that of 
the tax collectors, in dealing with so 
many complex systems. 

Speaking of the question of rail- 
way taxation in general, Mr. Bond 
said: 

"Now the fairness of railroad taxa- 
tion depends a great deal on the fair- 
ness of the men who administer the 
tax laws. There is no self-executing 
tax law that I know of, except the tax 
on gross receipts. I think the genera! 
feeling among the railroad men is that 
that, perhaps, is the fairest basis of 
taxation, because a railroad is valu- 
able only as it earns ; the question of 
how much money there is in it does 
not realy represent its value, for the 
reason that a great many roads in the 
si 



nature of things were built ahead of 
the needs of the country, and it is 
rather in the interests of the country 
to have them ahead of their needs if 
they can get them, but railroad people 
do not object to paying taxes on gross 
receipts, because they do not have to 
pay taxes unless they have something 
to pay them on. Not that anything 
really reconciles a taxpayer to paying 
taxes, but he feels better when he has 
the money. In this country, however, 
this question is seriously hampered by 
the question as to how far a state can 
tax gross receipts. The Supreme 
Court decisions are pretty clear that 
as a general thing the state cannot tax 
gross receipts on inter-state business, 
and while you find in many of the 
States that the tax laws do apparently 
tax the gross receipts on interstate 
commerce, and you will find that rail- 
roads are paying those taxes, it is ex- 
tremely doubtful whether those taxes 
are legal. At the same time the rail- 
roads pay them because they consider 
them the fairest form of taxation." 

Thus it will be seen that of the var- 
ious modes of taxation already in 
force in Canada, that of the Provinces 
of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Al- 
berta is the best. 

But laying aside all questions of 
systems, earning powers, density of 
population, coal duties, development 
requirements, and other excuses offer- 
ed, the broad fact stands out that the 
railways of Canada are not paying 
their fair share of the taxes needed 
for the carrying on of the affairs of 
the country. As has been shown 
above, the highest rate per mile is $97, 
in Quebec, while in the United States 
the lowest rate per mile is $148, in the 
desert State of Arizona. In other 
words : — Highest rate in the United 
States is $1,926 per mile, in New 
Jersey ; highest rate in Canada, $97, in 
Quebec; lowest rate in the United 
States, $148, in Arizona; lowest rate 
in Canada, 37 CENTS, in Prince Ed- 
ward Island. 




SCIENTIFIC CROW HUNTING 
Our artist says, "Be sure." 



55 



WhitQ Coal 



for the Farmer 




By Gordon C. Keith 



Our numerous full-flowing streams are Ca)iada's 
great source of Power. Power is needed in all phases 
of farm work. The cheaper we can get this power 
the more profits will we be able to secure. Mr. Keith, 
who has studied this question, shows in this article 
the cheapness with which Hydro-Electric can supply 
power. Farmers will be pleased when they can get 
their work done by "pressing the button." 



T 



HE farmers between Woodstock 
and IngersO'U are planning to run 
their "chop stuff" machines and 
light their homes toy power generated 
at Niagara Falls, over 200 miles dis- 
tant. The power lines are nearing 
completion and soon the farmers in 
the zone of the hydro-electric power 
will be enjoying all the benefits of the 
city with the advantages of the coun- 
try. With rural telephone communi- 
cation. and 1 "white coal," to perform 
the arduous tasks and brighten his 
home and barns, with no dangers of 
turned over lanterns and the conse- 
quent destroyed fruits of years of 
labor, the farmer's lot in hydro-elec- 
tric zone?, appears to be complete. 

56 



The Hydro-Electric Power Com- 
mission of Ontario has received con- 
tracts for power in three districts, 
these including Port Arthur, in the 
north-west ; Ottawa in the east ; and 
Western Ontario. 

The following municipalities have 
signed contracts: 

Corporation. H.P. Price. 

Toronto 10,000 18.10 

London 5,000 23.50 

Guelph 2,500 24.00 

St. Thomas 1.500 26.50 

Woodstock .... 1,200 23.00 

Gait 1,200 22.00 

Hamilton 1,000 1790 

Stratford 1,000 24.50 



"WHITE COAL" For THE FARMER. 



Berlin i ,000 24.00 

Waterloo 685 24.50 

Preston 600 23.50 

St. Mary's 500 29.50 

Ingersoll 500 24.00 

Brampton 500 29.25 

Tillison'burg 500 30.50 

Hespeler 400 26.00 

New Hamburg . . 250 29.50 

Norwich 150 30.00 

Weston 200 

To these prices must be added the 

cost of distribution. The cost of the 

power to t*he Hydro-Electric Power 



onto 300; Belleville 3,200, Brockville 
500 to 1,000; Oshawa 500; Cobourg 
800 ; Bowmanville 600 ; Picton 500 
and Durham 2,000. 

POSSIBILITIES IN CANADA FOR WHITE 
COAL FOR THE FARMER. 

Ontario is not the only province 
where farmers may hope to run their 
machinery and light their homes and 
buildings by "pressing the button." 
J. B. Challies, of the Department of 
the Interior, Ottawa, has made a 
computation of the water powers of 




POWER CARRYING TOWERS 
They do not hinder cultivation when placed in a field. 



Commiss'ion at Niagara Falls is $9.40 
per horse power per annum for 25,- 
000 horse power or under, and $9 if 
this a'mount 'is exceeded. 

Ottawa has contracted for 4,000 
h.p. ; Morrisburg has applied for 
2,000 at $16.33 P er h.p., and Prescott 
has applied for 1,000 at $22.13 P er 
h.p. 

In the central district the following 
cities and towns have applied for 
prices for the amounts of power men- 
tioned : Kingston 2,500 h.p.; Deser- 



Canada, the following table of avail- 
able water powers being taken from 
his report: — 

Location. Horse Power. 

Yukon 470,000 

British Columbia 2,065,500 

Alberta 1,144,000 

Saskatchewan 500,000 

Manitoba 5°5.° 00 

North-West Territories . . 600,000 

Ontario 3,129,168 

57 




SHOWING WHERE ONTARIO FARMERS CAN GET ELECTRIC POWER 



Quebec I7>°75>939 

New Brunswick 150,000 

Nova Scotia 543.°°° 

Total 25.682,907 

Out of over 25,000,000 horse power 
available, little more than half a mil- 
lion has been developed, of which 
over 20,000 is in Manitoba, 73,100 in 
British Columbia, 1,300 in Alberta, 
331,157 in Ontario, 50,000 in Quebec, 
and 13,000 in Nova Scotia. A total 



of 516,885 out of a possible 25,000,- 
000 is being" developed, the difference 
being used in the other provinces. 

The maintenance of one horse pow- 
er per annum from steam power in- 
volves a consumption of twenty-one 
pounds of coal. On this basis the 
available water powers of Canada 
represent a combined' energy, which 
if it had to be maintained by steam 
generated from coal, would involve a 
coal consumption of 562,455,633 tons 
per annum. 



ONLY 

Only a pair of dark brown eyes, 

Only a dimple sweet; 
Only a clouded autumn skies, 

Only a mudldy street. 

Only a glance from the eyes of brown, 

On'ly a friendly smile; 
Only a maid in a fetching gown, 

Only a bit of guile. 

Only a hoy with an ardent heart, 

Only a gust of rain ; 
Only a glance at a taxi-cart, 

Only a sudden pain. 

Only a deeply anxious thrill, 

Only a frown of rue; 
Only a lone lorn dollar bill, 

Only a swift skiddoo! 

— Wilberforce Jenkins in Harper's Weekly. 



58 



Tariff Reduction in Canada 
is a necessity 



By E. C. Drury 



With the view of having a revision in the tariff at 
the next session of the Dominion Parliament every 
person affected by the tariff is getting his case ready 
for presentation to the members of that House. The 
old policy of the Government was to make the tariff 
as high as they could. When the present Government 
took charge they lowered tariffs and instituted the 
British Preference. The policy of the opposition to- 
day is practically the same as that of the Government. 
There are those who favor a higher tariff than we 
now have. Others look for a lower tariff. Mr. Drury 
is an opponent of protection and gives his reasons in 
this article. 

Mr. Drury is Master of the Dominion Grange and 
secretary of the National Council of Agriculture. He 
is one of Canada's best farmers and has given consid- 
erable study to tariff problems. "The farmer does not 
object to carrying his full share of our national bur- 
dens, but he does object to paying a heavy tax for the 
benefit of avaricious manufacturers, and to the injury 
of our young nation." 



WITHOUT doubt, the question 
of the tariff occupies the 
minds of Canadians at the 
present time more than any other 
question. Not since the inception of 
the National Policy in 1878 has it 
been so much to the front. Further, 
the Tariff Question now appears in an 
entirely new light. In times past, 
Protection and Free Trade have been 
the slogans of the two political parties 
in Canada, and, under the stimulus of 
election oratory, mudh interest in the 
question was at times aroused. But, 
w*hen in 1896 the Free Trade party at 
length were returned to office, the 
people found that "men are April 
when they woo, but December when 
they wed," — some reduction in the 



tariff was made, the British Prefer- 
ence was instituted, but the system of 
Protection was still continued. 

Since that time it has ceased to be 
a party question. The "moderate 
protection" of the party in power, and 
the "adequate protection" of the 
Opposition have no essential differ- 
ence. But, during all these years the 
question has still been alive in the 
minds of Canadians. Opinions have 
been formed, not on mere theories, 
but by the hard facts of practical ex- 
perience in the working of the system 
of Protection, and now at last, unex- 
pected by, and unwelcome to, either 
of the political parties, a great move- 
ment for the abolition of Protection 
in Canada has 'begun. It is no longer 

59 



FARMER'S MAGAZIXK 



a party question, but rather a non- 
partisan movement of the farmers, 
headed by the forty thousand members 
of the united farmers' organizations 
of Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan 
and ASberta, and supported by the 
agricultural press, against a system 
which is working them great injustice 
and injury. Of other classes, 'in the 
country, the laboring classes without 
doubt view the movement with sym- 
pathy, while unable to actively ad- 
vance it, and the professional classes 
are probably divided on the question. 
The one great, active and' unscrupu- 
lous opponent of the movement is the 
Canadian Manufacturers' Association, 
with only 2,600 members, it is true, 
but with a command of money, and an 
influence over Press and Parliament, 
which makes it truly formidable. 

CANADA MUST NOT BE HANDICAPPED. 

The opponents of the movement are 
already endeavoring to misrepresent 
its origin and belittle its importance. 
One, in a published letter, states that 
he has been told, on good authority, 
that the leaders of the movement are 
British Free Traders and American 
immigrants, and are supported by 
American funds. All that can be 
said of this is that it is absolutely un- 
true. The leaders of the movement 
are, almost without exception, men of 
Canadian birth, and the only funds 
employed have come from the farm- 
ers' organizations already mentioned. 
Again, there is a persistent attempt to 
narrow the issue to the one point of 
reciprocity with the United States. 
This again is a misrepresentation of 
the facts. It is true that the farmers 
have expressed themselves as strongly 
in favor of an arrangement which will 
allow free interchange of agricultural 
products and agricultural implements 
between the two countries, but any 
arrangement which would tie our 
hands in making trade treaties with 
other countries, would meet with un- 
qualified disapproval. Rather, the 
farmers look for relief to a general 

fiO 



lowering of duties against all coun- 
tries, and the further strengthening 
of the British Preference .to a point 
where the Protective principle shall be 
entirely eliminated. Again, some have 
belittled the movement as one origin- 
ating with a few theorists and sup- 
ported by a "handful of grain-grow- 
ers," but, if we call the forty thousand 
organized farmers a "handful," what 
shall we call the twenty-six hundred 
manufacturers? It is time this policy 
were dropped. Everyone who looks 
at the question fairly must recognize 
that ithe movement has originated with 
earnest, thoughtful, patriotic Cana- 
dians, that it is free from intrigue, and 
that it has the support of a large part 
of agricultural Canada. It shall be 
my task, in this article, to present the 
reasons which are behind the move- 
ment for tariff reduction, and to ans- 
wer the objections raised by the op- 
ponents of the movement. 

PROTECTION DOES NOT RAISE PRICES. 

Briefly stated, the farmers have 
risen in opposition to Protection be- 
cause experience has taught them that 
it has not the slightest influence in 
raising the price of what they have 
to sell, but has a very decided influ- 
ence in increasing the cost of all they 
must buy, and in raising the wage of 
all wfaom they employ. The "home 
market" promised by advocates of 
Protection has proved a myth. Cana- 
dian farmers must still sell their 
wiieat, their cattle, their hogs, their 
dairy products, in short, all their farm 
staples, in competition with the world 
in a distant market. Nor is there 
any indication that this condition will 
cease, within a measurable time. We 
have but touched the fringe of our 
agricultural possibilities. Old Ontar- 
io is still the banner agricultural sec- 
tion of Canada, producing, in 1901, 
over half the agricultural wealth of 
Canada, but Ol'd Ontario may yet be 
eclipsed by New Ontario. The 
Prairie Provinces have been referred 
to as the "gr'anary of the Empire," 



TARIFF REDUCTION IN CANADA IS A NECESSITY 



but they have only begun to grow 
wheat there. The untold undeveloped 
agricultural resources of Canada 
render it very improbable that she 
will ever be an importer of agricul- 
tural products, at least under normal 
conditions of development, and with 
reasonable care in conserving her 
fertility. When we have reached the 
limit of our agricultural production, 
and our population has increased be- 
yond our ability to sustain it, the 
world will be facing its last great 
problem of providing sustenance for 
its children. And, until that time, 
which no man may foresee, the 
"home market" will have no value in 
fixing the price of Canadian farm 
products, for, so long as there is an 
exportable surplus, the price re- 
ceived for that surplus must fix the 
price received for the whole crop. 
The farmers of Canada see this 
clearly, and, because they see it clear- 
ly, there is no agitation for protec- 
tion on Canadian farm products. 
Once for all, Canadian farmers have 
renounced all faith in a Protective 
Tariff as a means of creating a 
"home market" that will raise the 
price of their products. 

TARIFF FAVORS COMBINES. 

They have not, however, lost faith 
in the efficiency of a Protective Tar- 
iff in raising the price of all the 
manufactured products they must 
buy. They still see the article of for- 
eign production sold on equal terms 
as to quality and price, with the pro- 
duct of home manufacture, though the 
foreign product must pay a duty of 
20 or 30, or 35 per cent., and the home 
product has the advantage of prox- 
imity to its market, and the further 
advantage, in most cases, of import- 
ing all materials used in its manu- 
facture either free, or at a much 
lower rate of duty than is charged on 
the finished product. They are aware 
of the fact that Caniadian-made farm 
implements are sent to Australia and 
New Zealand, and there sold for less 
than in Canada. And the farmers of 
Canada are not altogether fools. They 



have at last reached the conclusion 
that the manufacturers are not trying 
to lessen prices by competition, are 
not trying to produce enough to sup- 
ply the Canadian market. In fact, 
there is every reason to believe that 
by understandings and combines in 
every direction, competition and over- 
production are carefully guarded 
against, while excessive profits are 
hid from the public eye under the 
mask of over-capitalization. Seeing 
these things, is it any wonder that 
Canadian farmers favor the abolition 
of the whole system of Protection? 

There is little doubt that the farm- 
ers are correct enough in their sup- 
position that combines and trusts, 
whose object is to control production 
and eliminate competition, exist very 
widely among Canadian manufac- 
turers. In the winter of 1909 a 
deputation from the Dominion 
Grange waited on the Government to 
ask for an investigation into the ex- 
istence of combines in Canada. With 
that deputation went Mr. J. W. Cur- 
ry, of Toronto, former Crown At- 
torney, and who had pursued a num- 
ber of investigations into the ex : st- 
ence of combines in Ontario. Quot- 
ing from Mr. Curry's words on this 
occasion, words spoken in public ad- 
dressed to the Finance Minister of 
Canada, publicly reported, and never 
contradicted, we find the following 
amazing statements: 

"In one ease it was shown, I think, 
beyond the shadow of a donbt. that a 
combination did exist for the purpose 
of restraining' trade. This was the tack 
combine. The books produced on that 
occasion showed that all the firms unit- 
ed in it were limited to a fixed list of 
prices and terms of credit in selling. Not 
only this, but the people to whom they 
sold were divided into classes and more 
favorable terms were given to one class 
than to another. The agreement pro- 
vided further that each factory should 
be limited to a certain volume of output, 
if it exceeded this volume only ten per 
cent, of the returns from the excess vol- 
ume should go for its own benefit, the 
other 40 per cent, going into a common 
fund. So far was this carried that one 

61 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE 



factory, which did not run at all during 
one year, obtained its share of the pro- 
fits earned by the operation of the others. 
The records went on to show that one 
firm withdrew from the combination and 
that the other firms remaining in then 
contributed a certain share of the output 
of each to be sold at prices low enough 
to put the independent rival out of busi- 
ness. They kept on cutting prices until 
the independent was forced to beg for 
mercy, and then the resolution in the 
minutes showed that the combine said: 
'Let him fry in his own fat' and 'take 
the medicine coming to him!' Eventual- 
ly the independent was driven out of 
business a ruined man. 

"In another ease a firm in Chatham 
began to import tacks from the United 
States. A meeting of the combine was 
called and arrangements were made to 
meet this particular competitor by cut- 
ting prices of their own output in the 
neighborhood of Chatham. They kept 
on cutting until the imported goods were 
shut out and then combine prices were 
put back again to the old figure. 

"This association imposed penalties 
on its members in ease of violation of 
any part of the agreement by which 
the combine was bound. The secretary 
of the combine had access to all books 
and papers of each individual firm in 
it for the purpose of seeing if the agree- 
ment was being kept. 

"Nor was this tack combine an iso- 
lated case. There were some thirty or 
forty other combinations organized in 
a similar way and for like purposes." 

Is it any wonder, when facts like 
these have become widely known 
among" farmers, and when there is 
every reason to believe that these are 
but glimpses into widely existing 
conditions that there should be a 
general movement to abolish the sys- 
tem which makes this sort of thing 
possible ? 

Then, there is official evidence to 
show that, in some cases at least, even 
where an industry was crying out for 
more protection, undue profits were 
being made. In 1908 the Dominion 
Textile Company, being engaged in 
an industrial dispute with its em- 
ployees, which had resulted in several 
strikes, a Royal Commission under 
the Hon. McKenzie King, was ap- 



pointed to investigate. Among many 
others, the following facts were 
brought out. That at the time of the 
strike, a circular issued to the em- 
ployees stated that the necessity to 
reduce wages was due to insufficient 
protection, but at the same time this 
company, Which has always been 
loud in its demand for protection, and 
which had just cut the wages of its 
employees by 10 per cent., had been 
able to make the following financial 
statement as to the year's business: 

"The net profits for the year, after 
paying current interest on loans, all mill 
charges, and writing off the large sums of 
$218.180 96 for repairs and betterments, 
and $235 340.40 for new plant and ma- 
chinery, amount to $900,805.89; to these 
profits we have to add $68.G35, being a 
dividend of 2V 2 per cent, on 27.454 
shares of Dominion Cotton Mills stock, 
and $51,705.50, dividend of 3V 2 per cent, 
on 14.773 shares of Merchants' Cotton 
Co. stock, making in all $1021.146 39. 
Out of this amount has been paid the fol- 
lowing: 

Interest on bonds $204,895.00 

Dividend on pfd. stock 130.067.00 

Dividend on com. stock 250.OO0.0O 

Rental Dom. Cotton Mills Co. 322.678.77 
Rental Mer. Cotton Mills Co.. 65.277.74 
And after allowing for bad debts there 
is left a surphis for the year of $44.- 
493.36. This will bring the amount at 
credit of profit and loss account to $568,- 
335.41. against $523,842.05 last year. 
This, in the opinion of your directors, is 
very satisfactory, considering the large 
fallin? off there has been in trade since 
last fall." 

Very satisfactory indeed i's this 
statement, when we consider that 
this company had capitalized its com- 
mon stock at 10 cents on the dollar, 
so that the nominal dividend of 5 per 
cent, amounted to 50 per cent, on the 
money 'actually invested ! And it is 
for concerns like this that the Cana- 
dian farmers are asked to tax them- 
selves on 'all they buy! There is per- 
haps, some little reason back of the 
revolt aeviinst Protection. 

ARGUMENTS FOR PROTECTION. 

There are two or three arguments 
that are being used tor the continu- 
ance of Protection'. The first, and 



TARIFF REDUCTION IN CANADA IS A NECESSITY 



rmost widely used, is that Canadian 
manufacturers cannot stand the com- 
petition of the world, if the protective 
duties are removed. The reply is 
simple. If after thirty yeans of pro- 
tection, an industry cannot stand, 
there is something radically wrong 
with it. It is quite possible, that, 
were protection withdrawn, some in- 
dustries might have to shut down. 
But in these cases, one of two things 
is true, either they are unsuited to 
the country, and could never thrive, 
or, as is undoubtedly true of some of 
our industries, their methods of 
manufacturing are obsolete. It would 
be unjust to expect our young and 
growing country to perpetually carry 
the burden of these industries. I 
have too much faith in the future of 
Canada to think for one moment that 
the withdrawal of Protection would 
spell ruin to our manufacturing in- 
dustries. With abundance of raw 
material, unlimited power in our run- 
ning waters, and a sober and indus- 
trious population, there is no reason 
why Canada, without protection 
should not be a great manufacturing 
country. To abolish Protection would 
undoubtedly interfere with the work- 
ing of some of our combines, and 
might necessitate drawing a little 
water from some of Our dropsical 
manufacturing concerns, but the op- 
eration would, in the end, (be whole- 
some even for our manufacturers, 
and of inestimable value to our 
farmers. 

Another reason put forward for 
the continuance of a Protective Tar- 
iff, is that we need revenue to meet 
our great and growing expenditure. 
True, we need revenue, though there 
is some difference of opinion as to 
the wisdom of 'much of our expendi- 
ture. But our present Tariff is not a 
revenue Tariff. For every dollar 
which it puts into the coffers of the 
country it puts at least three into the 
pockets of protected manufacturers. 
The farmers of this country, through 
their organizations, stand for "Tariff 
for revenue only," and if our present 
Finance Minister cannot frame one 



along these lines it will be time to 
find another. 

The last argument used to bolster 
up Protection, is that its abolition 
would mean the reduction of wages 
of the laboring people, with conse- 
quent hardship and privation. If 
this were true, it would be an argu- 
ment before which every good man 
should pause. But there is nothing to 
show that it is true. It is true that 
wages here 'are higher than in Free- 
Trade England, but not more than is 
necessary to make up for increased 
cost of living, due to Protection. If 
it were 'not for our great undeveloped 
resources, which are alble to take care 
of an unlimited number of unem- 
ployed, there is nothing to show that 
labor conditions here would he one 
whit hetter than in England. Our 
manufacturers, who are such sfliff 
protectionists, have always favored 
not only free trade in labor, but 
Government-aided immigration. They 
have paid their employees in most 
cases no more than they can help. 
The following quotations, from the 
Cotton Strikes Commission report, 
above referred to, show something of 
the attitude of the manufacturer to- 
ward, the laborer. 

"■As to the hours of labor of all these 
two classes — women, and children under 
18 years— it wag asserted that in normal 
times under normal conditions, work 
should begin on week days at 6.15 o'clock 
in the morning and continue to 12 noon, 
resume at a quarter to 1, and continue 
till 6, with the exception of Saturday, 
when there was work only in the morn- 
ing. It was stated by many of the wit- 
nesses, and the accuracy of the state- 
ment was not challenged, that operatives 
were obliged to be at their places of work 
a little before the time fixed, though 
a like practice did not exist in regard to 
leaving it. This is a work week of 60 
hours and over." 

"It is distressing to be obliged to re- 
cord that, though the minimum age at 
which children can be employed is fixed 
by the Quebec law at 14 years, several 
children were brought before the Com- 
mission from among those working in 
the mills who admitted that they had 

63 



F VRMER'S MAGAZINE 



entered upon employment under the legal 
ago. Some of these children were so im- 
mature and ignorant that they were un- 
able to tell the year of their birth, or 
their age. One little girl did not know 
: he mi of I he n ord ' holiday,' and 

when it had been explained to her, stated 
thai the only holidays she had known 
were Christmas and Epiphany. She had 
never received a week's vacation." 

These quotation's represent the con- 
ditions of the employees of a highly 
prosperous Canadian mianufactuning 
concern. They may show the manu- 
faoturer in a slightly different light 
to that of the working man's friend. 
On the other hand, the interests of 
the farmers and the workingmen are 
one. Both, as producers of wealth, 
must be on their guard against oppres- 
sion and fraud. 

"But" it wall be urged, "the farm- 
ers are already prosperous, mortgages 
are being paid off, prices are good, 
What more do they want?" Is this 
true? Are farmers prosperous in the 
widest sense? It is true that mort- 
gages are being paid, anid 1 bank ac- 
counts opened. How much of this is 
due to prosperity, and how much to 
increasing thrift and unwearying in- 
dustry? Before the Tariff Commis- 
sion in 1905 many farmers gave evi- 
dence that after allowing themselves 
a laboring wage their farms were 
not paying 5 per cent, on their actual 
value. I believe this is true generally, 
even where up-to-date methods are 
followed. It is unjust to accuse the 
farmers of Ontario of not making use 
of their opportunities. Agriculture is 
a slow business, necessitating a year's 
time for the repetition of most oper- 
ations, and when we consider what 
has been done in Ontario during the 
last fifty years, since most of the 
country was a wilderness, and in the 
West during the Last few years, we 
cannot fairly consider the farmer un- 
progressive. He is showing a great 
desire for knowledge, as witness the 
popularity of our Agricultural Col- 
lege, and our Farmers' Institutes, and 
is progressing wonderfully in meth- 
ods of up-to-date agriculture. But 

64 



in spite of all this, he is not holding 
his- own. The 'burden of Protection 
is too heavy for him. Since its in- 
ception in 1878 farm population has 
been steadily decreasing in all the 
older provinces, in Ontario to the 
tune of 6,500 per year, while town 
and ciity population has rapidly in- 
creased. Even in the new agricul- 
tural West the urban population is in- 
creasing at a faster rate than the 
rurall. This is the best comment on 
the effect of Protection on the farm- 
er. The withdrawal of population 
from the farms is due to lack of com- 
parative prosperity. The young 
people leave the farms because in 
many cases they must do so if they 
hope to have homes of their own in a 
reasonable time. Further, this with- 
drawal of papulations means retro- 
gression in many lines of agriculture, 
due simply to lack of labor to till the 
land and carry on the many branches 
of modern mixed farming. If agri- 
culture is to progress as it should in 
Canada, with all that it means to our 
nation of material and social well- 
being, it is evident that the farmer 
must be relieved of the burden im- 
posed upon him by our present fiscal 
system. The farmer does 'not object 
to carrying his full share of our 
national burdens, but he does object 
to paying a heavy tax for the benefit 
of avaricious manufacturers, and to 
the injury of our young nation. 

Some time during the early part of 
the next session of the Canadian 
Parliament, a giant deputation from 
the farmers' organizations of Ontario 
and the West will await upon the 
Government at Ottawa to present 
their views on this question. They 
will do so in a manner open and 
above-board, free from the suspicion 
of intrigue or corruption. They be- 
lieve their demands to be just and 
patriotic, and in this faith will appeal 
not only to the great farming class of 
Canada, but to all her citizens Who 
believe in justice as the true founda- 
tion of national greatness, and who 
take a thoughtful and unselfish inter- 
est in her future. 




"WHAT?" SAID FLAHERTY. "A BANK ROBBERY?" 

Flaherty's Promotion 

By 
Burton E. Stevenson 

Illustrated by Stan Murray 



LIEUTENANT DENNIS FLA- 
HERTY sat in his chair and 
yawned. Then he stretched his 
great arms high into the air, and his 
great legs out before him, and wrig- 
gled. He had inside him an uncom- 
fortable, stuffed feeling. For Lieuten- 
ant Flaherty had long contracted the 
habit of eating more than was good 
for him, and the consequence was not 
only an increasing embonpoint, but a 
habitual torpor, as of a gorged python. 
When he had been a patrolman, these 



effects were less marked, since exei 
cise and fresh air aided digestion. 
Even as sergeant he had had to move 
around a good deal. But since hi* 
promotion to the lieutenancy, h» 
duties had consisted largely of sitting 
in a chair and looking wise. So his 
girth increased and his mental agility 
diminished, until there were times 
when his brain seemed scarcely to 
work at all. 

It had cost Flaherty six hundred 
dollars to be made a sergeant, and 

C 65 



I- \KMER'S MAGAZINE. 



twelve hundred to secure the lieuten- 
ancy. He didn't fully understand the 
workings of the game — indeed, he 
considered it none of his business — 
but he knew that twenty-five hundred 
more would be needed before he could 
get a captaincy. Who got the money, 
he didn't know, but that was the price. 
He looked upon it as an investment, 
and a good one. Oh, yes, he had read 
newspaper denunciations of "the sys- 
tem," just as he had read denuncia- 
tions of many other things. Them 
newspapers fellers had to have some- 
thin' to fill up with, and the world 
seemed to wag along pretty much as 
it had always done. 

So, since the hour of gaining the 
lientenancy, Flaherty had set himself 
to save the sum needed to secure the 
next promotion. And this was about 
to be accomplished. He had eighteen 
hundred dollars, scraped together 
from the unfortunates of his district, 
and the wardmen, who dealt with the 
powers that be, had offered to take his 
note for the remaining seven hundred. 
So Flaherty was happy. He knew 
that, as captain, it wouldn't take him 
long to raise the money to pay that 
note, and then he could begin saving 
for the next degree. He had visions 
of the day when, as inspector, he 
would be in receipt of that more com- 
fortable income which, it was well 
known, inspectors always enjoyed. 

Now, don't, in the innocence of 
your hearts, go to condemning Fla- 
herty. He was no moral leper; he was 
an honest and generous, if somewhat 
thick-headed, Irishman. We are all 
the products of our environment, and 
Flaherty was the product of his, no 
more to be blamed for obliquity of 
vision than is the cannibal who eats 
his fallen foe. In fact, Flaherty was 
a better man than some. He had risk- 
ed his life in places where others had 
held back ; his hand was always in 
his pocket, and if the money he gave 
away had really been earned by others, 
why, how many of us earn the money 
we call ours? 

Can you see him sitting there, with 
his rotund body, and florid face, and 

66 



big black mustache, and black close- 
cropped hair growing low on neck 
and forehead ; with the little good- 
natured creases at the corners of his 
eyes, and the great stretch of jowl 
that hung above the collar? He tip- 
ped the scales at two hundred and 
ninety pounds, and that was one rea- 
son he was fonder of sitting than he 
used to be. 

Well, there sat Flaherty at his sta- 
tion that July afternoon, when in unto 
him entered a slim, nervous, prosper- 
ous-looking individual whom he had 
never seen before. And this is where 
our story begins. 

"Lieutenant Flaherty?" asked the 
stranger. 

"The same," said Flaherty. 

"My name is Jones," continued the 
stranger, and handed Flaherty a card 
"Of the American Vitagraph Com- 
pany. We want your assistance." 
a new patent medicine, and that a testi- 
new patent medicine, and that a testi- 
monial was required for insertion in 
the newspapers, together with his 
photograph, in uniform. He had been 
exploited in this way before, once in 
company with Mrs. Flaherty and the 
children. It had tickled them to have 
their pictures in the papers. Besides, 
it paid. 

"Set down," said he, and waved to- 
ward a chair. "Glad to meet you, Mr. 
Jor.es. Now, what kin I do for you?" 

"Well," said Jones, sitting down 
and settling back in his chair and care- 
fully crossing his legs, as if they were 
fragile and might break, "you know 
we're a big concern — the biggest in 
the country. We've got 'em all beat 
when it comes to lifelikeness and sen- 
sation. But we've got to keep hust- 
ling, for some of the others are pretty 
close to our heels. The younger gen- 
eration, you know." 

Flaherty didn't know, but he nod- 
ded. He had learned long since the 
folly of asking questions. They only 
displayed one's ignorance. 

"What we want to engineer now," 
added Jones, "is a bank robbery." 




ONE OF THEM HAD A BIG MOVING PICTURE CAMERA MOUNTED AND WAS ADJUSTING IT. 



67 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



"What?" said Flaherty, sitting up. 
"A bank robbery !" 

"Yes; the real thing, you know; 
hold-tip, murder oi faithful employee, 
get-away, and final capture. You can 
fake the interior scenes all right, but 
we've got to take the exterior on the 
street. We thought of the National 
Trust. It has an imposing facade." 

The last word was Greek to Flaher- 
ty, and the idea flashed through his 
head that he was talking to a lunatic. 
The stranger's eyes were certainly 
preternaturally bright. 

"Go on," he said. 

"The trouble with these street scenes 
is to keep back the crowds, especially 
in New York. You know this is the 
worst rubber-neck town in the world. 
We carry our own people, who know 
just what to do, and if the crowd 
breaks in, it spoils everything. The 
success of the whole thing depends on 
the effect. We rehearse the whole 
thing in advance, work out every de- 
tail. I don't imagine the scene at the 
National will take over four or five 
minutes. We want to show the thieves 
running out and down the steps and 
hopping into their autos. We're go- 
ing to have a pursuit by the police, 
and a running fight, but that can be 
done out in the country somewhere, 
with nobody around to bother. You 
can't imagine how critical the people 
who go to see these moving-picture 
shows are getting to be." 

Flaherty heaved a sigh of relief and 
mopped his face with his handker- 
chief. At last he understood. 

"Mighty hot in here," he said, "Not 
a breath of air. Let's go acrost the 
street an' git somethin' cool." 

Mr. Jones assented and they cross- 
ed the street to the Imperial Cafe. 
where two tall glasses, in which ice 
clinked and mint floated, were soon 
set before them. 

"Nice place," said Jones, looking 
around. "First time I was ever in it." 

"Yes," agreed Flaherty, "and does 



a good business." He haa often 
thought that, if he were not in the 
police and on the highway to promo- 
tion, he would like to conduct such a 
place as this — a nice, clean, law-abid- 
ing place, with a steady custom. 
"Now," he added, as he pushed back 
his glass, "go on with the story." 

So Mr. Jones told in detail of the 
plans of the Vitagraph Company for 
a wonderful new picture, which would 
catch and hold the multitude by the 
impressiveness of its detail. It was to 
show a bank robbery, the robbery of 
the biggest trust company in New 
York. The robbers would dash up in 
their automobiles, enter the building, 
overpower the clerks, hand-cuff them 
to the railings, perhaps shoot one or 
two as examples to the others, grab 
the trays of money standing about and 
empty them' into the suit-cases they 
had brought with them, enter the safe 
and fill their suit-cases with the cur- 
rency stored there ; then they would 
dash back to their cars, and a wild ride 
would follow through the streets and 
out into the country, with the police 
in hot pursuit. At last the robbers 
would be brought to bay, some would 
be killed, and the rest captured and led 
back by the police in triumph, while 
the stolen money was restored to the 
vaults of the trust company, greatly 
to the relief of its president, who was 
just preparing to commit suicide. 

"That last don't sound hardly nat- 
eral," objected Flaherty. "He'd be 
more apt to cop out what was left an' 
hike out fer Canada. You don't know 
them presidents." 

Mr. Jones admitted that his ac- 
quaintance with the presidents of trust 
companies was not extensive ; but the 
important thing with moving pictures 
was not so much a slavish adherence 
to the truth, as the introduction of 
certain homely elements which touch- 
ed the heart of the multitude. They 
had thought they might show the 
president rewarding the widow and 
children of the old and trusted em- 
ployee who had lost his life in defense 
of the company's millions. Perhaps 



FLAHERTY'S PROMOTION 



they would do that yet; meanwhile, 
suppose we have the glasses replen- 
ished? 

Flaherty agreed. 

"Of course, you know," he said, 
"you couldn't really pull off a thing 
like that. All the teller's got to do is 
to touch a button at his elbow an' send 
in an alarm that'll bring about a hun- 
dred men on the scene inside o' three 
minutes." 

"It's the teller who does that, is it?" 
inquired Mr. Jones. 

"Yes ; the payin'-teller. He's in a 
little cage right at the left as you go 
in. An' even if he didn't git to do 
that, a crowd o' men runnin' down the 
steps would be nabbed by somebody. 
There's always a special officer on 
duty at the door, an' a patrolman on 
the block." 

Mr. Jones nodded and rattled the 
ice around in his glass reflectively. 

"Oh, well," he said, at last, "it's 
just like the stage. A lot of things 
happen in real life. All the people 
ask is to be amused and excited. Just 
so it's pulled off in good shape — that's 
all they want." 

"That's your lookout," said Flaher- 
ty. "What is it you want me to do?" 

"We want you to take a detail of 
six or eight men down to the National 
Trust and hold the crowd back on 
either side, while we take the picture 
of the get-away. It won't take over 
five or six minutes, so that traffic won't 
be impeded. Anybody who's in a 
hurry can cross over." 

Flaherty looked at his companion. 

"What is there in it for me?" he 
asked. 

"How will two hundred do?" 

"Make it two-fifty. I'll have to give 
the men a fiver apiece." 

"All right," agreed Jones. "I guess 
we can afford it. If the film turns out 
all right, it'll be a gold mine. Of 
course, if it don't turn out right, we'll 
expect you to give us another chance. 
Something happens, once in a while, 
to spoil the film, and then we have to 
take it over again." 

"That's all right," said Flaherty. 
"When do you want to do it?" 



"Suppose we say to-morrow morn- 
ing. We've got the film all ready up 
to this point, and we're anxious to get 
it out. The fact is," he added, lean- 
ing across the table and speaking in 
a lower tone, "we've got a tip that 
Pathe Freres are working up a big 
film along these lines, and we want to 
beat them to it." 

"To-morrow mornin', then," said 
Flaherty, "What time?" 

"Nine-thirty's the best time. There 
won't be so many people around as 
later in the day." 

"That'll suit," agreed Flaherty. "I'll 
have the men there on the dot." 

"Good !" said Jones, and got out his 
pocket-book. "Here's the two-fifty," 
and he counted out five fifty-dollar 
bills. 

"Thanks," said Flaherty, and slip- 
ped the bills into his pocket. "Have 
somethin' more?" 

"No," said Jones, rising. "I've got 
to be getting along. I've got a lot of 
details to attend to." 

"Good-by till to-morrow, then," 
said Flaherty, and they shook hands 
and parted. 

Flaherty stopped to purchase and 
light a black cigar. Then he returned 
to his chair at the station, and fell into 
a pleasant reverie, as he watched the 
smoke circle upwards. He would take 
eight patrolmen and give them five 
dollars apiece. That made forty dol- 
lars. Taking out another ten to be 
spent in celebration, left two hundred. 
He would have to borrow only five 
hundred. Captain — then inspector — 
it wouldn't take long! And, smiling 
a satisfied smile, his chin sank lower 
and lower upon his breast, his cigar 
dropped from his fingers, and he 
peacefully slept the remainder of the 
afternoon away. 



II. 

Promptly at nine-thirty the next 
morning, Lieutenant Flaherty march- 
ed his detail of eight men down the 
avenue to the National Trust. He 
found two automobiles drawn up by 
the curb before the building. One of 

B9 



IWRMK.k'S MAGAZINE. 



them had a big moving-picture cam- 
era mounted over the dash, and the 
operator was busy adjusting it. Six 
or eight men lolled in the tonneaus, 
among them Jones, who sprang out as 
he saw Flaherty and his men ap- 
proach. 

"Everything's ready," he said, and 
Flaherty noticed again how bright his 
eyes were. 

"All right," said Flaherty, and his 
men began to push back the crowd 
which had collected in a minute. 
"How much space will you need?" 

"Oh, about fifty feet. And keep a 
lane clear, so that the cars can get 
away." 

"All right," said Flaherty again, 
and threw a line across the pavement 
on either side of the building. 

The patrolman on the block came 
running up to investigate, and Flaher- 
ty explained the situation. Then, as 
the cars backed around and headed 
uptown, the crowd saw the picture 
machine and understood, too. Some 
moved on, but the greater part tarried, 
grinning expectantly, to see what 
would happen. 

"I guess that's all right, said Fla- 
herty. 

Jones looked over the preparations 
with a critical eye. 

"Yes," he said ; "but be sure nobody 
breaks through." 

"Oh, nobody'll git through," Fla- 
herty assured him. "Don't you worry 
about that." 

"All right," said Jones, and nodded 
to the men in the cars. 

The operator of the picture-machine 
began to turn the crank; the men 
jumped out, each with a suit-case, and, 
with Jones at their head, charged up 
the steps of the building. An instant 
later, the great doors swung shut be- 
hind them. 

One minute, two minutes, three min- 
utes passed, while the crowd watched 
the entrance, still grinning expectant- 
ly. A depositor hurried up and pro- 
tested loudly at being detained for 
such foolishness. 

"Just a minute more," said Flaher- 
ty soothingly. "Just a minute more." 

70 



"I don't feel just right, some way," 
remarked the patrolman, watching the 
entrance anxiously. 

And then the doors swung open and 
Jones appeared at the top of the steps, 
hi9 men behind him, suit-cases in hand. 

There was a sudden shout from the 
crowd, and Flaherty's men held it back 
with difficulty. The motors in the 
cars were humming, and Flaherty saw 
that a wild-eyed man, with a broken 
hand-cuff dangling from one arm, was 
following the make-believe robbers 
down the steps. 

"Thieves!" he screamed. "Thieves! 
Stop them, officer !" 

His face was white and agonized as 
he turned it to where Flaherty stood 
immobile. 

"Thieves !" he screamed again. 

"Good actor," said Flaherty to him- 
self. "But what's the use of him yel- 
lin' so? That won't show in the pic- 
ter." 

And then, as the patrolman, who 
was young and inexperienced, mopped 
the sweat from his face, the rearmost 
of the robbers, feeling the pursuer at 
his heels, paused, turned, levelled a 
revolver, and fired. 

The pursuer stopped for an instant 
rigidly on tiptoe, half-way down the 
steps, then crumpled and rolled limply 
to the bottom and lay there on his face. 

The crowd cheered. 

"Great !" said Flaherty. "Astonish- 
in' how them actors kin fall like that 
without hurtin' themselves." 

The patrolman did not answer, only 
mopped his face again. 

But the robbers were in their cars 
and off like a shot through the lane 
that had been cleared for them, the 
man at the machine in the rear car 
turning the crank frantically. And 
the passers-by understood and smiled 
and made way. 

Flaherty watched them until they 
were out of sight, then, as he turned, 
he saw that the limp figure still lay 
where it had fallen at the foot of the 
steps. Flaherty bent over and shook 
his shoulder. 

"All right, old sport," he said. "It's 
all over. You kin come to, now." 




WHY, THAT'S DIXON THE WATCHMAN," SAID THE PATROLMAN, HIS FACElLIVID. 



71 



FARMER'S M \C A/INF. 



The still figure did not respond, and, 
with a sudden tightening of the heart, 
Flaherty turned it over. Blood was 
slowly oozing from an ugly hole in the 
forehead. The man was dead. 

"Why. that's Dixon, the watch- 
man." said the patrolman, his face 
livid, and a sudden frightened stillness 
fell upon the crowd. 

Flaherty felt his throat constrict and 
ry as he sprang up the steps and 
hurled himself through the door. 

A groan burst from him as he saw 
what lay inside. 

Prone on the marble floor, where a 
bullet had stretched him in the first 
instant, lay the paying-teller; while a 
dozen pale and frightened men were 
neatly handcuffed to the railings. The 
money-trays were empty and the doors 
of the great vault stood open. 

The robbery had been accomplish- 
ed just as Jones had outlined it the 
day before. And as he bei t above the 
body of the teller, slain before he had 
had a chance to touch that button at 



his elbow, Flaherty groaned again. 
For he felt that the blood of the mur- 
dered man was on his head. 



III. 



The cars were found, an hour later, 
in the garage from which they had 
been rented. Their drivers reported 
that they had stopped at Times Square 
and that all but one of the men had 
got out and walked quietly away. The 
man who remained had come on to 
the garage, paid for the rental of the 
cars, said he would send for the cam- 
era, and disappeared in the crowd out- 
side. That was the end of them. The 
camera proved to be only a box with 
a crank to it, and a cheap lens in 
front. 

And Flaherty? Oh, Flaherty is 
now the proprietor of the Imperial 
Cafe. You may see him there any 
day. He's not as fat as he was, and 
he looks considerably older. They 
tell me he is subject to fits of melan- 
cholia. 



Range Sheep - Raising Is 
Profitable 

The Industry as Practised in the United States 



THE past fifteen years have seen 
the development of sheep-rang- 
ing, as distinct from sheep- 
farming or sheep-ranching, in the 
Western Canada. Two-thirds of all 
the sheep in the union, or well over 
thirty million, are pastured upon the 
public land's of the intermountain 
States, especially in Wyoming and 
Montana. Without any protection 
from storms, without provision of 
winter fodder, with no care be- 
yond that given by herders and 

72 



dogs, these sheep have made 
enormous profits, despite enormous 
loss of sheep life by storm and starva- 
tion. They are valued at ovc: a bil- 
lion dollars. They require, for a 
flock of i, 800 to 3,500 sheep, one 
herder and his dog. The st'»ry told 
of this industry in Everybody s Maga- 
zine, by G. W. Ogden, is suggestive. 

On the high plateaux of Colorado, 
Montana, Wyoming and Idaho, the 
short, succulent grass cures as it stands 
during the rainless summer, retainiug 




WATER IS GOLD ON THE WESTERN SHEEP RANGE. 

Courtesy Everyb >dy s Magazine. 



its sweetness and nutritive qualities. In 
winter the wind generally blows the 
dry snow into drifts on the lee side of 
the hills, leaving vast areas uncovered 
where the flocks can feed. But not al- 
ways. What happens when snow covers 
the range is another story. 

A flockmaster is considered unfortun- 
ate, indeed, if driven to the necessity of 
feeding his flocks in winter. It is gen- 
erally considered cheaper to allow such 
of the animals as cannot weather the 
stress to make an end of it in their 
own way. If a man is a hundred miles 
or two from a railroad, in a country 
where there is not enough hay grown 
to feed all the sheep on the range for 
ten days, there doesn't appear to be 
any more humane solution. In the in- 
ter-mountain sheep country, a man does 
not go into the business of sheep raising 
with the intention of ever spending a 
cent on the maintenance of his animals. 
Nature has done everything considered 
necessary by the sheepmen in the way 
of providing food supply. Millions upon 
millions of sheep are born, sheared, and 
graduated into lamb-chops — at four to 
six years of age — that never tasted a 
bite of farm-grown produce in their 
lives until they were put aboard the 
train to be taken to the stockyards. 

Sheep growing in the ranees of the 
West is now at its happy meridian. The 
industry is about as large as it ever 
will be under present conditions ; for 
several causes are at work which will. 
in the next ten years, bring about a 
change. One thine 1 that will check the 
growth of the business is the greed of 
the sheepmen themselves. It is no long- 
er possible for a man to set up as a 
flockmaster on a few hundred dollars. 
The range is so closely crowded now 
that water-rights are essential. A flock- 
master must make sure of a livinsr 
stream at which his creatures can 
drink, by acquiring title to a strip_ of 
land upon the bank. Tf he has no title, 



somebody else may beat him to it just 
when he needs it most. So title to a 
water-front is secured by hook or crook 
— frequently crook — and then a sheep- 
man may set up in business. This ex- 
pense and the cost of a breeding flock 
and outfit will run the expense up to 
$10,000 or $12,000. 

These Western sheep must have water 
every three or four days during summer, 
although they can get along nicely seven 
or eieht days when there is plenty of 
dew. In winter they eat snow, which 
is but one among the many advantages, 
in a bleak country, that these creatures 
have over cattle. The water-right, ac- 
quired by homestead or purchase, or by 
some means known only to the owner 
— a means which Wyoming federal grand 
juries recently have been looking into — 
is the sheepman's greatest asset. If 
lie has immovable headquarters, thev 
are on the stream. 

If lie is a poor man, he doesn't bother 
about a house ; or, if he is in a section 
where the cattlemen make their periodic 
raids, he is better off without buildings. 
In either cas>e he makes his home in a 
sheep-wagon, moving it from time to 
time as the sheep exhaust the grazing, 
taking his flocks to new pastures, al 
ways keeping within driving distance of 
water. Unlike cattle, sheep appear to 
have no faculty for finding water when 
any great distance from it. This pro- 
bably is due to their long domesticity 
and their absolute dependence upon the 
superior intelligence of man for many 
centuries. They must be told when thev 
are thirsty, and headed for the river. If 
given a start toward water, they will 
keep moving till they find it. 

A sheep-wagon is a portable home, 
fitted with everything the sheepman 
considers necessary or convenient. It is 
merelv an ordinary wagon with an es- 
pecially wide, deep box, covered with 
heavy canvas tightly stretched over 
bows. In the front end is a door, in the 

73 



F VRMER'S .MAGAZINE. 



back a window. Inside are bunks, a 
stove, and such other scant furnishings 
as the space will admit. Sheep-wagons 
are pretty much alike. The man that 
made the first one appears to have cov- 
ered all necessary points, and nobody 
following has attempted any improve- 
ment. Sometimes, when a woman of 
finer fiber than the general run of sheep- 
men's wives is helping her husband roll 
up the wool ball which may grow into 
mansions and lands, the sheep-wagon 
becomes in a limited way attractive 
and comfortable. It always has this 
advantage — one may change his exterior 
environment as often as he likes. 

If a man prospers and his flock in- 
creases, he is able, in a few years, to 
leave the wagon and make his home in 
a ranch house or a town dwelling ; but 
if things do not go right, the wagon 
may be the only home for years. Season 
in and season out, men, often with 
their wives and families, have followed 
the flocks in wagons, the flock in the 
wagon increasing along with that on 
the range. As the boys grow up, they 
are put out as herders, sleeping in tents 
beside the parental wagon. Thus thev 
go on, just managing to keep even. 
They never see a spear of green garden 
growing, never taste a fresh vegetable, 



living solely upon the canned products 
bought at the miles-distant supply 
point. It i9 just a prolonged Arctic 
existence on wheels. 

Said a wealthy sheepman in Casper, 
Wyoming : "Any man that's grown rich 
at the sheep business has earned every 
cent he's got, five times over." 

Quick fortunes have been the rule in 
the sheep business in the West, although 
it is estimated that twenty per cent, of 
those embarking in it fail. The big for- 
tunes in sheep were made by those that 
got in twenty years ago. These men 
were either extremely sturdy or extrem- 
ly desperate, as a general thing, to be- 
gin with. Misfortune couldn't spring 1 
anything new on them, no matter what 
it brought out of the box — just so it 
left them their lives. Not even the 
vindictive blows of the cattlemen could 
frighten them out of the country. 
Among the notable early comers to 
Wyoming was John Morton, of Douglas. 
John Morton's most valuable possession 
when he went out to run a band of 
sheep on shares twenty years ago, was 
five pounds of dried apples in a bag. 
That five pounds of dried apples be- 
came the leven of a fortune at present 
estimated at a quarter of a million dol- 
lars. Morton is using his money now 




SHEEP7ARE NEVER IN WANT. ! 
The wild grass of'the Western ranches is abundant and nutritious. 



74 



RANGE SHEEP RAISING IS PROFITABLE 



in big irrigation projects for the re- 
clamation of the desert lands, putting 
it back into the ground that nourished 
his sheep and made him rich. 

Pat Sullivan, of Casper, is another 
one of the rugged early-day sheepmen 
who has done well. Sullivan landed at 
Philadelphia eighteen years ago from 
Ireland. He had fifty-four dollars left 
after eating his first meal in America. 
Pat walked into a railroad office with 
that money, put it down before the 
agent, and said : "Give me a ticket as 
far west as that'll take me." The ticket 
was to Rawlins, Wyoming, and there 
Pat Sullivan, greenhorn, got off the 
train and struck a job herding sheep for 
another Irishman. In time he married 
the flock-master's daughter and got an 
interest in the flock. Many a year the 
wife and Pat followed the flock in a 
sheep-wagon, winter and summer, meet- 
ing all manner of hardship in a country 
where nothing at all comes easy. 

Sullivan lives at Casper now, in a 
green house with lank poplars flanking 
it like rows of soldiers. He is said to 
be worth $150,000. As proof of his 
prosperity he is building a big brick 
castle on a hillside at Casper, a castle 
with a tower and bow windows, over- 
looking the North Platte River, which 
lies flat on the sands there like a silver 
hair on a mantle of somber gray. 

On the other hand, there are men 
that have grown old in their efforts to 
start flocks, working as herders and 
saving year after year, putting the ac- 
cumulated wealth into sheep, only to 
see their flocks butchered by cattlemen 
or wiped out by plague or storm. These 
old fellows, their faces blank as the 
curtained windows of a house, from self- 
communion and long silences unbroken 
by the sound of a human voice, plod on 
with their hopes and dreams of ulti- 
mate success until their minds break 
under the strain and brooding, or death 
in its crude mercy covers the mislead- 
ing light. 

Camp must be moved frequently, win- 
ter and summer, because the sheep 
quickly strip the leagues of grazing 
ground of all life-sustaining herbage. In 
summer this does not grow out rapidly 
enough to make one camping place a 
continuous pasture, although the sheep 
range miles on all sides. In winter, 
when the dry grass is eaten in one spot, 
the flocks must be moved immediately 
to another. During the summer months 
the sheepmen take their flocks to the 
mountains, so grass on the flats may 
grow and cure for winter use. They also 
generally agree on some territory to be 
reserved for late winter feeding, where 
the grass is rank and thick. On this 
reserve pasture the sheep are run before 
shearing time, two or three weeks be- 



fore grass begins to grow. The animals 
generally are in pitiable condition then, 
alter the struggle through the winter 
with hunger and cold. 

The herder's duty is to keep the flock 
spread, so all may have an equal chance 
at the sparse grass, driving the sheep 
each day to fresh pastures. If in hilly 
country, the shepherd keeps above them 
while they feed, his dog at his side. At 
evening he turns them back to camp 
and beds them on a hillside, choosing 
his location in winter with regard to 
the wind. The wind must blow over 
them from the sheltered side, and not 
against them, or they will stampede. 
When they are quiet, and lying down, 
the shepherd goes to his wagon, cooks 
his supper, and turns in. 

After giving an interesting descrip- 
tion of the life and trying experiences 
of the herders, Mr. Ogden goes on to 
describe other details of the industry. 

Shearing, in the sheep states, corres- 
ponds to harvest in the wheat belt — it 
is the biggest event of the year. The 
shearers start in Mexico and work 
north, reaching the sheep states of the 
inter-mountain country about April 20. 
These shearers are men of many na- 
tions, rough, greasy, hard swearing, 
hard drinking. They get about four 
months' work out of a year at their 
trade, and it is a poor shearer that 
can't make ten dollars a day. The av- 
erage wage is twelve dollars, and many 
make fifteen. It is all piecework, the 
shearer getting an average of nine cents 
a head. 

Most big growers have their own 
shearing pens ; but in communities 
where there are many flocks, some man 
generally builds a pen and adequate cor- 
rals, supplies shearers, bags for the 
wool, and men to handle the sheep, for 
an agreed price, which usually is fifteen 
cents a head. In such places shearing 
will go on for a month or two at a 
time. When the employer boards the 
shearers, the charge, invariably, is a 
dollar a day. The saloon-keepers nearly 
always get the rest of the shearer's 
wages. Of course there are thrifty 
shearers who save their money and in 
time become sheep owners. But they 
are not exceedingly numerous. 

Machinery is supplanting the old hand 
method in many places. A compressed- 
air clipper, such as is used on horses 
and is familiar everywhere, is employed. 
This method is very rapid, the one ob- 
jection being that the clippers shear 
too closely, thus exposing the animal 
additionally to extremes of cold and 
heat. 

75 




THE RANCHERS' WOOL-TRAIN OFF TO MARKET. 
Courtesy Everybody's Magazine. 



A shearing-shed is long, with open 
sides, flanked by numerous little pens. 
Into each pen a man called a "wrang- 
ler" drives an allotted number of sheep. 
The shearer drags one out, squats it 
on its haunches upon the shearing-floor, 
clasps it with knees and free hand, and 
begins to cut away the fleece at the 
point of the shoulder. In from two to 
five minutes the fleece rolls to the floor, 
clinging together like a coat, and the 
shearer ties it in a bundle and tosses it 
out of his way. The shorn sheep is 
passed to another wrangler, who places 
upon its back or side the owner's brand, 
with brush and black paint. 

The packers place the fleeces in long 
burlap sacks, tramping down the wool. 
Each of these bags holds from 250 to 
300 pounds. Western sheep are not 
washed before being shorn, as is the 
custom among small flock-masters of 
the East. The shrinkage of Western 
wool is heavy, seldom falling below 
sixty-eight per cent. The grease holds 
the sand and grit which blow into it 
with every gale and get rubbed into the 
fleeces when the sheep lie down. Wool 
buyers can estimate, with surprising 
nicety, just about what the shrinkage 
will be. Wool in the grease — just as it 
is cut — brought twenty-two cents a 
pound in the West, last year — a good 
price. 

Fleeces are cut from millions of sheep 
each spring in the West far from anv 
railroad or other means of transporta- 
tion save by wagon. The flockmaster 
loads the big sacks upon heavy wagons, 
making as many trains as he has teams 
or his cut requires, and sets out for 
market. A train generally consists of 
three or four freight wagons, with a 

7G 



water and grub wagon on the end. 
There are many drives of 150 miles to 
a railroad in the sheep country, and it 
is no unusual thing to see a wagon 
train freighted with $20,000 worth of 
wool, drawn by ten or twelve teams of 
horses or mules, creeping toward the 
nearest loading-piace. 

The average fleece in the Western wool 
states varies somewhat from year to 
year. In the spring of last year it was 
about nine pounds in the grease. The 
average shearing life of a sheep is four 
years. The flocks are mostly ewes, the 
wethers being marketed while lambs. 
So, not counting the lambs she yields, 
each ewe, during her useful period, re- 
turns the owner from seven to eight 
dollars'' worth of wool. Her mainten- 
ance costs him nothing at all. 

Then, after the sheepman gets all he 
can out of them and the old mothers 
begin to be what insurance men call 
"bad risks," he ships them off to 
Omaha, Chicago, or Kansas City. On 
these markets they are known as "feed- 
ers." Speculators buy them, fatten 
them on grain and alfalfa, and sell them 
to the packing houses. 

Lamb-chops? Of course they're lamb- 
chops. You never bought anything but 
lamb-chops, no matter from what old 
mother's ribs they were cut. 

Sheep on the Western range are re- 
markably free from disease. It has not 
always been so. The Government and 
the various states co-operate in enforc- 
ing stringent laws regarding inspection 
of all imported animals, dipping, and 
quarantine of ailing flocks. The various 
states have boards of sheep commis- 
sioners, which are in effect boards of 
health for sheep. In some cases thev 



RANGE SHEEP RAISING IS PROFITABLE 



work with and under the lead of the 
state veterinarians, sometimes they are 
independent. 

Taking into account the precautions 
to insure the health of the animals, and 
the peculiar virtue of the grass and 
savory herbs which the sheep fatten 
upon, the range wethers, sold when 
about six months old, are not equaled 
in food value and delicacy of flavor by 
any sheep on earth. 

Just as the sheepmen, by determina- 
tion and plodding methods, have all 
but driven the cattlemen from the 
ranges — those that remain are dying 
hard — another industry is slowly aris- 
ing, which appears destined, within ten 
years, to put an end to the sheep-man 
as he conducts his business to-day. This 
menace to the free and open range is 
the dry farmer. 

Within the past two years thousands 
of soil tillers have settled upon the 
prairies of Wyoming and Montana. Ag- 
riculturalists are beginning to learn 
that farm produce will grow, luxuriant- 
ly, profitably, in these high areas where 
the annual precipitation is fifteen inches 
and less, if a man knows how to culti- 
vate. The state of Wyoming has taken 
official cognizance of dry farming, and 
is doing all that can be done to encour- 
age it. An expert, Dr. V. T. Cooke, of 
Oregon, has been employed at a salary 
of $2,000 a year to show farmers how 
to succeed without irrigation. The 
office of state dry farmer was created 
two years ago, at which time an appro- 
priation barely sufficient to pay Dr. 
Cooke was grudgingly made. The legis- 
lature of 1909, convinced and enlighten- 
ed by the success of the several experi- 
mental farms, made an appropriation of 
$10,000 to carry on this work. 

The State Agricultural College of 
Wyoming also is doing a great deal 
along this lead, issuing bulletins of in- 
formation to farmers, encouraging the 
movement in every way. It is well 
known that increased cultivation will 
be followed by increased rainfall. This 
has been demonstrated in the great 
wheat belt of Kansas, once almost as 
arid as the plateaus of the West. 

Dr. Cooke, Wyoming's expert at dry 
farming, speaking of the industry, said : 
"Dry farming is already established in 
the semi-arid West. Some parts of Cal- 



ifornia, with an annual precipitation of 
ten inches, have been dry farming for 
over forty years ; eastern Oregon and 
eastern Washington for over twenty-five 
years, with an annual precipitation as 
low as eight inches, and Utah, Idaho, 
and Montana have been dry farming for 
years. Colorado, Wyoming, and west- 
ern Nebraska have also been dry farm- 
ing for several years, but only in the 
last two or three years has it been 
brought intelligently to the front. 

"Many early settlers failed' — and will 
continue to do so — principally through 
ignorance of how to do their work pro- 
perly, through misinformation, and 
through having too good an opinion of 
what they knew. A man must be ready 
to take the advice of those that know 
in this business. The effect of dry farm- 
ing in Wyoming to the stockmen will 
be that instead of losing vast numbers 
of sheep and cattle during the winter 
and early spring through neglect of pro- 
viding feed for them, they will be able 
to buy feed from the farmer and save 
the stock from starvation. The ranges 
have been overstocked. The government 
has made stockmen take their fences 
from immense areas of public land, 
thereby preventing them from holding 
pastures for the winter. 

But there is no quarrel between the 
farmer and the sheepman. Homestead- 
ing the range means smaller flocks, the 
sheepmen admit, and an end to promis- 
cuous grazing. It will necessitate, 
however, the feeding of flocks in winter, 
at once disposing of the farmer's out- 
put and saving the percentage of loss 
now suffered through starvation. 

So a few more years will see this 
last romantic phase of Western range 
life pass away. The sheep-herder will 
go as the cow-boy has gone, the flock- 
master will turn his attention to the 
soil, and where immense flocks now 
roam in the ownership of one man 
scores of smaller bands will feed in 
comfort upon the new farms of the 
semi-arid West. With the old order of 
romance and picturesqueness will vanish 
the hardship and cruelty to flocks and 
herders alike ; and the West, under the 
coming conditions, will yield more and 
better sheep than in the past. 





"ROUNDING UP" IS ACCOMPANIED BY DUST. 

In Large Flocks Wool Is 
Graded When Shorn 



In Australia, wool is graded as soon as it is shorn. 
It is sent to market properly graded, baled and marked. 
The producer is paid for the wool according to quality. 
In Canada we lack a proper system of grading and 
marketing wool. Why? Largely because zve have so 
few sheep in the country. The best Canadian zvool 
deserves the best price. We can and do grow good 
wool in Canada. Then let us keep it separate and ask 
for it the price it deserves. 



EVEN in the small flocks in Can- 
ada there is considerable excite- 
ment at shearing time. How eager 
the younger members of the family 
are to see the first sheep, with its 
woolly coat left behind, being treated 
as an outcast by the remainder of the 
flock. What then must be the excite- 
ment and bustle in large flocks, as they 
have them in Australia? There we 
see thousands of sheep in one huge 
flock being driven to the pens to be 
prepared for the hot weather of sum- 
mer. Shearing time brings to those 
flocks many men who visit the settle- 
ment only once a year. Then it is to 
take part in the shearing and earn 
some money during the spare time 
they have in the summer, for the great- 

78 



er portion of these men spend the 
winter months in the bush. 

In a recent issue of the Manchester 
Guardian, Thos. Hepburn vividly de- 
scribes sheep-shearing time in Aus- 
tralia. He says that the first to ar- 
rive are the inexperienced shearers. 
They camp at "travelers' hut," and if 
they are able to satisfy the scrutiny 
of the manager they will be booked 
for a job in the sheds. Many of these 
men are hard workers and honest, 
but there are always some who are 
ever trying to get along as easy as 
they can. These men are usually re- 
jected, and they move to the next sta- 
tion. Those accepted are paid by the 
week, and are given free rations and 
a cook. 



WOOL IS GRADED WHEN SHORN 



Later come the experienced men. 
They are like lords of the situation, 
and travel in style, as compared with 
the "green" men who come first. They 
are paid by piecework, and usually 
have their stations booked beforehand. 
Their rate is about $5 per hundred 
fleeces, and they board themselves. It 
need not be stated that these men 
live well, and do not stint themselves. 

The stir and bustle of this busy sea- 
son makes itself felt to the remotest pad- 
dock. For its witnesses the great annual 
mobilisation of the sheep. The manager 
is the commander-in-chief. The over- 
seer, jaekaroos, musterers, boundary rid- 
ers, and dogs are his staff officers. The 
flock of sheep are the rank and file. 
During the whole time the men will be 
in the saddle — from sunrise to sunset, 
week-days and Sundays. From the first 
filling of the shed until the last shedful 
is c it out there has to he 
an unfailing inward move- 
ment of woolly sheep, 
wit! a corresponding out- 
war 1 movement of shorn 
sheep. It may be that a 
very light shower is suffic- 
ient to make sheara*s stop 
work of their own sweet 
will But woe be to the 
manager who, by any 
hitch in his organization, 
is unable to supply sheep 
for them to shear when 
the.\ wat t to do so. So 
then: is 1 daily "round- 
ing ip" of many pad- 
dock s, in order that mobs 
of • coolly sheep may be 
rearly to replace the white 
ones , which travel back 
so hastily in their cool 
nakedness that it is only 
steadying they need all 
the time. And not only 
have the woolly sheep tj 
be prevented from getting 
boxed with the shorn ones 
— that need scarcely he 
said — but the different 
flocks have to be kept dis- 
tinct and sent back in the 
same company as they 



came. So the musterers, and 

their horses and dogs, have to 

work without ceasing while shearing 
goes on. 

Now everything is ready, and the 
shearing is about to commence. The 
pens on each side of the shearing 
board are full of bleating sheep. They 
have been placed there the night be- 
fore, accompanied by much noise of 
men and dogs. The shearers are giv- 
ing the final rub to their shears ; the 
tar-boys, sweepers and pickers-up are 
scattered amongst them ; the skirters 
and wool classers are at their tables ; 
the wool pressers are getting their 
machinery into shape, all waiting for 
the word "Go" to be given by the 
manager. Sometimes this is done in 
a neat little speech, but it is more 
often done by the ringing of a bell. 




SHEARING THE STRAGGLER. 




A WOOL WAGON. LOADED 'AND READY. 



Then the noise begins. Noisy excla- 
mations, the rattle of protesting hoofs 
and the metallic sound of the shear 
blades take the place of the moderate 
quiet which reigns before the word 



Last year's •'ringer" is the man to 
watch. There is little noise or struggle 
at his stand. With easy strength, one 
hand round the neck, the other gripping 
a flank, he lifts a big wether out of the 
pen. Sheep recognize a master touch. 
This one remains quiet between the 
thighs of the tall, lean man stooping over 
it to trim the belly and shanks. Then 
with skillful bending of the sheep's neck 
to the movement of the blades, the fleece 
is opened along the side of the throat. 
And the wool falls' away in front of the 
shears; first from one flank; then, with 
wider cut, from the back; then from the 
other flank ; and at last, with little careful 
snips, body and fleece are altogether 
separate. The wether, white and nake:;, 
is guided out through a trap in the wall. 
The shearer straightens his back, whets 
his shear-blades, fits a little cap on their 
points, and places them in a leather band 
on the wall before turning to the pen 
to catch his second sheep. 

The fleeces pass through the hands of 
the skirters to the wool-classer. Some- 
times with a glance, sometimes with a 
dainty touch of the finger-tips, some- 
80 



times with a careful weighing, and turn- 
ing and weighing again (who shall fa- 
thom the working of the mind of the 
expert?) he decides the final destiny 
of each. Then the wool'-pressers are 
able to get to work. Generally thrr-e 
of them take the job at so much a bale. 
When they are in the full swing of their 
work one of them will be half-hiden as 
he stamps the wool down into the long 
press box; the second, on a narrow 
platform surrounding the top of the box, 
will be handing down the fleeces to him; 
and the third throwing great armfuls of 
wool on to the platform. The three men 
work in silence, the noise of the shear- 
ing floor softened by intervening dis- 
tance. Gradually more and more of the 
man will appear above the box. 
until he is on a level with the plat- 
form. Then he steps out, and with ac- 
tive movement, yet with a certain staid- 
ness that marks the man whose muscles 
have become set by hard toil rather than 
made supple by pleasant exercise, he 
runs up a step-ladder to a still his'liev 
platform from which he can reach the 
iron beam of the screw. With a swina:. 
which has the strength of thighs and 
loins as well as of arms and shoulders 
put into it, he sets the beam twisting 
round. Its momentum carries the press 
head down into the box so as to reduce 
the wool to half its original bulk before 
it stops. Then, one at each end of the 
bar. they walk round and round the plat- 



W ( lOL IS GRADED WHEN SHORN 



form. As the pressure increases they 
have to take shorter and shorter steps. 
The last few turns call for their utmost 
strength, sometimes the third man help- 
ing. And the sweat will run from their 
hair into their eyes, and they will feel 
the drops trickling over their breasts 
and ribs, where the slack of the flan- 
nel vest does not touch, before the bale 
comes within the standard size. 

In the end the bales, with their num- 
bers, their quality and the station brand 
all stencilled in black ink upon the clean 
canvas, are rolled on to the wool wag- 
gons. And the great draughts are driv- 
en down — a kicking, squealing, biting 
mass of horseflesh — until they feel the 
winkers and collars upon them. And 



the teamster, perhaps on foot, perhaps 
in the saddle, with a whip long both in 
lash and handle, and a versatile and per- 
suasive tongue, will make the whole of 
his team, fourteen or more (and it is 
the pride of his life to do it), lean 
steadily into their collars like one horse, 
■until I he four or five tons of wool 
creak heavily away over the rough track. 

So the time comes when the last sheep 
has been shorn, the last bale pressed up, 
and the last team has creaked away. 
The homestead relapses into slack quiet- 
ness. And the only reminder of shear- 
ing will be some woolly straggler whose 
fleece one of the station hands will take 
off in a corner of the store verandah. 




3>o -^ 



LET US SMILE. 

The thing that goes the farthest 
Towards making life worth while, 

That costs the least, and does the most. 
Is just a pleasant smile. 

The smile that bubbles from the heart, 
That loves its fellow men, 

Will drive away the cloud of gloom 
And coax the sun again. 

It is full of worth and goodness, 
And with manly kindness bent, 

It is worth a million dollars, but 
ft doesn't cost a cent. 



81 



The Unpoetic Potato is 
Valuable 



Was your potato crop as free from disease as it 
zuas last year? If not there is something wrong. You 
should have had a larger yield this year. Seed should 
be selected before harvesting. Get the land in proper 
shape, use the best seed, spray often and thoroughly 
and the expense to which you arc put will be returned 
zvith interest when your potatoes are harvested. 



POTATO time is past for another 
year. This humble fruit of the 
soil has never been glorified in 
poem, nor immortalized in song. There 
is something about it which has not 
caught the imagination of the poet. 
But notwithstanding this, there is 
nothing in such constant demand for 
the table as is the potato. If you 
were in some of our larger cities and 
saw the large quantities that are daily 
distributed to the inhabitants, your 
imagination might give way to allow a 
poetic effusion on behalf of the po- 
tato. People must have potatoes to 
eat. They are not a food fad, but a 
food necessity, and it is only the 
scarcity of the potato that causes a 
rise in price. 

On the extreme eastern edge of the 
State of New York is a farm, on 
which the potato is respected, says E. 
Hungerford, in a recent issue of the 
New York Herald. The farm is on 
the mountainside and is, or rather has 
been, a pretty rough-looking piece of 
land. Many of his neighbors' lands 
were running to weeds, and the settle- 
ment received the name of a poor 
farming country. No wonder. Stone 
ledges kept cropping out in all places 
and these had to be cleared away. It 
took a good deal of labor to get the 

82 



land into decent tillable condition, but 
that did not stop difficulties. Regard- 
ing the growing of the potato the 
Potato Man and Mr. Hungerford had 
the following conversation: 

"Scab is a mighty bad thing," he tells 
you solemnly, "and we have got to get 
the best of it at the very beginning. If 
some of it gets by you in the seeding it 
may work an endless damage. It won't 
quit by affecting the whole hill of po- 
tatoes. It seems to inoculate the 
whole soil and you have a fearful time 
trying to get it out." 

When the baby plants are above the 
earth— from ten days or three weeks af- 
ter planting— another of their Herods, 
"blight." is ready to fall upon them. 

"Blight is even worse than scab," the 
Potato Man tells you, "and we are 
spraying all the season against it— any- 
where from three to six and seven times 
a summer for every plant. It is a con- 
stant fight." 

"And the sprav ?" you venture. 

"Lime and sulphur make the best fun- 
gicide." 

You like the nice, keen way in which 
the Potato Man uses practical se'entific 
terms and you ask him if he has gone 
into the chemistry of farming. 

"I do believe in fertilizer," he tells 
vou, modestly. 

Of course he believes in fertilizer — he 
tells vou that he makes up his own fer- 
tilizers from his own formulae every 
spring — that is one function of a farm, 
to his mind. It increases the crop pro- 
duction. That puts another thought in 
your mind— crop production. Here you 



THE UNPOETIC POTATO IS VALUABLE 



have been on this Berkshire farm and 
never asked about the yield. You do 
ask. 

3OO BUSHELS PER ACRE A POOR CROP. 

"This is an ofi year," says Mr. Hor- 
ton. "I'll not do better than three 
hundred bushels to the acre." 

You feel like asking him to repeat that 
question. Why, there was a man — one 
T. E. Martin— who bought a farm down 
in the Genesee valley, south of Roches- 
ter, and who increased its acre yield of 
potatoes from sixty to three hundred 
bushels. And Mr. Horton talks of three 
hundred bushels in an ofi year. You be- 
gin to mentally pin laurels on those for- 
mulae for fertilizer. 

The Potato Man puts a problem in 
plain arithmetic to you, and in so doing 
points to one of his most prosperous 
patches. 

"We fertilized that strong last year," 
he says, "and brought a crop of 521 
bushels to the acre from it." 

And while you wonder why farmer folk 
ever talk of abandoning the cold Berk- 
shire hillsides you get the problem in 
arithmetic. 

The fertilizer went on— heavily — at the 
rate of a ton to an acre — double the nor- 
mal use. The extra fertilizer cost $28 
an acre. The land under its stimulus 
brought forth 221 bushels to the acre 
above the normal of that upland farm. 
Figured at a dollar a bushel, the highly 
fertilized acre brought in a net increased 
profit of $115. Do you wonder, then, 
that Howard F. Horton collects formu- 
lae for successful fertilizers ? 

You ask another question — in a word : 

"Drainage ?" 

Mr. Horton looks at you pityingly, as 
if you had asked him if it was necessary 
to cultivate a field. He forgets that 
only about one farm out of a hundred in 
New York State has yet installed drain- 
age, and simply says : — 

"We have our tile all through here. It 
is essential for the maintenance of our 
yield." 

As potatoes are the sole money- 
making crop on the Potato Man's 
farm, it may be a little surprising to 
learn that a complete crop rotation is 
followed. Clover is one of the best 
crops in the rotation, and as much as 



three tons per acre have been taken 
from the soil on this hillside farm. 

"Just at present," Mr. Horton tells 
you, "I am giving my attention to bet- 
tering my seed. You know what good 
breeders do with animals of every sort, 
with poultry, too. They select the pro- 
pagating stock with extreme care— it is 
the survival of the fittest with a ven- 
geance. 

"In a way that is what I am trying 
to do with the potatoes. The more 
time I can get, the more thoroughly 1 
do it. It takes one hundred and forty 
bushels to seed my potato patches. 
What I am trying to do is to select on- 
ly the potatoes from the best hills. That 
means a deal of work, watching and 
picking out the best over a nine acre lot, 
but there is no doubting that it gives the 
best results. 

Experiments are always being car- 
ried on. These have to be conducted 
to find the best means of treating local 
conditions. New problems require 
new methods and these can be learnt 
only by trial. Much more could be 
done if labor were more plentiful, 
but— 

"We don't want the foreign help," the 
Potato Man repeats, "and we don't 
seem able to get much of any other. 
That problem has got to be solved for 
us — and we insist that it shall not be 
solved through the channels of immigra- 
tion." 

That, then, as you take leave of the 
man who has made a success of acres 
in the midst of a land of agricultural 
disheartenment, is to-day the crucial 
question of New York farming — of all 
farming within quick striking distance 
of the great cities of the Atlantic sea- 
board. Those wise city folk who feel 
that they can solve the problem of the 
undeveloped acres of up State by a mere 
offhand decision to send immigrants by 
the trainload into inland counties had 
best take a second thought. The farmers 
who own those acres, who have stood by 
them through the low tide of New York 
State agriculture, have some pretty well 
settled ideas of their own upon that 
very subject. Their prejudices— if you 
insist upon calling them that— must be 
cajoled. It is a situation that requires 
a deal of diplomacy. 




33 



Does Food Cause and Cure 

Disease ? 



We often underestimate the true value of food for 
blood purification. Vegetarians argue that nature pro- 
vides for man's food necessities. The elements found 
in fruits and -vegetables arc required by the system. 
Then why not supply them? Readers may feel that too 
much is claimed for the fruit and vegetables in this 
article, but a trial will prove the truth of the state- 
ments. 



IS the food we eat the incipient cause 
of all disease? Brander De Rennes 

says in Scrap Book that it is. Blood 
that is pure will resist all disease. Bac- 
teria which cause disease are really 
scavengers, as they cannot exist in 
blood unless there be accumulations 
of waste matter. When the blood is 
pure, wounds heal rapidly. Keep the 
blood in this condition and we may 
easily live to a very old age. 

Custom has caused us to trust to 
the cooks to prepare for us a properly- 
balanced and thoroughly nutritious 
meal. Very often the cook knows 
practically nothing with regard to the 
uses of foods in building up the body. 
Thus we are fighting against nature 
and with the usual result — we wear 
out quickly. Some inherit a natural 
weakness, which gives our unnatural 
living assistance in cutting our lives 
short. If foods are the cause of dis- 
ease, why should they not also be a 
cure, if the disease has not run too 
far? There are many organic salts 
in the different fruits and vegetables 
that are cleansers and regulators of 
the system. For liver diseases these 
are specially good. 

The. liver has to take care of all waste 

poisons, neutralizing- them as in a 

chemical laboratory ; it transforms 

effete matter into bile ; it transforms 

84 



starch and sugar into glycogen, which 
is a lubricant for the muscles, and 
stores up (or tries to do so) iron for 
the making of new blood corpuscles, and 
a great many other tasks besides. And, 
in order to do all these things, the liver 
must be given materials to work with. 
It must have iron and sodium and other 
things, but it rarely gets all it needs, 
and struggles to do its tasks without 
materials and to make a little go a 
long way. 

When the strike comes and the liver 
refuses to work, the thing to do is to 
provide it at once with organic iron 
and sodium— not under any circum- 
stances from a bottle, but from the na- 
tural food elements that generous na- 
ture has supplied. One should adopt 
for a period of weeks, or perhaps 
months, a diet in which these elements 
predominate, and they should be given 
to the liver uncooked, for the chemical 
nature of the salts is destroyed or im- 
paired by cooking. 

A certain diet for a deranged liver 
would then consist of lettuce, with its 
immense amount of organic iron and 
chlorin, uncooked spinach for the same 
salts, an immense amount also of or- 
ganic sodium, Swiss chard for sodium, 
and radishes (cellular pulp not to be 
swallowed); strawberries, ripened on 
the vines, for iron and sodium; raw 
cabbage for chlorin, and leek and car- 
rots for sodium. 

Tomatoes, sweet peppers, and egg- 
plant, eaten raw, are actual tonics for 
the liver. 

All dairy foods must be strictly 
avoided as also meat, eggs, and ail 
cooked starches. 



DOES FOOD CAUSE AND CURE DISEASE? 



To prepare the foods named above in 
a palatable fashion, one should arrange 
them in salads, with a dressing made 
of large quantities of pure olive oil and 
a little lemon-juice, with the merest 
flavoring of honey, if one likes it. No 
vinegar, pepper, or salt must be used 
at all. One may sprinkle powdered 
nuts on these salads. 

Besides diseases of the liver, 
anemia and indigestion are as easily 
cured. For the former a diet of dock, 
dandelion, lettuce, radishes and other 
vegetables is prescribed. Indigestion 
may be cured by fasting for three 
days, followed by a diet of fruit 
juices. Give the stomach nothing to 
do and you will be cured! Gradually 
break your fast and if the trouble re- 
turns, fast again ! Give the body a 
good housecleaning and the first great 
step has been taken in curing all dis- 
eases. 

Sugar and salt are two enemies of 
the human system. These are used 
only by custom. The ancients did 
not use salt, and we use it only 
through custom. 

One of the best things for the body 
is water. Mr. Rennes says to drink 
freely of pure water, but he states 
that fruit juices are the most health- 
ful drinks a man can use. 

The ideal drinking water would be, of 
course, pure rain water, not drained 
from roofs or other surfaces, but re- 
ceived through a smokeless atmosphere. 
This is full of nitrogen and other life- 
giving substances, and is entirely free 
from mineral salts. 

Naturally, water caught from the 
skies over a great city would be im- 
pure ; but if one could catch rain-water 
in a clean porcelain vessel in the coun- 
try, and keep it cold, it would be the 
perfect water for drinking. 



Of course people say, "What shall we 
do I" when they are made aware of the 
danger of mineral-infested waters. The 
answer is : Find out, if possible, just 
how much mineral salts there are in 
one's regular drinking water, and if it 
is not a very large percentage, con- 
tinue to drink it. But, in any case, 
use more fresh fruit and vegetable juices 
for quenching the thirst. These juices 
are known as organic water, and are 
filled with organic salts, which are the 
most valuable of cleansers and aid in 
eliminating waste materials in the sys- 
tem. One must bear in mind, however, 
that one must not eat the fruit, as the 
walls of the cells are almost always in- 
digestible and fill the system full of 
waste matter. Remove the pulp from 
the mouth after the juice has been ex- 
tracted. Fruit, that has heretofore 
proven injurious, can thus be partaken 
of freely, as the cellular walls caused 
the trouble, not the refreshing juices. 

Such fruits as watermelon and pine- 
apple cause many great trouble and 
have proven even very dangerous, but 
the juices alone are always beneficial 
and harmless. Watermelon-juice is now 
given in cases of dysentery, and pine- 
apple-juice (without sugar) is a cu re for 
indigestion. 

The organic salts in fresh, perfectly 
ripe fruits are a great aid in eliminat- 
ing kidney obstructions. They act as a 
cleanser upon the kidneys. Watermelon- 
juice is especially good for this purpose 
and it will be found that one eliminates 
a great deal more water than that in- 
gested in watermelon-juice, which proves 
that it is indeed a great cleanser. 

One should bear in mind, however, 
that the fruit eaten is actually ripe, 
and it is best to have that which is 
ripened upen the trees or vines, not 
that which is gathered green and rip- 
ened later. 

Vegetable juices are also fine for the 
system. Beet-juice is a great cleanser. 
To obtain it, grate the beets on a fine 
grater and press out the juice from the 
pulp. Carrots treated in the same way 
are excellent, as are radishes, turnips 
and potatoes. 



Brooms are Easily Spoiled 



PERHAPS no article is used around 
the house more than the broom. 
At the same time there is pos- 
sibly no other household appliance 
which is treated so badly. Every piece 



of machinery will last longer if given 
proper usage, and the broom is no ex- 
ception. Every manufacturer likes to 
see his goods used to obtain the best 
results. Handled to the best advan- 



V ARM1-RS MAGAZINE. 



tagc work will be done easier and 
much more effectively. In the Sun a 
broom-maker has the following to sa} 
on how to use the broom with satis- 
faction : 

"You've seen people sweeping ahead 
of them, pushing stuff with a broom ? 
Why, the best broom that ever was 
made, of the best and most perfectly 
seasoned broomcorn stock that ever 
was put into a broom wouldn't stand 
such treatment as that. 

"Then you know the majority of 
sweepers always sweep with the same 
side of the broom to the tront, and in 
this way they soon get the broom lop- 
sided, so that they can't use it any 
other way. There couldn't be a worse 
way. 

"Used in this manner the points of the 
splints get bent all one way and then 
they meet together at their ends. They 
don't bite, they don't take hold of dust 
as they are meant to do, they don't 
sweep clean ; and when a broom has 
come to this condition the sweeper is 
less careful of it, for then it is not so 
good a broom. Such a broom the sweep- 



er feels that he may push ahead of him; 
and when he does this with it the broom 
is finally and irretrievably ruined. 

"Of course the correct way to use a 
broom is with the handle, in its initial 
position, held vertically, so that all the 
splints in the face of the broom will 
take hold at the same time and evenly. 
In sweeping the broom should be swung 
back and forth from a point at an equal 
distance in front. That is the proper 
way to use a broom, and then every day 
the sweeper should turn the broom 
around, so as to sweep with a different 
side daily. Used in this manner and 
turned daily the broom wears down even- 

iy. 

"I have seen — a delight to the profes- 
sional eye and a comfort to everybody 
who likes to see any implement used to 
the best advantage, thoughtfully and 
considerably — I have seen brooms that 
had been so used that had worn 
down almost to the binding threads, 
but that still bit beautifully. 1 
am perfectly well aware that brooms 
carelessly used, as commonly they are, 
wear out faster, with a corresponding 
benefit to broom manufacture ; but still 
I do really hate to see anybody misuse a 
broom." 



False Teeth and False Hopes 



That the possession of a set of false 
teeth may tend to shorten one's life 
is a thesis, maintained by Dr. J. C. 
Bayles in the Independent. Accord- 
ing to the writer, "A battle royal be- 
tween the physicians and dentists" 
may be expected to follow an investi- 
gation of this matter now being made 
under the auspices of some of the chief 
medical societies. 

The question under investigation is the 
influence of artificial teeth upon health 
and longevity. This demands a wide 
range ot observation. Even with good 
care and conservative dentistry, it is un- 
usual to keep natural teeth comfortable 
and useful much beyond the age of fifty. 
The re-equipment of the mouth with por- 
celain substitutes is, for most people 
who are thus repaired, a practical re- 
juvenation. Primarily, they are greatly 
improved in appearance. The hollows in 
the cheeks are filled out, the mouth 
closes only as far as it should, and ugly 



gaps are made sightly. Nine in ten of 
those he meets are frank enough to say 
"Why you look ten years younger !" 
Among other agreeable sensations, the 
possessor of a new set of artificial teeth 
that fit fairly well rejoices in the con- 
viction that he "Can eat anything" — 
which may ordinarily be interpreted to 
mean that, as opportunity offers, he will 
eat everything. Then the trouble begins. 
The appetites of youth assert themselves 
and may again be indulged. Strong 
meats which, without teeth, could be 
eaten only when stewed soft or minced, 
once more appeal as substantial steaks 
and generous roasts, and are relished the 
more because of the long deprivation, re- 
called with impatience. People thus re- 
juvenated are very apt to eat a great 
deal too much and to include in their 
dietary many things they had better 
avoid. As a rule, the evil effects of such 
excesses are not immediately observed. 
The first symptoms of overfeeding is 
likely to be stimulation. The victim of 
self-indulgence thinks he is building up 
his body and brain by a generous diet ; 



FALSE TEETH AND FALSE HOPES 



as a matter of fact, he is raising his 
steam pressure with the safety-valve 
locked, congesting his fire-pot with ob- 
structive clinkers, and banking ashes up 
to the grate-bars. That he "never felt 
better in his life" is possibly true ; but 
he probably does not know that every 
competent physician would recognize in 
the steady gain in his waist measure a 
danger signal of the most alarming kind. 
Soon an unexpected trouble begins, so 
insidiously that it is not clearly recog- 
nized. The plate which holds the upper 
teeth gradually loses its original fit. 
This is not because it changes shape, but 
because the mouth does. All living tis- 
sue resents pressure and recedes from it. 
To have a new plate made as often as 
this happens is costly, and for most peo- 
ple quite out of the question. So they 
tolerate the discomfort as long as it can 
be borne, and during this period it is 
much easier to neglect adequate mastica- 
tion than to practise self-denial. The re- 
sults are soon seen in acute indigestion, 
inflammations of the intestinal tract, 
constipation, malnutrition, perhaps ap- 
pendicitis, and other serious and pos- 
siblv fatal consenuences. That a great 
multitude is killed every year bv the ex- 
cesses rendered possible bv artificial den- 
tition can not be doubted." 

Up to a certain point, Dr. Bayles 
concedes, dentistry and dental surgery 
are of great benefit to the human race. 
Not the possession, but the abuse of 
teeth menaces health and life. Be- 
yond the age of fifty, prudence and 
moderation in eating are no less neces- 
sary after one can bite hard or tough 
substances than before. "Old age" 
begins much sooner with some than 
with others. Sometimes it is seen in 
children ; frequently in voung persons. 
Tt is accompanied and characterized 
bv impairment of the structure and 
functions of the body, more or less 
rapid according to circumstances. The 
writer goes on : 

The lessened capacity of the stomach 
and its decreased muscular and nervous 
energy impose not only moderation in 
eating 1 and drinking, but dependence 
upon foods easily digested and quicklv 
assimilated, with abstinence from those 



which are found to be attended with 
evil results. The gastric juices and in- 
testinal fluids are present in smaller 
quantity than earlier in life and are less 
energetic in action, and in the adequate 
and suitable nutrition of the elderly and 
old the usefulness of the teeth steadily 
diminishes. This is shown by the fact 
that a vast majority of those who at- 
tain very old age do without them. 

The foods to be avoided are then 
indicated, and some sound advice is 
given on the restraint of appetites. 
We read : 

Even for one in as vigorous health as 
is possible after fifty or fifty-five, very 
little meat is needed and it should be in 
the form imposing least effort in mas- 
tication and assimiliation. Milk and 
eggs are the best of the animal foods, 
and most vegetables require thorough 
cooking. With the decline of physical 
and mental activity which characterizes 
declining years, there is a decreasing de- 
mand for what are deemed "hearty" 
foods. It does not follow, however, 
that the desire for improper and too 
abundant foods ceases when they be- 
come dangerous, or that years always 
bring wisdom in matters of diet. That 
artificial teeth favor such imprudences 
is undoubtedly true, and the conclusion 
is indicated that new teeth in old 
mouths are like the new wine in old 
bottles of the parable. It is to be re- 
gretted that artificial dentition so often 
tempts to imprudence, growing out of 
forgetfulness of the fact that one mav 
look ten years and feel twenty years 
younger without having set back the 
hands of the dial one point. 

In this fatuous trifling with chrono- 
logy lies the danger of false teeth, es- 
pecially in the case of those who have 
so far advanced in senile decay that 
they have no other use for a double 
equipment of teeth than to deceive 
others and, still worse, deceive them- 
selves. It is not the fault of the dentist 
that artificial teeth are abused, unless 
a dereliction of duty on his part is 
found in his failure to warn his patients 
that, after sixty, teeth are chiefly use- 
ful as ornaments, and will so remain 
until surgery has found a way to sub- 
stitute new artificial viscera for organs 
worn out or incapacitated. 




87 



The Reasoning Power of 
the Horse 



Very often horses arc brutally treated, yet these 
same horses will do things which show reasoning 
powers almost equal to man. We have seen horses that 
had learned to let themselves into a grain held, through 
a rail fence, by carefully taking the rails down with 
their teeth. Others have learned to open stable doors, 
where they take themselves out of the storm or for 
something extra to eat. Many show great wisdom in 
avoiding accidents. Mr. Browne shozvs in this article 
that the horse knows how best it can do the work 
required of it. 



THE horse as we have it to-day is a 
much more perfect animal than 
he was ioo years or more ago. 
Careful breeding has done much for 
its physical development. Considerable 
increase has been noted in average size 
and power, and it has also been noticed 
that the mental facilities have improv- 
ed to an enormous degree. We see 
this in everyday life on the farm. In 
connection with the thoroughbred the 
difference is just as marked. Writing 
to Fry's Magazine, T. H. Browne no- 
tices that six of the best racers in Eng- 
land of the eighteenth century aver- 
aged only 15 hands 2 l / 2 inches high. 
On the other hand, in the last quarter 
of the nineteenth century six of the 
best average three-quarters of an inch 
over the sixteen hands high. This 
makes a difference of 2% inches in the 
average height of the thoroughbred in 
100 years. If there is not the same 
proportion of mental development 
there is more inclination to act accord- 
ing to their own will. 

For recent examples of this Mr. 
Browne cites the case of Bayardo, 
which is as good a horse as there is 



in training to-day. On only one race 
course has he ever shown that he is 
not honest in his efforts to win first 
honors. This is on the famous Row- 
ley Mile, and on this course he has 
resolutely refused to canter to the 
starting post. So determined is he 
in this that he is now allowed to go 
down by himself at the back of the 
stands. 

Now for this peculiarity there must be 
a reason ; it cannot be that Bayardo 
shirks the struggle of a race, for, as we 
have already shown, once engaged in a 
quarrel he so bears himself that his ad- 
versaries have reason to beware of him. 
"Why, then, does he invariably refuse to 
canter down the Rowley Mile? By way 
of explanation it is now suggested that 
to find the cause of his apparently in- 
explicable dislike to this particular 
course, we must go back to last year's 
race for the Two Thousand Guineas. 
On the day of that race Bayardo was 
not well, that is to say, he was not 
in a fit condition for racing, so much so 
indeed that so experienced and careful 
a trainer as Alec Taylor was averse to 
letting him take part in the race. Be 



THE REASONING POWER OF THE HORSE 



that as it may, Bayardo 
ran, and, although doing 
all he could, was badly 
beaten. Is it not prob- 
able that, bearing this de- 
feat in mind, and cons- 
cious tbat when well he 
could and did defeat any 
opponents that might be 
pitted against him, in his 
own mind Bayardo asso- 
ciated the Rowley Mile 
course with what was for 
him a very unpleasant in- 
cident in his career, and 
shows his dislike to the 
place by refusing as far 
as he can to risk a repeti- 
tion of it? 

On the same course 
we see the reasoning 
powers of another of 
the' famous racers in 
England. The leader of 
the race "run out" and 
reeled across the track- 
like a drunken man. It 
was "drunk" with an 
excessive amount of car- 
bonic acid gas, resulting 
from the exhausted 
lungs being unable to 
supply sufficient oxygen 
to the blood. It was at 
this point in the race 
that Neil Gow, the win- 
ner, got in his good 
work. 



Writing subject to 
correction, it is, I 
believe, the case that no sooner was 
the signal for starting given than Neil 
Gow set to work to gallop as hard as he 
could. Checked in this by his rider, he 
promptly proceeded to sulk, and drop- 
ping his bit, cantered on, much as to 
say, "You won't let me do what I 
want to do, so I won't do anything at 
all." Meantime Tressady, striding out 
for all he was worth, had got a lead of 
at least three lengths, when, as already 
described, he swerved out of the race. 
Now, at the very identical moment of 
time that Tressady threw up the sponge, 
Neil Gow, who up till this had flatly de- 
clined to gallop in earnest, suddenly 




took hold of his hit, and in two strides 
had completely dominated the situation 
— Whisk Broom was caught and passed, 
and Tressady beaten, and the race won. 
Seeing that not even such a consummate 
horseman as Maher had been able to 
entice Neil Gow to gallop until the psy- 
chological moment arrived, is it not fair 
to suggest that recovering from his sulks, 
Neil Gow "thought," and, thinking, act- 
ed instantly? ''This horse (Tressady) 
has been bothering me all the way. Hul- 
lo! he's done for; now's my time." That 
is what it looked like, at all events, and 
that, I believe, was the train of reason- 
ing that induced Neil Gow to put in all 
he knew and win the Craven Stakes when 



FARMER'S MAG\/INE. 



ilie winning o( it seemed to be an im- 
possibility. 

Another instance is given which 
shows thai horses know whether they 
are tit for the task before them or not. 
Pretty Polly was one of the best rac- 
ing marcs of her day, and had an in- 
dividual cha m all her own. She w as 
always seen going from the paddock 
to the course apparently of her own 
free will. On the day of her defeat in 
the Ascot Cup race she did not feel 
like going forward. She had been 
suffering from a suppurating growth 
on her abdomen, which, no doubt, had 
affected her general health. She 
seemed to know that she could not do 
herself justice and did not care to face 
the starters, feeling that she was to be 
defeated. 

Very often the course on which the 
horse has won its first race is the 
course on which it will do its hest 
work. The horse seems to associate 
the place with a recollection of victory 
and has great confidence in repeating 
the success. Confidence is the great 
asset- towards success. Then, too, we 
often see that if the horse is running 
in a direction away from home that 
poorer work is done. They seem to 
think that the gallop may last longer 
than they care for, and it evidently 
'looks to them that the longer and fast- 
er they go the longer they will he in 
getting home. "Therefore, we will 
take out time over this job." But if 
the course leads towards the stable 
they feel that the sooner they get over 
the track the sooner they will rest. 

A case is cited by Mr. Browne, of 
a steeplechaser that would not go to 
the starting place till she had taken a 
thorough survey of the field and its 
hurdles. She was an exceptionally 
good mare and was never known to 
make a mistake. She was quick, bold 
and sure, and carried her rider to vic- 
tory in many of the best steeplechases 
in the Old Land. 

On courses that she knew, she would 
go down to the post without the least 
hesitation; but put her on a strange 
course, and never once would she go to 
the post until she had taken a compre- 

90 



lu nsrve look at the course. Site would 
stand stock still, and, turning her head 
in all directions, look all round before 
she would move on. She took her time 
about it, too ; you could ask her to go on, 
kick her in the ribs, and do what you 
liked, but, until she had satisfied her- 
self, budge she would not. Can it be 
doubted that she was "thinking," and 
in her own mind "placing" the posi- 
tion of the fences she would have to 
jump? All I can say is that, be the ex- 
planation of her behaviour what it may, 
she never did it twice on the same course. 
A good many readers of these jottings 
will probably know that the course over 
which the Grand International Steeple- 
chase at Dieppe is, or used to be, run, 
not only takes a bit of doing, but is 
unlike any of our home steeplechase 
courses. So long was the mare alluded 
to above in making her survey of the 
place that her rider came in for a good 
deal of "chaff," both from the spec- 
tators and from the other jockeys as 
they cantered past her on their way to 
the post ; but she beat a field of over 
twenty runners, including some of the 
best 'chasers in France, in a canter. 

After reviewing the above article 
the editor heard the following story 
of an army horse in the war in the 
Transvaal : One of the majors had a 
very pretty horse, but a horse that was 
very treacherous and would not let 
anyone even groom him properly. It 
was very devoted to its master, but 
even he had to watch every movement 
of the horse for fear he would receive 
the worst of some vicious attack. One 
day the major took the horse out for a 
long ride and did not return at night. 
The next morning several of the men 
commenced a search. "I saw the ma- 
jor's horse," says the narrator, "on the 
open veldt after we had crossed some 
mountains. When we came close to 
it we found the major lying on the 
ground unconscious. As soon as we 
lifted the major off the ground the 
horse went to a nearby river, and, 
after taking a drink, returned to his 
position of watching. The major 
never recovered from the fall and after 
that anyone could do anything with 
the horse. The last time I saw the 
horse he was being ridden by a lady." 



Motor Cars for the Farmers 



Writing in Motor, Messrs. Allen 
and Graham undertake to tell farmers 
why they should own motor cars. 
They should have them not only for 
their own good, but for the good of 
the country at large, and especially 
for promoting good roads and for the 
effect they will have on the nation's 
prosperity. The writers prepared the 
article for reading before the Na- 
tional Grange, by whom it will have 
extensive circulation among farmers. 
They believe that the car will perform 
an important service in rehabilitating 
farm life and in checking migration to 
cities. He quotes an estimate of the 
number of automobiles now owned by 
farmers as 76,000. In Iowa the farm- 
ers own 5,000 of the 10,000 owned by 
all persons in that state. 

The farmer has some distinct advan- 
tages over the town man in owning a 
car. He is a man experienced in the 
use of machinery and hence not only 
needs no chauffeur, but can make the 
ordinary repairs himself. He can use 
his car in other ways than for trans- 
portation. It may become to him a 
portable power-plant, being as it is a 
10, 20, or 40-horse-power engine on 
wheels. With it he can saw wood, chop 
feed, pump water, or shell corn. While 
his horse works in the field, the car 
can run to town with the milk or to 
the mill for flour. The cost of hauling 
a ton with horses in rural districts is 
about 25 cents per mile, but the cost 
by motor-wagon has been figured as 
low as three cents — a reduction which 
oueht ultimately to means a reduction 
in the cost of living. Other benefits to 
the farmer from the car are specified as 
follows : 

"Perhaps the most important would 
be the resulting change in the social 
character of country life. Man is a 



social being. His nature demands 
change of scene and companionship, 
new experiences and recreation. The 
bane of farm life hitherto has been its is- 
olation and hence its narrowness, and 
while good roads undoubtedly can do 
much to remove this curse, the automo- 
bile can do more. 

"Now the automobile creates in this 
respect a new condition. It puts farm 
life on a new plane. Machinery does 
not tire. However hard a motor-car 
may have been used during the day- 
time, it is always at hand in the even- 
ing to take the farmer and his family 
to a re-union, a show, a friend's house, 
a Grange meeting, a party, a concert, 
a lecture, or what not. On Sundays 
and holidays long trips up to 100 miles 
can be comfortably made, and every 
day it puts within the reach of the 
farmer's children educational facilities 
equal to those of the largest cities. The 
day of the country cross-roads school- 
house has gone. This is the era of 
large central schools, built and equipped 
at an expense of thousands of dollars, 
and only the automobile can render 
such schools easy of access to the scat- 
tered farms. . . . 

"There is a growing feeling that 
farmine properly conducted on scientific 
lines affords a future to fit the ambi- 
tion of even the most strenuous. The 
narrow social and domestic life of the 
country is the only thing that prevents 
thousands of voung men seizinar the 
best opportunity ooen to them. Abolish 
these drawbacks bv the aid of gr>od 
roads and the motor-car, and the de- 
centralisation of the crowded urban 
populations will inevitably follow. No 
sensible yonne - man will, other thine-s 
beinsr equal, nrefer an emnlove's posi- 
tion at a limited salary, with the cost 
of livinsr rising" all the while, to inde- 
pendence and possible wealth. All _ he 
asks is not to be compelled to sacrifice 
his legitimate cravin"- for companion- 
ship and recreation. And where the 
vonnor blood leads the rank and file will 
follow. 




91 



A Wool Tariff Means More 

Sheep ? 



The sheep industry in Canada has been retrograd- 
ing during the past few- years. Conditions are now 
serious. An investigation has commenced. Education 
will be carried on. Pure-bred sires will be distributed. 
Is this enough? Canadian sheep-raisers arc asking for 
a protective duty on wool. Why should not the farm- 
ers be protected as well as the manufacturers? If they 
need it let us give it to them. 



Free trade is represented as the cry 
for farmers by nearly every paper 
which is being published in the inter- 
ests of the Canadian farmer. The 
majority of sheep men and wool 
growers are in favor of protection. 
They have a good cause and excellent 
fighting materials and are determined 
to make full use of them. The Winni- 
peg edition of Farmer's Advocate 
states that the majority of letters re- 
ceived at that office on the wool tariff 
question, favor protection. In his 
letter to that paper A. L. Dickens, 
says : — 

In principle I am not in favor of a 
duty on anything. I believe in being al- 
lowed to buy and sell freely upon the 
world's markets, but being a resident 
of Canada I do not believe in being 
compelled to buy woollen clothing for 
myself and family and have to pay 35 
per cent, duty on the same, while I am 
obliged to sell my wool upon the open 
market of the world. 

Without a duty on wool as at present 
there is nothing to prevent New Zea- 
land and Australia shipping their wool 
into Canada, and Canadian sheep- 
raisers are compelled to compete with 
these wools in their own home market ; 
not only these, but all other wool- 
growing countries of the world. 

In the United States there is a duty 
of 12 cents per pound on wool, thus 
protecting the wool grower from out- 
side competition. What is the result ? 
92 



While the Alberta sheep-raiser is gett- 
ing 10 cents per pound for his wool, 
sheep-raisers just across the border in 
Montana are selling theirs for 22 cents. 
The question naturally arises : Does 
not a high duty on wool increase the 
cost of woollen goods ? Not so. Each 
sheep produces enough wool each year 
to make one suit for a full-grown man, 
and at the rate of 12 cents ner pound 
duty, a suit of clothes would not cost 
more than one dollar more than it does 
now. But what are the facts ? In Hel- 
ena, Montana, one can get a suit of 
woollen clothes from three to seven 
dollars cheaper than he can in Edmon- 
ton. This is a fact. 

A close student of the question 
is Fred T. Skinner, President Saskat- 
chewan Sheep Breeders' Association. 
Contrasting the positions of Britain, 
United States and Canada, he writes : 

In the twelfth and thirteenth centur- 
ies Britain depended on Flanders, or 
Belgium and Holland for her woollen 
goods, the wool being imported by these 
countries almost entirelv from England, 
and practically all the world was cloth- 
ed with English wool made into cloth 
in Flanders. Edward the Third was the 
real creator of the English woollen in- 
dustry. He imposed extreme measures 
of protection, prohibiting the export of 
wool from Britain, under penalty of 
death. At the same time he imported 
expert woollen cloth makers from Flan- 
ders. Thus from being an exporter of 
wool and importer of cloth, this policy 
soon brought England into prominence 



A WOOL TARIFF MEANS MORE SHEEP 



as a manufacturer and exporter of 
cloth, laying the foundations of the fa- 
bulous wealth-producing woollen indus- 
tries of the country. 

This policy, with some modifications, 
was strictly enforced down to 1845, by 
which time British textile manufactures 
were considered out of danger from for- 
eign competition, and the era of free 
trade was inaugurated. It was a policy 
that probably meant dearer clothing 
for a time, until the industry was es- 
tablished, and the same would probably 
be true if Canada decided to establish a 
monster industry, and build for the fu- 
ture, producing our own clothing. A 
substantial duty on wool would pro- 
bably cost us some money, but it is 
necessary to first spend monev to make 
anything ; either individually or na- 
tionally. 

Before the civil war in the United 
States, 1861-5, the crude woollen in- 
dustry of the republic almost collapsed 
before the well organized industry of 
Great Britain, but the war forced home 
to the people of the United States the 
conviction, that an essential part of its 
national policy must be the production 
of its necessary textile fabrics. Thev 
therefore set protection in motion bv 
placing a duty of 12£ cents per pound 
on imported wool, with the result that 



whilst in 1860 their wool-clip totalled 
60,000,000 pounds per annum it now 
amounts to 330,000,000 pounds, every 
pound of which is used at home, em- 
ploying annually nearly one million 
workers who nroduce goods to the value 
of a billion dollars a year. It is a 
policy that has doubled the number of 
sheep in thirty years. 

Now contrast the position of Canada, 
where for many years wool has' been on 
the free list, and what is the result ? 
Since 1871 the number of people and 
horses, cattle and swine has practically 
trebled, whilst the number of sheep has 
decreased 33 per cent. There is a rea- 
son for this, and the sooner the Cana- 
dian people learn it the better it will 
be for them. 

The sum and substance of the matter 
seems to be, that whilst the United 
States, Germany and other old coun- 
tries have learned from experience and 
are building on a rock foundation, Can- 
ada, as far as the sheep and clothing 
industries are concerned, appears to be 
"sticking in the mud," fearful lest in 
the transition stage, from an importer 
to an exporter of clothing, we might 
have to pay a few more cents. Surelv 
in this matter we are as a nation, 
"penny-wise and pound-foolish." 





A SONNET 

By William Shakespeare 

Like as the waves make towards the pebbled shore 

So do our minutes hasten to their end; 

Each changing' place with that which goes before, 

In sequent toil all forwards do contend 

Nativity, once in the main of light, 

Crawls to maturity, wherewith being crowned, 

Crooked eclipses against his glory fight, 

And time that gave doth now his gift confound. 

Time doth transfix the flourish set on youth, 

And delves the parallels in beauty's brow ; 

Feeds on the rarities of nature's truth, 

And nothing stands but for his scythe to mow. 

And yet, to times in hope, my verse shall stand, 
Praising Thy worth, despite his cruel hand. 





The Lights of Jerusalem 



By 
Violet Jacob 



A charming little romance of a railway fireman, who fell in love 
with a country maid, whom he used to pass daily on his run. 



THE railway line between Worces- 
ter and Hereford runs along the 
foot of the Malvern hills ; then, 
as their bold chain drops behind it, 
the train makes its way between suc- 
cessions of small fields, heavily hedged, 
of orchards and hop gardens, the 
former much in the majority; a green, 
cramped, fertile land full of sugges- 
tive corners, snug and a trifle sly. It 
has an intimate unheroic charm and 
a wealth of detail for appreciative 
eyes. 

Joshua Gunn appreciated it, though 
he would have been at a loss to give 
reasons for his feeling, being a man 
of few words. His circumstances 
were not conducive to talk, for he was 
fireman on the engine of a Great West- 
ern train — a local train which ran be- 
tween the two county towns. He, the 
engine-driver, and the guard saw more 
of that immediate stretch of country 
than any three men alive; but while 
Joshua looked out on it with pleasure, 
it scarcely existed for the other two, 
for the guard was a politician and 
read the Western Mail in his van, and 
the driver was indifferent to every- 
thing but his engine. 

Gunn was a quiet, dark, young fel- 
low of eight-and-twenty, with a repu- 
tation in the livelier part of his little 
world of being dull, for hardly any- 
one knew what his interests were or, 

94 ' 



what he thought about. He did his 
work well and interfered with nobody, 
and he lived, in company with a sig- 
nalman, the only person with whom 
he was intimate, on the outskirts of 
Hereford town. 

When the train had almost done its 
journey from Worcester it reached a 
spot at which the permanent way ran 
along an embankment, and here 
Joshua's loyal interest in the surround- 
ings of his appointed course would 
culminate. No matter what were his 
duties on the engine, he would con- 
trive to be free when the embankment 
came in sight and the green elevation 
swung itself into line as they rounded 
the curve preceding it. The young 
man would lean out, with the wind of 
their rush blowing on his dark face, 
and gaze down upon the picture which 
had captured his fancy. 

Just at this spot, close under the 
embankment, one of the fields had 
merged itself with surprising abrupt- 
ness into a small, thickly-planted or- 
chard, and not twenty paces in from 
the beginning of the trees, was a tiny 
black-and-white-timbered cottage of 
two storeys, standing apart with the 
compact detachment of a doll's house. 
The apple-trees pressed up to within 
a few feet of its walls, their gnarled 
stems crowding thick about it like an 
escort round a state prisor;r; and in 



THE LIGHTS OF JERUSALEM 



the dusk of their myriad leaves and 
branches its whitewash, crossed with 
black timbers, seemed to be glimmer- 
ing through a green twilight. The 
windows were small, and looked even 
smaller and more secretive from the 
height at which Joshua saw them ; and 
at either side of the worn stone thres- 
hold there stood, in summer, one of 
those tall orange lilies, called by the 
neighboring country folk, "The Lights 
of Jerusalem." To Joshua they were 
like two stiff golden angels guarding 
the door of this diminutive paradise of 
his imagination. He admired flowers 
and he knew many of their names ; for 
the signalman with whom he lived had 
a plot of garden at the foot of his box 
which the fireman often envied him. 

Through every change of season 
Joshua Gunn observed the little dwell- 
ing — under the leafless boughs of 
winter, in the ethereal greenery of 
spring, in the full-blown opulence of 
summer, in the time when the redden- 
ed apples burned round it like fiery 
globes ; but the time when it pleased 
him most was at June's end, when the 
Lights of Jerusalem were kindled by 
its threshold. 

For a long time it chanced that he 
saw no sign of life about the place, ex- 
cept the smoke stealing upward and 
a clothes-line stretched between two 
apple-trees ; but one day as he leaned 
over the engine's side a girl was in 
the garden. She wore a large apron 
over her dress and her fresh face turn- 
ed up as she shaded her eyes to look 
at the passing train. Her light hair 
shone in the sun. It happened that 
he saw her three times in one week — 
twice in the garden strip under the 
windows and once at the back of the 
house beside the row of beehives ; and 
on the last occasion some impulse 
made him take off his cap and hoid 
it above his head as the train ran by. 
The girl hesitated, and then made a 
timid sign of greeting with her hand; 
Joshua was near enough to see her 
face and the shy smile upon it. 

That little ceremony had gone on 
for eight months. Sometimes the girl 
would be in the garden, sometimes at 



the door. Sometimes she was not to 
be seen; but in any case the fireman 
would lean out and hold up his cap, 
for he could not know whether she 
might not be watching him go by from 
behind the diamond panes. 

One day, when Joshua's engine had 
reached Hereford, it was sent back on 
the up-line in the interval between its 
two journeys to take a few trucks with 
a gang of workmen to the embank- 
ment. Some rails were to be unloaded, 
for there were repairs to be done at 
the spot above the orchard ; and as the 
biakes were put on and the train slow- 
ed down the young fireman promised 
himself an idle half-hour in which he 
might see the timbered cottage at clos- 
er quarters. When the unloading was 
finished the engine and trucks were to 
go on to a siding a little farther for- 
ward while the rails were being stack- 
ed, and there steam would be shut off 
until it was time to return for the 
men. ' 

The driver was a fat good-natured 
individual, averse to exercise, and 
Joshua knew that during his wait he 
would sit on the foot-plate and smoke, 
and that it would be a simple mattei 
for himself to get leave to stroll back 
to the green banks. He would be 
able to get quite close to the orchard, 
perhaps to within speaking distance of 
his unknown acquaintance. His mind 
was full of the idea, and he consider- 
ed over and over again how he shoulc. 
accost her and what he should say 
supposing that he had the courage to 
address her at all. Perhaps she might 
not come out of the house ; perhaps 
she was absent. He had not seen her 
as he passed in the morning. He ima- 
gined a dozen obstacles to the meet- 
ing for which he hoped. 

His heart beat a little as he neared 
the place, for he was a shy man. He 
had easily got the permission he want- 
ed ; but when he saw the smoke ri->e 
from the apple-boughs he had half a 
mind to turn back, and as he looked 
at the coal-dust on his hands he wish- 
ed very heartily that stoking were a 
cleaner occupation. He reflected with 
dismay that the girl whose friendly 

95 



r VKMF.R'S MAGAZINE. 



greeting- had been the point of inter- 
est In his daily journeys for so long 
had never been near enough to him 
to know what an unattractive-looking 
fellow he was; and this estimate of 
himself disheartened him a good deal, 
because he did not guess how far it 
was from being a just one. 

When he reached the embankment 
he stopped, his anticipations scattered 
to the winds. The one chance on 
which he had not counted had risen 
up to undo him. 

The garden was full of people and 
the uniform hue of their garments 
gave him a sharp thrust of horror. 
They were black from head to toe, 
and they surrounded a dark object 
resting on rough trestles placed just 
outside the doorstep. It was evident- 
ly waiting for something, the sombre 
assembly that had descended like a 
swarm of devastating insects on this 
secret pleasure-ground of his own to 
blot out its beauty with their presence. 
The only spots of color were the bright 
Lights of Jerusalem, set like living 
torches beside the unpretentious page- 
ant of death. 

The young man stood on the bank 
looking blankly down, his hands drop- 
ed at his sides. He dared not go 
near to intrude upon the handful of 
mourners, though from over the hedge 
below the line he could ha'/e asked 
the question which tormented him. 
Details spring with an irony all their 
own to the minds of those in suspense, 
and he reflected that he need not have 
been concerned by his blackened coat 
an coal-stained hands. Everything 
was black now. The clang made by 
the rails as the workmen piled them 
in a heap sent a harsh note booming 
into the air. 

Then his trouble lifted from him, 
for the cottage door opened and the 
well-known figure came out between 
the Lights of Jerusalem. She turned 
the key, putting it in her pocket, and 
her companions raised the coffin and 
carried it out of the garden. 

As she followed them she looked 
up at the line, and, perhaps from 
habit, Joshua's hand went up to his 

96 



cap; and though he dropped it half- 
way, afraid, instinctively, to force his 
recognition upon her at such a mo- 
ment, he saw her smile. 

When the humble procession had 
passed out of sight he went back to 
•the engine in a kind of dream. But 
it was a dream with a definite purpose. 
In three days it would be Sunday, a 
free day for him, because the local 
train did not run. He would start 
from Hereford and walk along the 
line to the cottage, a bare seven miles, 
and he would at last see and speak 
with this girl face to face. He could 
not know the exact nature of the catas- 
trophe which had happened to her. 
but he understood that, in its grip, she 
had still held to their unspoken friend- 
ship, and that the tacit bond had 
emerged from it. a thing which present 
calamity had not been able to break. 
He scarcely knew what he meant to 
do when he should meet her, but he 
felt as if a gate had opened. And 
through the gate he would go. 

On Sunday morning Joshua rose to 
find Hereford enveloped in the mist 
of coming heat, and at half-past eight 
he dropped on to the permanent way 
beyond the signal-box on the Worces- 
ter line to begin his seven-mile walk 
alongside the sleepers. He had shaved 
with particular care and had scrubbed 
himself till not a trace remained of 
the coal-dust of the week. He wore 
his dark-grey Sunday suit, and even 
the ill-made clothes could not take 
much attraction from his 'grave brown 
face or make his slight figure quite 
uninteresting, for the touch of reserve 
and refinement which kept him a little 
aloof from the rougher part of his 
kind showed through inferior tailoring 
and looked out of his observant eyes. 

The metals stretched on into the 
quivering greyness of the hot day as he 
tramped along, and the sun climbed 
higher. On either side spread the 
green landscape of western England, 
rich and chequered. The ox-eye daisies 
were out at the sides of the line and the 
red sorrel and the clover ; and above 
the round heads of the last, misty 
clouds of tinv butterflies hung like an 



4 



m 



^J$M*I1^l3V£t>''3 




"SHE SHADED HER EYES TO LOOK AT THE PASSING TRAIN. 



91 



PARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



innocent miasma. It was almost n 
o'clock when Joshua reached his goal, 
and, descending the embankment, slip- 
ped through a weak place in the hedge 
and approached the cottage door. 

The smoke still rose from the chim- 
ney, but there was neither sound nor 
stir within, and, having knocked un- 
successfully, the young man went in- 
to the orchard. The row of beehives 
was in its place, and as he stood look- 
iing at them and debating what he 
should do, the sound of a bell came 
to him through the hot air. He list- 
ened, smiling at his own stupidity. Of 
course — she was at church ! 

He hastened through the garden, 
followed the sound, and came out on 
a narrow country road. In front of 
him a stout woman was pressing for- 
ward, book in hand, with conscience- 
stricken haste, and in the wake of this 
unconscious guide he soon found him- 
self at the lych-gate of a small square- 
towered church. The woman bustled 
through the churchyard and was lost 
in the deep shadows of the porch. The 
echo of her creaking boots filled it as 
she entered. 

He followed her to the inner door, 
stepping like a thief, and peered in. 
The prayers had long begun, and his 
eye searched the kneeling congregation 
for the figure he wanted and stopped 
at a row of cross-seats facing the aisle 
on the hither side of the chancel arch. 
The girl was there ; he could see her 
attentive profile above her book and 
her bright hair. He knew her at once, 
and her unrelieved black clothes con- 
firmed the recognition. He drew back 
stealthily and went out into the church- 
ward, for there was no vacant seat 
near the door. 

It was a rather badly-kept place, for 
the canopies of the yew-trees shadow- 
ed groups of tombstones, ancient and 
grotesque, which stuck at many dif- 
ferent angles from the coarse grass. 
As he turned to examine the church 
he noticed that a slab of stone jutted 
out from the wall, running along it like 
a bench. He sat down on it to wait 
as patiently as he could till the end 
of the service. 

98 



From inside the building came the 
drone of collective voices saying the 
Lord's Prayer, and soon after he heard 
the sound of the congregation rising. 
Suspense began to weigh on him, so 
he got up and wandered about, read- 
ing epitaphs with a half-mind that 
scarcely took in their significance. 
Then the organ began, and the words 
of the hymn carried him back to the 
house in the orchard. 

"Jerusalem the golden," sang the 
voices ; and at these words the two 
tall orange lilies by the doorstep rose 
before Joshua, who stood still, staring 
at the inner vision. 

He awoke from his abstraction to 
see a black figure emerge quickly 
from the porch. 

She was coming towards him, her 
eyes blind with tears. No doubt some- 
thing in the service had upset her and 
she had fled, unable to control herself. 
Joshua was standing in the shade of 
a tree, but with the light of the blaz- 
ing noon on her wet eyes she seemed 
not to see him. 

He walked quickly forward and 
stood in her path. 

"It's me," he said simply. 

She stopped, drawing a long, qui- 
vering breath. 

"I'm here," said Joshua. "It's me. 
I saw you from the engine." 

Then he took her hand and led her 
to the stone bench. She went with 
him, unresisting. 

He had not supposed that she was 
so pretty, for, though her eyes were 
swollen and her face blurred and 
marked by weeping, these things could 
not obliterate her good looks. But 
Joshua scarcely gave that a thought, 
nor did he realize for a moment how 
extraordinary his behavior might seem 
to her, considering that he was a 
stranger. The only thought in his 
mind was that she was in trouble and 
that, for some perfectly unexplained 
but imperative reason, she would cling 
to him. Her sobs slackened as he sat 
silent with his cap pushed back from 
his brow and his hand closed round 
hers, as if it were the most natural 
thing in the world; behind their backs, 



THE LIGHTS OF JERUSALEM 



on the inner side of the church wall, 
the sermon had begun and the parson's 
solitary tones were in monotonous 
possession. 

She looked up at the young fireman 
with the confiding simplicity of a child. 

"It were the hymn," she said at 
last, "'twas about Jerusalem, and I 
thought — I remembered — the Lights 
o' Jerusalem by the doorstep. I've 
seen them there all my life, but there'ii 
be no more o' they for me, soon." 

"You be going away, then?" asked 
Joshua. 

She nodded. 

"Father's dead," she continued. 
"He'd never left his bed for four years. 
I minded him. He couldn't see noth- 
ing but from the window where his 
bed were. But the interest he'd take ! 
He'd call me in from the garden and 
ask how it was all looking, and how 
the birds were building, and about the 
currants and the flowers and the 
apples. He could tell the shape of 
every tree, though he hadn't seen 
them for so long. And he liked the 
trains too. He could just see you 
where he was lying, an' no more, 
when the train went by the white post 
on the bank. It made him feel a kind 
of cheery-like to know you were com- 
ing. "Twenty past eleven, Winnie." 
he'd say to me. "It's time for the 
engine." 

'Then he knew me,' said the young 
man reflectively. 'Strange that I nev- 
er thought of anyone else being be- 
hind the windows. I only thought 
about you and the Lights of Jerusa- 
lem when we came round the bend.' 

Inside the church the parson's voice 
had stopped, and a general stamping 
and rustling proclaimed the end of the 
sermon. 

T must go. They'll be coming out, 
and I don't want to meet them,' said 
the girl, rising quickly. 

'I'm coming with you,' said Joshua. 

They walked back hurriedly to the 
cottage, for the dispersed congrega- 
tion was almost treading on their 
heels ; and she told him, with a prim- 
ness that was in odd contrast with 
their unconventional attitude, that she 



did not want the neighbors to see her 
with a stranger so soon after the fun- 
eral. The road was empty, and they 
went along side by side talking as 
though they had known each other 
for years. He learned she was to 
leave her home at the end of the week 
and take service with the wife of a 
small innkeeper in Hereford 

'You must be going, or they'll see 
you,' said she, as they stopped by the 
orchard. 

They stood for a minute without 
speaking. 

'I'll look for you going by to-mor- 
row/ said the girl; there'll be only a 
few days more now.' 

'But I'll be near you in Hereford,' 
said he. 

Her face brightened. 

'My dear,' said Joshua suddenly, 
'mind you this. I mayn't be the sort 
o' feller that's likely to please a girl, 
but I'm a man that'll wait — and I'm 
to be made a driver next year. You 
can't tell what it'll be like at the inn. 
Maybe you'll be happy, maybe not. 
But in any case I'm waiting. An' the 
first day you say "Come," I'll come 
for you. It's funny, but it seems 
somehow as if you belonged to me. 
Could you like me, do you think?' 

'Oh, I do,' she answered simply. 
'But you must be going. I hear them 
talking on the road.' 

They clasped hands, and he left her. 
But at' the end of the garden he came 
back. 

'Oh, Winnie!' cried the man who 
would wait, 'you won't let it be long?' 

'No,' she said shyly. 

'Promise,' said Joshua. 

T promise.' 

Then he turned away, stepped 
through the hedge, and ran up the 
side of the embankment. At the top 
he stood, holding up his cap. _ She 
was smiling at him between the Lights 
of Jerusalem. 

When his slim figure had vanished 
down the line she went into the house 
and, sitting down, hid her face in her 
hands. 

But not to cry. 

99 



Safe-Guarding Investments 



By R. G. Dingman 



The majority of farmers have money in the bank 
earning three per cent, interest. They zuould be pleased 
to receive more for their investments. Luring pro- 
positions are submitted by unscrupulous financiers to 
"steal" hard-earned money from farmers. Mr. Ding- 
man is in close touch with financial schemes and shows 
some of the traps laid by promoters to secure funds. 



NOW to invest his surplus is one 
of the greatest problems of 
the man who is making money. 
The problem of investing, usually, is 
almost as serious as the making of the 
money in the first place. The diffic- 
ulty is increased by the fact that there 
are so many men and companies per- 
sistently on the alert to steal the funds 
of the man who has not had exper- 
ience in investing. Certain classes 
in Canada indeed, are thought of as 
"easy marks" by unscruplous prom- 
oters and stock sellers. The preside 
ent of one of the dental associations, 
within the last year or so, in deliver- 
ing an address to the members of that 
body, spoke of the fact that their pro- 
fession was one of those before whom 
unworthy promotions were continual- 
ly brought with success. The farm- 
ing community have not hitheto been 
especially regarded as easy victims by 
such firms, but the fact that the farm- 
er's life work is so widely separated 
from stocks, bonds and the like, makes 
it particularly necessary for him to be 
on the watch. This will be the more 
so as the high prices of farm products 
are maintained, and as the farmer 
continues to prosper in Canada. One 
pronounced aim of The Farmer's Ma- 
gnzire is to inform and to safeguard 
100 



the farmers of Canada with respect 
to their investments. The Magazine 
is glad, at any time, to answer en- 
quiries from any of its readers who 
may have placed before them for pur- 
chase, some stock or security of whose 
value they are not sure. In this way 
The Farmer's Magazine hopes within 
the course of a year or a period of 
years to save the farmer many times 
the cost of his subscription. 

In this initial investment article it 
will probably be of interest to mention 
some of the traps that are laid to 
catch the uninformed. There were 
arrested in the city of New York, at 
the end of last month, seven members 
of a firm who comprised as a New 
York financial paper put it, as "brazen 
a set of confidence men as ever band- 
ed together." Their soliciting letters 
had been sent out, evidently, more or 
less broadcast, over the United States 
and Canada, and the writer of this 
article has one or two of them before 
him as he writes. The promises made 
are surprising. One of their letters 
starts off thus : "I am in possession of 
information which reveals to me the 
fact that some very strong interests 
are going to make a sensational move 
in a standard New York Curb stock 
in about two weeks and I will impart 



SAFE-GUARDING INVESTMENTS 



this information to you provided 1 
have your assurance that if you profit 
as I feel absolutely certain you will, 
you will try to make it your business 
to give our firm hereafter all of your 
business in New York Curb stocks." 

The confidential nature which the 
firm tried to impart to their letters is 
indicated in the following paragraph, 
and in a subsequent paragraph which 
closes the letter: "If you are interest- 
ed, I suggest that you immediately 
address a letter to me, personally, 
marking the envelope "Personal" and 
addressing it to this office. In the 
meanwhile, take my advice and fin- 
ance yourself immediately so that you 
can embrace the opportunity." 

PERSONAL FEATURE A BUNCO. 

"Kindly be sure to pay attention to 
my request to address your letter to 
me, personally. Mark plainly on the 
envelope 'personal.' " Of course the 
personal feature is all bunco. The 
letter in question, however, is signed 
in ink with the name of the head of 
the firm, although the actual signing 
was done probably by an office boy. 
Another paragraph of the letter 
reads : "As soon as possible after I re- 
ceive your application for the inform- 
ation, probably within a few days, I 
will either telegraph you at the ex- 
pense of B. H. Shaeftels & Com- 
pany, or send you by special deliv- 
ery mail the complete information. I 
shall not be in a position to give you 
any reason, except to tell you to buy 
the stock and it will be up to you to 
buy it or not. All I guarantee is, that 
my information comes from such a 
source, and the intrinsic value of the 
security is so much in excess of the 
present market price, that I feel abso- 
lutely certain you will be not only safe 
in making the purchase, but that you 
will roll up one of the most magni- 
ficent profits you ever made in a min- 
ing stock in your career." It will be 
noticed that they give no reasons to 
back up the "tip" which they give, 
or the strong promises they hold out 
as to the certainty of profits. The 
real head of this particular promot- 



ing concern has been twice in prison 
and is apparently now on his way 
there again. He has, to conceal his 
identity, appeared under a variety of 
company names, as did the notori- 
ous George H. Munroe in New 
York and in Canadian cities. The 
Munroe organization, when in To- 
ronto a year or two ago, main- 
tained a most elaborate set of of- 
fices and a very capable staff of 
salesmen. They were, at the time, 
selling the stock of a railroad ap- 
pliance company, and their show 
rooms were fitted up with models of 
railway trains and the like. Money 
was spent lavishly in advertising, and 
in organization. Promises were made 
and misrepresentation employed with 
little regard for the facts. Needless 
to say, after the concern had sold the 
stock of this and one or two other 
companies of the kind, they closed 
their offices and removed to greener 
fields. 

"GET-RICH-QUICK" IS ENTICING. 

A similar, but even more enticing 
"get-rich-quick" scheme — that of C. 
D. Sheldon — was, until last week, be- 
ing persistently brought to the notice 
of all and sundry with such astuteness 
and effrontery that many men whose 
experience and business training 
should have warned them, were en- 
trapped as readily as the most callow 
youth burning with the desire to get 
something for nothing. One way 
which this man had of entrapping the 
unwary was that old, old trick, prac- 
tised by the operators of the historic 
shell-game, of employing certain stool- 
pigeons who received large sums as 
winnings, purely as decoys. The re- 
sult has been that, while some of the 
earlier "investors" — a term often used 
by such firms as a gentle method of 
implying "suckers" made — have re- 
ceived considerable dividends at the 
expense of the later comers, the latter 
are now wondering why such a flag- 
rant trap of this sort should have 
caught them. The first intimation 
many had of the questionable charac- 
ter of the man — although a promise of 
20 per cent, a month profits must have 

101 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



caused some to question Sheldon's 
bona fides — was the following para- 
graph in a Montreal paper in a "scare" 
heading: — 

FINANCIER'S ABSENCE WOR- 
RY TO INVESTORS. 

Big Montreal stock market pool 
operator, who promised clients return 
of from 30 to 40 per cent., leaves 
Royal city suddenly, and banks refuse 
to cash his checks. 

Then there are other promotions 
not really fraudulent, that are brought 
out by men who have a little know- 
ledge of financial matters, or who are 
not able to estimate correctly the 
probability of success. For most in- 
tents and purposes the farmers' funds 
are as much endangered by this class 
of broker as by the unscrupulous. 
Some of the oil and mining litera- 
ture, which is to be seen continually, 
represents these classes well. One of 
the western oil companies a while ago 
got out a pamphlet for the purpose of 
attracting funds. It starts off thus: 
"You are accustomed to hearing of 
the vast timber, agricultural and min- 
ing wealth of the Canadian North- 
west, but did you know that in the 



Province of Alberta, near Edmonton, 
there is being developed one of the 
largest oil fields west of Pennsylvania, 
the largest supply of natural gas north 
of California, and one of the largest 
beds of asphaltum on this continent? 

"Well, whether you know it or not, 
those are the facts. 

"And these three great sources of 
immense wealth are ozuned by the Am- 
erican-Canadian Oil Company." 
They leave absolutely no question as to 
the payment of dividends. Further 
along in the book they say, "Leaving 
the oil entirely out of the question, 
you are still assured of 15 per cent. 
on your money from the gas alone." 
They state also that they believe the 
$1 shares will, in the very near future, 
be worth $100, or more, each. 

It is such propositions that is the 
aim of The FARMERS' MAGAZ- 
INE to expose, with a view to pro- 
tecting the financial interests of the 
farming community. 

A later article in this series will 
deal with the fundamental principles 
which should underlie the investment 
of money. Various investment pro- 
positions in Canada will be discussed 
in subsequent issues of the magazine 



THE BIRDS OF AENGUS OG. 

In my young youth 'twas I that heard them calling, 
The birds of Aengus, Aengus Ever-Young ;* 

While the pale light between the hills was falling, 
I heard the hounds of elf-land giving tongue. 

Though by rough ways my eager feet went straying 
Far and away from all the haunts of men, 

Near fairy rings and lonely raths delaying, 
Never I won to sight of them again. 

At long and last I see their blue wings gleaming, 
Soft sounds the call that wooed me to my quest ; 

Lo ! in your eaves the bright birds of my dreaming, 
The birds of Aengus Og, have built their nest. 
Blanche M. Kelly, in McClure's 

* Aengus Og Is the Celtic god of youth and love, and he Is said to be 
always accompanied by four birds, two of them calling constantly. 
"Cornel Come I " and two, "Stay I Stay " 



102 



What Does It Cost to Feed 
Canadians ? 



By T. C. Carter 



Canada's trade in farm produce is of special inter- 
est to Canadians at the present time. Many of us do 
not realise how large our production is. Others believe 
we are bigger than we really are. The figures given 
in this article show the proportion of home consump- 
tion to our total production in some of our important 
products. Will the time come when we will import 
foodstuffs instead of exporting them? 



CANADA'S trade is a subject 
that is being discussed by a 
great many Canadians at the 
present time. It has been our object 
to make our good's of such a quality 
that two articles will be asked for 
where one was wanted before. This 
has had the effect of building up 
many industries in Canada, but agri- 
culture is still the backbone of this 
young nation. The quality of our 
farm products is now such that wher- 
ever they are bought in foreign 
markets there is sure to follow sub- 
sequent orders for them. This is a 
good sign. It shows that farmers are 
taking hold of the latest and best 
methods in agriculture and are plac- 
ing their goods on the market in the 
best possible condition. 

Recent years have seen much new 
land being brought under cultivation. 
This has necessitated much more la- 
bor in commercial centres. We must 
have the railways if we are to get our 
goods to market in the shortest pos- 
sible time. We must have our stores 
and supply houses. We must have 



our factories to make the machinery 
for the saving of labor. We must 
have the comforts of our homes so 
that our lives may be made happier. 
Therefore our city and town popula- 
tion has grown as has the number of 
farm occupants. 

For these reasons we are very apt 
to overlook the market for farm pro- 
duce which we have right at our 
doors. We seem to have forgotten 
that we must feed those at home be- 
fore we can send any of our produce 
away. The figures in this article have 
not been gathered for the sole reason 
of pointing out the size of our home 
market, but also to show that we are 
a nation in point of production as 
well as in size. We are able to pro- 
duce our own goods as well as make 
our own laws. 

Taking the figures supplied by the 
different provinces we find that in 
1908 Canada produced 128,647,876 
bushels of wheat, and last year 165,- 
787,530 bushels. Of this large 
amount we sent abroad only 43,654,- 
668 bushels in 1908 and 49,137,449 
bushels in 1909. But we must add to 

103 




these figures the amount of flour 
which was exported during these 
years. In 1908 we sent out of the 
country 1,962,740 barrels of flour 
valued at $8,454,954, while last year 
the amount exported was 1,738,038 
barrels valued at $7,991,413. If we 
allow 4^4 bushels of wheat to one 
ibarrel of flour these figures are equiv- 
alent to 8,832,330 bushels of wheat in 
1908 and 7,821,171 bushels in 1909. 
This makes a total of 52,486,998 
bushels of wheat exported in 1908 
and 56,958,620 bushels in 1909. 

These figures show that on the 
average we send about one-third of 
our wheat to foreign markets. Last 
year it took more than 108 millions of 
bushels of wheat to feed the people of 
Canada. Truly we are getting to be 
quite a size. 

THREE PER CENT. OATS EXPORTED. 

Oats form the staple concentrated 
food for the animals of the farm, 
therefore we might not be expected to 
send abroad the same proportion of 
this grain as we do of wheat. In this 
assumption we are correct. We are 
producing more stock on our farms 
every year and we must grow the 
grains to feed it. In 1908 we pro- 
duced 258,480,047 bushels of oats, and 
only about three per cent, of this 
amount was sent abroad. This ex- 

104 



port amounted to 7,123,291 bushels. 
Last year the oats produced in Can- 
ada amounted to 328,415,323 bushels 
and 98 1-4 per cent, of them were con- 
sumed at home. When we consider 
the amount of oatmeal which was 
sent out of Canada we will not materi- 
ally affect the per centage of the oats 
exported. In two years we used 574,- 
516,469 bushels of oats in Canada. 

Barley is another staple grain 
which is used largely for animal food. 
Considerable quantities are used for 
brewing but as export figures do not 
distinguish between the feeding and 
the brewing barley we need not con- 
sider the amount used for beer-mak- 
ing. In 1908 we grew 47,749,229 
bushels of barley and of this amount 
only 41-4 per cent, or 1,990,444 bush- 
els were exported. Last year the re- 
sult was similar. Of the 48,810,685 
bushels which we produced we sent 
out of the country 2,959,335 bushels, 
or 6 1-4 per cent, of all we grew. 

When we total these three grains 
we will see that in 1908 we produced 
434,877,152 bushels, and exported 
only 61,600,733 bushels or 14 per 
cent. Last year of the 543,013,538 
bushels we grew we sent abroad 65,- 
173,565 bushels or 12 per cent. What 
a consuming people we must be! 

In 1908 the average price per 
bushel received by the farmers for the 



WHAT DOES IT COST TO FEED CANADIANS? 



different grains was, — wheat 81 cents, 
oats 39 cents and barley 46 cents. 
These figures are the average for the 
Dominion as figured by the Census 
and Statistics Bureau at Ottawa. 
Using these figures as a basis we find 
that the value of the grains consumed 
at home was $180,768,497, while that 
which went abroad sold for $46,208, 
156, or a total of $226,976,643. The 
following year prices were, — wheat 
84 cents, oats 35 cents and barley 46 
cents. At these prices our grain pro- 
duction in 1909 was valued to the 
farmers at $276,659,803. That year 
the value of the three grains exported 
amounted to $44,476,223. In two 
years the value to us was $412,952,- 
076 for the amount of these grains 
consumed at home, while we received 
only $90,684,380 for what we export- 
ed. It may be argued that the amount 
exported in 1908 contained some of 
the 1907 crop, and the 1909 export 
contained some of the 1908 crop. 
However, if the crops for the separate 
years are figured separately the result 
will be slightly more in favor of the 
home market than the figures given. 
Census returns for 1901 give the 
number of farmers in Canada as 
slightly over 550,000. Suppose that 
the number is now 1,000,000, which 
we believe to be a fair estimate. This 
gives the average amount of grain 
produced per farm as 434 bushels and 
the value to each farmer at $227, in 
1908. The following year the average 
yield per farm was 543 bushels, 
valued at $277. Therefore we have 



increased the average production of 
each farm in one year by 109 bushels 
valued at $50. Is not this a fair in- 
crease in that short space of time ? 

The latest figures in the production 
of butter, cheese and eggs are those 
contained in the census returns for 
1901. At that time the percentage re- 
quired for home consumption was, — 
cheese g l / 2 per cent., butter 88 per 
cent and eggs 87 per cent, of all we 
produced. Since that time the home 
consumption of these products has 
steadily increased. Instead of export- 
ing eggs we are importing them, one 
shipment coming all the way from 
Russia last year. Our exports of 
butter have fallen to practically noth- 
ing and we are selling much less 
cheese abroad than we were a few 
years ago. 

Nor is the value of the home market 
confined to the farmers alone. In 
1906 the value of agricultural imple- 
ments including carriages and wagons 
was $21,183,257, while the value of 
those exported amounted only to 
$2,560,000. This shows that 85 2-3 
per cent, of the value of the imple- 
ments made in Canada are sold and 
used in this country. Other manu- 
factures show a similar per centage, 
but we have not space to go into de- 
tail. If we have shown that farmers 
are making good use of their land 
in increasing the average yields from 
it, and that we are able to produce 
our own goods, these figures will not 
have been gathered together in vain. 




105 



A Strange Tip 



By 
W. Hastings Webling 



THE Hon. Robert Norman Bean- 
yngton-Brome, familiarly known 
as "Beans" to his immediate 
friends, third son of the late lamented 
Lord Stranways, and only surviving 
brother of the present Lord, stood 
alone in the paddock at Ascot, intently 
figuring at his gold monogramed bet- 
ting book. From the serious frown 
on his naturally good natured freckled 
face, it was not difficult to conclude 
that the result of his calculations was 
far from pleasant. Indeed, the Hon. 
Robert, to use a familiar phrase, was 
"up against it." A monotonous suc- 
cession of losers, which should have 
won easily, threatened the young 
sportsman with a very bad time on 
settling day. 

"Only a miracle, or a lucky plunge 
on the last race can save the situa- 
tion," he muttered, slowly closing the 
book, "both equally unlikely to come 
off, so far as I'm concerned; the Fates 
are against me." 

"Beans, by all that's beautiful !" 
exclaimed a cheery voice at his side, 
"How are you old chap?" 

The Hon. Robert turned to see the 
soldierly figure and handsome face of 
his best friend, Captain William 

Courtney, of His Majesty's th 

Dragoon Guards. 

With unaffected pleasure, he grasp- 
ed the Captain's outstretched hand 
and shook it heartily. "Well ! 'pon 
my word, Billie, where in the name of 
Heaven do you spring from ! I 
thought you were roasting in India." 

106 



"I was, and that's a jolly long way 
removed from Heaven, just now, old 
chap. Had a touch of fever, got six 
months' leave, which by the same tok- 
en is nearly up, and here I am! By 
Jove! it's great to be home. How 
goes the battle, Beans?" 

"Rotten, old fellow — how goes it 
with you? You look pretty fit for 
an invalid." 

"O ! I'm enjoying robust health, and 
having a ripping time. What do you 
think! Saw old Drivers, at the sta- 
tion. Of course you know old Driv- 
ers? Used to train for my Guvnor. 
Seemed actually glad to see me, mark- 
ed my card for the first and third 
race, with a 'double star' for the last. 
The first two won, and I'm going for 
the 'cigars' on the last — what!" 

"Bully for you, Bill ! Glad to hear 
somebody is finding them. But what, 
in the name of all that's glorious, did 
the wiley Driver tip you for the last?" 

"Climatic ! and further stated in a 
mysterious whisper accompanied by a 
particularly knowing wink — "If Don 
Antonio wins the 'third' you can have 
a little extra on Climatic." 

"You're an angel in disguise, Bill. 
I may get out of this beastly mess, 
after all. Let's get back to the Ring 
— I see they're clearing the course for 
the last race." 

The two friends hurried back to 
"Tattersalls" and forcing their way 
through the struggling crowd, man- 
aged to attract the attention of Jack 



A STRANGE TIP 



Cooper, the Leviathan Knight of the 
pencil. 

"What price Climatic?" inquired 
the Hon. Robert. 

"Seven to you, Sir," replied the 
busy bookmaker. 

"To a hundred, twice," nodded the 
Hon. Robert — "You're in, I suppose?" 
turning to his friend. 

"Rather," replied the Captain, "go 
for the 'cigars,' Beans. I'm with you 
to the limit." 

The Hon. Robert moved on and 
backed Climatic down to 5 to i, when 
the stirring shout of "They're off!" 
signalled the horses were running, and 
suspended further investments. So 
the two friends made the best of their 
way to a place of vantage, and watch- 
ed with keen interest the result of 
the momentous race. 

With field glasses glued to their 
eyes, they quickly distinguished the 
well-known colors of the noble owner 
of Climatic, "green and yellow." She 
was well placed and going easily. At 
the turn her little jockey, one of the 
most successful lightweights in Eng- 
land,- let her out a little, and she 
promptly went to the head of affairs, 
taking a nice position on the rails. 

"Climatic wins ! Even money Cli- 
matic ! Climatic for a thousand!" 
yelled the Bookies. 

"O! it's a regular walkover!" ob- 
served the Hon. Robert, in tones of 
suppressed delight. 

"All over, bar shouting!" observed 
Captain Courtney, "and by Gad ! — 
what a win !" 

The horses were now racing for 
home, Climatic with a comfortable 
lead of a couple of lengths. It was 
then her young pilot turned in triumph 
to watch the useless struggle of his 
straining opponents. Alas ! it was his 
own undoing! The filly changed her 
stride and stumbled. Caught by sur- 
prise, the boy lost his balance and 
horse and rider fell heavily to the 
ground with a sickening thud. 

It was all over, a wretched out- 
sider had beat the favorite a head, and 



another sad story was added to the 
annals of a Black Ascot. 

The Hon. Robert carefully placed 
his glasses back in their case, while 
his grey-blue eyes looked bravely 
round at Captain Courtney, who stood 
watching poor Climatic being led 
limping away in the distance. 

"Well, that about settles it, Bill," 
said the Hon. Robert, as they slowly 
followed the crowd hurrying to catch 
a train for town. 

"Did you ever know such rotten 
luck — what?" exclaimed the still 
dazed Captain, when they at last se- 
cured seats in the crowded train. 

"Glorious uncertainty of the turf, 
Bill!" 

"Righto ! what's the good of worry- 
ing! let's go to the Club, and make 
a night of it — what?" 

"You're on," replied the Hon. Ro- 
bert, "we will forget the past in one 
glorious night — then to-morrow ! Well, 
it's chaos and Canada for me !" 

"Bad as all that, old chap? I'm sorry, 
can I do anything for you?" 

"No, thanks, Billie. Just a ques- 
tion of selling out my few effects — 
draw my little balance, and settling 
up." 

"After that?" 

"The deluge ! I shall have to touch 
poor old Stranways again, altho' good- 
ness knows, with poor crops and in- 
creased rents, he has about all he can 
do to keep things going. However, 
he is good for a bit, especially when 
he hears I'm cutting the festive 'turf,' 
and clearing out for Canada. He's 
fearfully strong on emigration just 
now, and simply bursting with facts 
and figures — the glorious possibilities 
of the Great Northwest, etc., etc." 

"Not a bad idea — but beastly cold 
climate — eh ?" 

"Not so cold as London, to a man 
that's broke," observed the Hon. Ro- 
bert, seriously. "There's simply noth- 
ing to do, but follow Stranway's ad- 
vice — he's been at me again lately. 
But you know how hard it is for a 
fellow to break away from this sort 
of thing. Besides, there's Sara — she 

107 



!• \RMER'S MAGAZINE. 



won't understand the situation, and 
how can I expect her to wait for a 
'down-and-outer' like myself." 

"Lady Sara is young," said the 
Captain, sympathetically. "She would 
be the first to stand by you. Give her 
a chance, you'll see ; or I'm jolly well 
mistaken in my guess." 

"Well, a truce to worry," exclaim- 
ed the Hon. Robert, more blithely. 
"We still have our evening, let the 
morrow bring forth what it may. Ah ! 
here we are at last!" 

The train reached its terminus and 
the young men hailed a taxi, and were 
soon lost in the surging traffic of Lon- 
don Town. 

The first thing the Hon. Robert did, 
when he awoke next morning, was to 
order his man, Bury, to mix a stiff 
brandy and soda, which, followed by 
a cold tub, helped materially in pre- 
paring him for the unpleasant duties 
of the day. He surprised his brother, 
Lord Stranways, by his early appear- 
ance, and himself still more, by the 
comparatively lucid statement of his 
affairs, considering that he and the 
Captain, had only parted a few hours 
before, in a state of convivial happi- 
ness and blissful indifference to the 
"slings and arrows of outrageous for- 
tune" — or such a mere detail as com- 
mon cash. 

His Lordship listened to the con- 
fessions of his younger brother with 
sympathetic interest — especially in re- 
ference to emigration. 

"Excellent idea, Beans, splendid 
country, great opportunities. Should 
have gone there myself years ago, if 
the Guvnor had given the word. Tell 
you what I'll do; I'll have Coutts 
place £200 to your credit at the Bank 
of Montreal. This, with the little you 
can save from the wreck should give 
you a start. I'd like to do more, but 
you know the condition of affairs 
here — absolutely impossible ! 

The Hon. Robert thanked his bro- 
ther and they parted as ever, the best 
of friends, although they had little in 
common, and really saw very little of 
one another. 

108 



What with selling out, settling ac- 
counts and preparing for the journey, 
the Hon. Robert put in his last few 
days in England very busily. 

The hardest thing of all was ex- 
plaining matters, and bidding farewell 
to Lady Sara Bayville. 

"Oh ! Bob," she exclaimed, after he 
had recounted his plans and ambi- 
tions. "What a bore ! the Leathers were 
going to invite us both for a perfectly 
ripping house party at their place in 
Scotland next month." Then more 
seriously, "I'm awfully sorry, Bob, but 
it won't make any difference to me, 
you know ! I'll wait ever such a long 
time, and you will make lots of money, 
won't you ? and come back soon ? And, 
I say, Bob, do be a careful boy, won't 
you, and not get scalped by the In- 
dians." 

"I'll take care of that," said the 
Hon. Robert, with a laugh, "although, 
from what I hear, there are other In- 
dians than the noble Reds, who may 
be hunting for my scalp over there." 

"Well, good-bye, Sara." He press- 
ed her fondly to his heart, while their 
young lips met in a last fond farewell. 

"Good-bye, Bob, and — good luck!" 

He noted the little break in her 
voice, and it helped him through many 
a cheerless hour in the days to come. 

Bob sailed the following afternoon 
on the good ship, Florentine. He had 
booked his passage in the name of 
Robert Brome, and as Robert Brome 
he determined to win the smile of 
fickle fortune entirely on the result of 
his own efforts. 

The wooing of fickle fortune proved 
more difficult than even he imagined. 
Gold did not grow on the streets of 
Montreal, and he drifted from one 
place to another, from one thing to 
another, till nearly two empty years 
passed before a favoring wind waft- 
ed him to the little town in western 
Ontario, which we may call Brown- 
ville. Here he got a job working on 
a farm owned by Thomas Gibson, who 
ran a general store, a farm, a saw- 
mill, etc., and dealt in anything from 
a thimble to a timber limit, if he 
thought there was money in it. 



A STRANGE TIP 



Bob soon made good with the 
shrewd old man, who put him in full 
charge of the farm, to work on half 
shares. This life suited Bob to a turn, 
he worked with his brains, as well as 
his hands. He dug right in, rose with 
the sun and retired early. Labored 
with a cheerful optimism, and suc- 
cess crowned his efforts. 

Letters from the Old Country 
gradually ceased to arrive, except at 
rare intervals. He heard occasionally 
from his brother, once in a great while 
from Lady Sara, and Courtney. His 
brother he knew had married the 
widow of a wealthy brewer, while 
Captain Courtney was still in India, 
accumulating medals and contracting 
a liver. As for Lady Sara, the de- 
scription of her doings only seemed 
to prove how utterly vain it was for 
him to ever hope or expect such a 
beautiful butterfly of fashion to be 
the bride of a hard-working Canadian 
farmer. 

Soliloquising alone one evening in 
the early Fall, smoking his cherished 
briar, Bob's thoughts gradually wan- 
dered back to days of the past. Days 
of happy childhood spent at Castle 
Stranways, in the midst of the Chii- 
tern Hills, splendid even in decay. On 
through Eton, then Oxford, careless 
happy-go-lucky days of early man- 
hood round town. Racing, shooting, 
yachting, bridge, etc. The good fel- 
lows he knew so well, chief among 
them Billie Courtney, one of the very 
best. Dearer still, his first meeting 
with Lady Sara at her father's hunt- 
ing box Leicestershire. The dutiful 
attention, next the mild flirtation and 
happy stolen walks in the moonlight. 
Then the first awakening of love's 
young dream. Slowly it all passed, 
a succession of moving pictures, be- 
fore his yearning vision. 

How he longed once more to see 
the old friends, the old home, to dine 
once more at his favorite club, and 
indulge in an English sole, served in 
that incomparable style for which the 
chef was famous. A draught of good 
English ale, from its native pewter, — 
nectar of the gods, indeed! But 



above all to see Sara once more. 
Would she know him? He pictured 
her surprise at his rugged sunburnt 
appearance, the queer cut of his 
country clothes. How she would 
smile, and in fancy he could see the 
dainty dimples peeping in and out on 
her pretty face. But of course, he 
would get a new wardrobe from 
Smithers & Jones, before he presented 
himself. 

"Hallo ! Beans, my boy — what 
luck?" exclaimed a well-remembered 
voice at his elbow. 

Surprised beyond measure, ne 
looked up and beheld the lithe form 
and handsome face of Captain Wil- 
liam Courtney. His eyes were glow- 
ing with pathetic pleasure, his once 
bronzed countenance, unnaturally 
pale and serene. 

"Billie, by all that's wonderful! 
What happy fortune brought you 
here?" And Bob started to his feet. 

"Sit down, old man, don't move, 
I'm only here for a few minutes" said 
the Captain in strange low tones. 
"You remember Climatic?" 

Bob nodded in a half stupor, his 
straining eyes fixed on those of his 
friend. 

"Back her for the Blankshire, she 
is going to win. Driver says so, and 
Driver knows." 

"But Billie, old boy, you look so 
queer — are you ill — is anything 
wrong?" 

"No thanks, I'm quite all right 
now, you know" replied the Captain 
with a ghost of his old smile," but 
don't forget, Beans, — Climatic is a 
certainty ! And I say, Beans, split a 
bottle of the "boy" with me if i r 
comes off. Good-bye, old chap !" 

"Hang Climatic ! Bill, sit down like 
a good fellow, and tell me about your • 
self" cried Bob, again rising and step- 
ping towards his friend. But the 
Captain was no longer there, he had 
faded away as mysteriously as he 
came, and the room remained silent 
and in darkness. 

Bob quickly struck a match. He 
lit the lamp and gazed around, but 

109 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



everything was in order, not a thing 
disturbed. 

"Well, by Jove! if that doesn't beat 
the deuce" he muttered, "'I've been 
dreaming ! The most realistic thing 
I ever knew — Would have bet a 
hundred Bill was here. Yet Bill 
never looked quite so queer in all his 
life — strange things dreams. Well, I 
guess I had better turn in now for 
good, and forget it." 

But he didn't forget. Next morn- 
ing the dream returned to Bob with 
renewed vividness. He couldn't get 
it out of his mind. "Gima'ic'' for- 
sooth, bet she has been relegated to a 
hansom cab, or the boneyard long be- 
fore this. Still, just for the fun of the 
thing, I'll run down to the Village 
and get an English paper. It's the 
15th to-day — the Blankshire is gener- 
ally run about the 27th. Probably I 
can find the entries, or betting quota- 
tions — that will settle it." 

Bob saddled his mare, and cantered 
over to Brownville, about three miles 
distant, and succeeded in getting a 
fairly late issue of "Lloyd's Weekly." 
With strangely trembling hands, he 
searched through the sheets till at 
length he discovered a paragraph 
headed latest betting on the "Blank- 
shire Handicap," and there, with a 
start, he read at the bottom of the 
quotations — "Climatic, 50 to 1 of- 
fered." 

•!" he ejaculated 



"Well, I'm — 
in surprise "she's certainly in it all 
right, altho' they don't seem to be 
running over themselves to back her. 
However, this paper is two weeks old, 
and conditions have likely changed 
since then." 

He returned to the farm, but his 
heart was not in his work, try as he 
would, and by the time old Gibson 
drove over on his daily visit Bob had 
arrived at a determination. 

After greetings and some casual 
conversation Bob blurted out "I say, 
Mr. Gibson, can I get away for a 
month, I want to make a flying trip 
to England." 
110 



"Why, of course, my boy," said the 
old man taken somewhat by surprise. 
"Coming back?" 

"O yes," said Bob, "I'll be back, 
never fear. Everything in pretty 
good shape. Giles can take hold while 
I'm away." 

"When do you start?" 

"I find the Bostnia sails on the 
18th, and I want to make Liverpool 
by the 26th at the latest. She can 
just do it." 

"Good enough," said the old man, 
who was rather fond of Bob in his 
dry old way. "You'll have to get a 
hustle on if you want to make Mon- 
treal by the 18th." 

"Oh ! I can do it easily," said Bob, 
who thanked his worthy employer, 
and prepared for his trip. 

After packing a few necessary 
things in an old suit case, Bob drew 
a biggish sum in crisp Bank of Eng- 
land ten pound notes, and left that 
night on the International Limited for 
Montreal ; there he boarded the Bost- 
nia, and sailed early next morning for 
England, home and beauty. 

It was a most uninteresting trip, 
very few passengers and prevailing 
fogs all the way across. One can 
imagine, therefore, with what pleas- 
ure Bob sighted land at last, and fin- 
ally placed foot on British soil the 
night of the 26th. 

"Pretty close call at that" reflected 
he, as with bag in hand, he made his 
way to the London & North Western 
Hotel. 

Buying two or three of the evening 
papers, he retired to his room, and be- 
fore turning in, read all the news 
available in reference to the classic 
"Blankshire," scheduled for the fol- 
lowing day. 

In the betting Climatic was quoted 
still at 50 to 1 "taken and offered." 
She was also on the list of probable 
starters, although her jockey's name 
was not mentioned. 

One scribe writing from the scene 
of action, referring to different candi- 
dates — said, "Among the lighter 
weights Climatic must be considered, 



A STRANGE TIP. 



were one sure she had quite recovered 
from the severe injury she sustained 
as a two-year-old. Since then, how- 
ever, she has seldom run in public and 
then unsuccessfully in very moderate 
company." 

"Not awfully encouraging," re- 
flected Bob, "Still there is one gleam 
of hope, one oasis in the desert — old 
Driver still trains her, and if she's 
good enough for him to keep, she 
can't be absolutely worthless. Then 
there's dear old Bill's supernatural 
tip. Well, here's for bed — to-morrow 
will prove all things !" 

Bob rose early next morning and 
took the first train for "Blankshire," 
which landed him in that historic old 
town about noon, in time for lunch 
at the Rutland. After an excellent 
cold collation, Bob strolled leisurely 
up to the course and wandered round 
reviewing old scenes, watching the 
various horses parading in the pad- 
dock. He encountered many well re- 
membered faces, of casual acquaint- 
ances, trainers, touts, bookmakers, 
jockeys and all the varied mixtures of 
mankind that go to make up the 
great racing fraternity. Of course, 
no one recognized Bob Brome in his 
weird, country-cut garments, as the 
erstwhile, fashionable, well-groomed 
man about town. But little did he 
care for that, it caused a smile, for he 
was there for a purpose, and the out- 
come of that purpose was all that in- 
terested him at that moment. 

The course was being cleared for 
the first event, which Bob watched 
with the keen interest of the true 
sportsman, for he loved horses. He 
saw the second race won by the fa- 
vorite which carried the good King's 
Royal colors. The victory created an 
ovation and proved how fondly His 
Majesty rested in the hearts of his 
subjects. 

Then Bob returned to the paddock, 
and after a diligent search, discovered 
Climatic, looking wonderfully fit, in 
the course of saddling, under the 
superintendence of the astute Driver 



himself. He examined her critically ; 
she seemed full of life, and her bay 
coat shone like satin. 

"Good enough," concluded Bob, 
"She's here, she's well, and I'm going 
to see the bally thing through to the 
limit — come what may!" 

Having reached this conclusion, 
Bob returned to Tattersalls, where 
speculation was in full force. The 
bookies were offering 5 to 2 the Field, 
4 to 1 Tipster, 6 to 1 Merrylip, 6 to 1 
Lonia, 100 to 14 Gildersleeve, and so 
on, while Climatic with two or three 
other horses was offered at 50 to 1. 
The odds were tempting, but still Bob 
held on, and turned to watch the par- 
ade, for the contestants, a field of 
twenty-six, were now passing the 
stands. Very beautifully they looked, 
trained to perfection, stepping proud- 
ly before their critics, with a seeming 
knowledge of their great importance 
and responsibilities. 

Climatic was ridden by a young 
apprentice from the Driver stables, a 
bright, likely looking lad. As for the 
mare, she walked sedately, but looked 
fit to run for her life. The horses 
turned slowly, and then cantered 
sharply past on their way to the start- 
ing post. 

Once more pandemonium broke 
loose, and wagering was carried on at 
feverish heat. The betting rings pre- 
sented one seething mass of strug- 
gling humanity. 

'"Ere!" shouted a stentorian voice, 
"I'll lay 66 to 1 Ballinger, 66 to 1 
Turnover, 66 to 1 Climatic." It was 
old Ben Morton and Bob knew him 
well as a sound man. Pushing his 
way to the front he shouted through 
the din "Climatic to a hundred!" 

"What name?" briskly inquired old 
Ben, who thought he half recognized 
the face of an old client. 

"Cash" replied Bob, passing ten 
crisp notes into the Bookie's capaci- 
ous hand. 

"Like it again, Sir?" inquired the 
obliging Ben, scenting a Juggins. 

Bob hesitated. Suddenly the vision 
of Courtney appeared before him. 

111 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



and once more he seemed to hear the 
echo of his voice saying, "Climatic is 
a certainty!" 

"Yes, to five hundred!" cried Bob 
on the spur of the moment, handing 
Sen the balance of his precious wad, 
receiving a ticket in exchange. 

Bob turned quickly to look for his 
old friend, almost expecting to see 
him in the immediate crowd — but not 
a sign of Courtney could he discover. 
"Well ! if that doesn't beat the deuce, 
I'm a Rotterdam Dutchman!" he 
muttered, edging his way through the 
mass of packed humanity. "Jove ! 
I'm in for it now, right up to the hilt. 
Five hundred of the best, well! I'm 
either inspired, or a fit subject for a 
lunatic asylum." 

Once more he heard that thrilling 
shout "They're off," and he secured 
the best place possible to watch the 
great struggle for the "Blankshire." 
The course was a straight one, about 
one mile in length, but he could see 
little of the race till half the distance 
had been covered. At last he dis- 
tinguished the well remembered 
colors of Climatic, bringing up the 
rear. 

On they came, a glorious mass of 
flashing colors, while the thundering 
ring of hoofs and shouts of the ex- 
cited multitude filled the air. The 
jockeys were now hard at it, whip and 
spur, tooth and nail. 

"The favorite wins ! The favorite 
for a hundred !" yells the crowd. 
"No, the favorite's beat! It's Tip- 
ster! Tipster, come along Tipster!" 

"Here ! What's that in green and 
yellow on the right?" shouts the voice 
of a well known backer. 

"Climatic ! Climatic ! Climatic ! 
Thousand to one on Climatic" roars 
the ring, and Climatic it was. She 
came out like a streak at the distance, 
shot by the leaders, and won in a 
romp by two lengths. 

Bob stepped quietly down from the 
stand, and waited the final cry "All 
right." It came at last, as he knew 
it would. Of course it was all right 
— she made no mistake this time. Her 
little pilot rode to orders and took no 

112 



chances. The "Gratwick" stables had 
brought off another great coup, and 
that silent old veteran, William 
Driver, biding his time patiently, had 
added another great victory to his 
splendid record, incidentally scoring 
his third "Blankshire." 

Bob walked over to Ben Morton 
and with strange pleasure gave the 
old man his real name. 

"Well, well," chuckled the worthy 
Ben, "Glad to see you again, sir. 
Rather thought your face looked sort 
of familiar, like ! Hope to see you 
often, sir; maybe you'd like me to 
settle, eh?" 

"No" replied Bob, "You might let 
me have a hundred and send me your 
cheque for the balance, care of 
Courts." 

Bob did not wait for the final 
events, but drove to the station and 
took the first train for Town. He 
arrived at St. Pancras about 8 o'clock, 
hailed a taxi and drove direct to the 
"Cavalry Club" to find out, if possible, 
whether Captain Courtney was in 
town by chance. 

The hall porter was a new man, 
and did not know Captain Courtney 
but would inquire. 

"Pardon me," said a short, erect 
gentleman, with a deeply lined brown 
face, and a grizzled grey moustache, 
"did you inquire for Captain Court- 
ney of the — th Dragoons?" 

"Yes," replied Bob, raising his hat, 
"Captain Courtney was an old friend 
and I am particularly anxious to 
know whether he is in town, or where 
his regiment is stationed. My name 
is Brome." 

"I am Colonel Grey, Mr. Brome, 
and regret exceedingly to say poor 
Courtney was assasinated in India — 
found dead in his tent. Most myster- 
ious thing. It is feared Courtney 
suffered for the fault of others. His 
native orderly disappeared — probably 
a political crime." 

"When was the crime committed?" 
Inquired Bob, infinitely distressed. 

"Cable despatch says the night of 
the 14th." 



A STRANGE TIP 



"Thank you, sir," said Bob, with 
bowed head and saddened heart. 
"Poor old Bill— By Jove it's too bad !" 

"Another victim to the vacillating 
policy of our precious government," 
said the Colonel, turning to re-enter 
his Club, while Bob raised his hat 
and walked slowly away, in deep 
thought. 

He secured a room at a small 
private hotel in Jermyn Street, fre- 
quented often by him in his under- 
graduate days, and where he had ex- 
pressed his suit case from Liverpool. 

When he entered the old familiar 
coffee room he could hardly imagine 
so many years had elapsed. Every- 
thing looked exactly as he remem- 
bered it in the days gone by, even to 
old Thomas, the waiter, who stood 
at his side, rubbing expectant hands, 
a paternal smile on his rubicund fea- 
tures. 

The sad news of Courtney's death 
had entirely robbed Bob of any par- 
ticular desire for food, but he glanced 
through the menu and ordered a light 
repast. From the wine card he se- 
lected a reliable brand of vintage 
champagne — a pint bottle and two 
glasses. 

"Poor old Bill; he asked me to split 
a bottle of the "boy" with him if 
Climatic won — Maybe his spirit is 
hovering round now. I'd give all I 
possess if he were only here." 

Slowly he filled his glass, and 
standing up, he leaned across the 
table, and reverently clinked the 
empty glass. "Here's to you, dear 
old Bill," he said solemnly, with sub- 
dued emotion, — "you were always 
one of the best — God bless you!" 



The following month, Lady Sara 
Bayville and the Hon. Robert 
Norman Beanyngton-Brome were 
married by special license, at a quiet 
wedding in Hanover Square. Only 
the immediate relatives were present 
at the ceremony in consequence of the 
recent decease of the bride's father, 
the late Baron Bayville, of Lynne. 

The honeymoon was spent at Castle 
Stranways, loaned the young couple 
b} Lord Stranways, the groom's 
brother. There they spent a month of 
unclouded happiness, returning to 
Canada later in the year. 

A more perfect or better run farm 
does not exist in Western Ontario 
than "The River Farm," owned by 
Robert Brome, and its interior ar- 
rangements and menage are equally 
attractive, thanks to the excellent 
taste and charming personality of 
Mrs. Brome. 

As for Mr. Robert William Court- 
ney Brome, Junior, he is certainly the 
most wonderful baby in the world, 
and if you do not believe me, you can 
ask his unprejudiced mother, and I'm 
sure she will quickly convince you 
the truth of this statement. 

In conclusion I might add, Robert 
Brome has never set foot on a race- 
course since the running of that sen- 
sational "Blankshire," or made 
another wager on a horse. In fact 
his interest in racing is a thing of the 
past and it is only with extreme re- 
luctance, even now, that he refers to 
the mysterious visitation of his poor 
murdered friend and the great coup 
which resulted from "A Strange Tip." 





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113 



It is Not Charity to 
Develop Agriculture 



By C. C. James 



Manufactures, Railways and Canals have received 
and are receiving much help from the Governments 
of Canada. This country is so large that zve are happy 
when zve are talking of millions of dollars. Money 
which is given to agriculture is often treated as so 
much zvaste or is thought of as charity. All the other 
industries in this country depend on agriculture and 
would soon go out of business if the farmers would 
suspend operations. Instead of spending less zve 
should spend more. Mr. C. C. James, Deputy Minister 
of Agriculture for Ontario, shozvs in this article one 
method which zvould increase the amount of money 
given to agriculture in Canada. The plan is work- 
able. Farmers may have this money spent in their 
behalf if they will agitate for it. We deserve it. Let 
us support Mr. James in his plea for more money for 
the 'poor farmer." 



WE have been growing so rapid- 
ly in Canada of late that it 
seems almost impossible to get 
a general hearing about any question 
unless it is one involving millions up- 
on millions of dollars. Let a man 
present to the public the building of 
a Transcontinental Railiway, the dig- 
ging of a new Welknd Canal, or the 
construction of a Georgian Bay Can- 
al, and you 'will have the people inter- 
ested at once. The papers will be 
discussing it and asking whether it 
is going to cost five, ten, twenty, or 
fifty millions. We have only to make 
the figure large enough and the 
people will give their attention to the 
matter. We like to consider big 
things; we like to have big proposi- 
tions before us ; we like to make the 
resit of the world believe that we have 
become a great nation. But when it 

114 



comes to a question of agriculture, 
we have an entirely different proposi- 
tion. Why cannot we get the people 
df Ontario to 'take hold of agricul- 
tural improvement and give their sup- 
port to it in the same way as they do 
a great railway proposition? 

Why is it that so many of these 
great propositions involving millions 
upon million's of dollars have been 
carried through? Go back a few 
steps and look into their origin and 
you will find that connected with 
these propositions have been some of 
the strongest, brainiest and shrewdest 
men of this country who have a direct 
interest in their carrying out. You 
could not bring an agricultural propo- 
sition before the people of this coun- 
try with that same personal element 
in it. The Minister of Agriculture 
cannot present to you a scheme in 



IT IS NOT CHARITY TO DEVELOP AGRICULTURE. 



exactly the same way that these men 
oan put their great propsition before 
this country. These agricultural 
propositions have .not the same per- 
sonal element, they are for the benefit 
of the whole community. 

The Ontario Department of Agri- 
culture, wias originated in 1888. In 
that year there was expended less 
than $200,000 of puiblic funds for the 
improvement of agriculture in the 
Province of Ontario. In 1908 this 
had grown to $750,000, and the an- 
nual income or product of the farm 
in this country in twenty years in- 
creased by approximately $100,000,- 
000. If we could get this question 
considered, not from the standpoint 
O'f a fifty acre farm or a one hundred 
acre farm, but from the standpoint of 
the great big Ontario Agricultural 
Farm, we could put before the people 
of this country a proposition which, 
in its size and importance, is as large 
as any of these great transportation 
■undertakings that have been put be- 
fore this country and have reecived 
the approval of the people. Do not 
for one moment think that I want you 
to conclude that the increase in Gov- 
ernment expenditure from $200,000 
to $750,000 was the sole cause for 
the increase of $100,000,000 in the 
twenty years. No man would make 
any such claim as that. But you must 
admit that it had something to do 
with it. 

CANADA MUST DO BETTER. 

Sometimes we get it into our heads 
that Ontario agriculture and Western 
agriculture have developed much 
more rapidly than the agriculture of 
other countries. It is always fatal to 
become satisfied or conceited in con- 
nection with one's work and the best 
remedy is to go and see what some- 
body else is doing. I would like to 
make a very -brief reference to Den- 
mark. When our bacon industry be- 
gan to show signs of inactivity, the 
Dominion Minister of Agriculture 
appointed a commission of farmers to 
cross the sea and find 1 out how the 
farmers in Denmark were carrying 
on their work. Denmark occupies 



altogether a little less than 10,- 
000,000 acres; less acreage than we 
have devoted to crops and pasture in 
Ontario. The population is a little 
under two and a half million. In the 
year 1864 it was a larger country 
than it is to-day. A difference arose 
between Denmark and Prussia, and, 
as the outcome, Denmark lost two of 
its provinces. What should be done ? 
Heretofore it had been a country 
growdng grain for export. The poli- 
ticians and business men, the teachers 
and preachers, and the farmers of 
Denmark took up the question and 
they decided that if Denmark was to 
recover its lost ground they must 
change their style of agriculture. And 
they began at once to introduce new 
lines. The result has been that where- 
as, at that time they were producing 
a small excess quantity oT grain, in 
recem years they have been sending 
out of the Kingdom of Denmark 
products to the amount of $100,000,- 
000 annually. Out of that $100,000,- 
000, $90,000,000 comes direct from 
the farms, and no less than $80,000,- 
000 goes across the North Sea to 
England. Just think what would 
happen to little Denmark if war were 
to break out between Germany and 
England ! They are now shipping 
bacon, butter and eggs to England, 
instead of grain and live pigs to 
Germany. 

How has that been brought about? 
In the first place the people of Den- 
mark decided that the prime necessity 
was general education. In Denmark 
they provide good public schools for 
their boys and girls; and more than 
that, they provide schools for the 
grown-ups, the young men and the 
young women, between the ages of 
eighteen and twenty-six ; and more 
than that, they provide special tech- 
nical education and have agricultural 
schools scattered all over the country. 
In these schools they are taught not 
only the rudiments of education as we 
know them in this country, but also 
the principles underlying their agri- 
cultural work. And also there is in- 
sitilled into the young people of that 

115 




C. C. JAMES, M.A. 
For many years he has guided Agricultural advancement. 



country, right ideas of citizenship and 
loyalty. 

If you go to tihat country to-day, 
you do not find a nation of manufac- 
turers as you do in some other coun- 
tries, (but you will find a nation of 
farmers, an agricultural nation, well 
educated, thrifty and intelligent, and 
with no poverty to be found in any 
part of the land. And not only is 
there no poverty, but there is no con- 
centration of wealth. There is an even 
distribution Of the wealth of the coun- 

116 



try, which perhaps is unknown in any 
other country in the world. There 
are a few wealthy people ; but in no 
comparison witlh the wealthy people 
of Great Britain and the United 
States. Such wealth is entirely un- 
known in that country. Go from one 
end of it to anoither and you find a 
happy, contented, prosperous, law- 
abiding, home-loving people; a people 
whom it is great delight to know and 
whose example this country might 
follow in many particulars. 



IT IS NOT CHARITY TO DEVELOP AGRICULTURE 



I think it is .aJbout time that we took 
a serious look at the question. What 
are we going to do about it ? What is 
god rug to be our next step? Are we 
ready to sit down and consider this 
question of the development of the 
Province of Ontario as the people of 
Denmark did of their country a num- 
ber of years ago? Are we as much 
interested in the development of the 
soil as we are in 'building great nail- 
ways and canals and power schemes? 
Every once in a while someone says, 
"We spend a lot of money for the 
farmers in this country. Do you not 
think we have spent enough money in 
that way?" If we did stop spending 
this money, do you think that farming 
would stop? Would not the farmers 
and live stock men carry on their 
work? Isn't there enough enterprise 
among them? Do you mean to say 
the fiarmer would simply stop work 
if the Minister of Agriculture went 
back to his farm and the Agricultural 
College closed its doors? Do you 
think that the farmers would go out 
of business ? Not much ; but there 
are other people who would go out of 
business. It is about time that we 
stopped considering this question from 
the charity standpoint. 

There was a time in the early settle- 
ment of this country when some 
farmers left all the property they 
possessed acrosls the line, and for the 
sake of loyalty to the old flag came 
over here, and when the people in the 
old land left their homes and came 
out here to construct new homes in 
this country, in the Queen's Bush. 
At that time there may have been 
some strong and important reason 
why the Government should, have giv- 
en help to the farmers of that day, 
but we have got past thlat and to-day 
the farmers are the most independent 
self-relying class of the community. 
The farmers are not going to stop 
ploughing and raising grain or fitting 
their animal's to make beef, but if an 
agriculture were allowed to fall off 
the storekeeper might not do so much 
business, arid the lawyer and school 
teacher might not get so much pay for 



his work, and the country preacher 
might have to take less, and certainly 
the railroads will have less to carry. 
They will suffer more than the farm- 
er. 

If some person should say, "We 
have spent enough already for the 
farmers." Let us see if it is not wise 
to spend a little more money for the 
rest of the people of this country. To 
my mind it has come to this point, 
that it is up to the manufacturers, the 
merchants, the professional men, the 
statesmen to settle this question as to 
whether we go back, stand still, or go 
forward. 

This is not a farmer's question any 
more, and we ought to get it out of 
our heads that in spending any more 
money we are spending it merely for 
the farmers. We can increase our 
output another $100,000,000 in the 
next twenty years without any trouble 
whatever. Where is the money to 
come from ? Here is one proposition : 
Let the Dominion Government take 
$1,000,000 every year and divide it up 
among the provinces for the develop- 
ment of the agricultural resources, and 
there will be greater returns from 
that annual distribution than from 
any money the Dominion Government 
expends along railroad construction, 
canal building or anything else. It 
would mean just ten cents apiece for 
every man, woman arid child in the 
Province of Ontario to give us an 
additional $250,000 a year, and in- 
stead of having $750,000 we would 
have a million dollars, and we would 
know how to spend it, and to spend it 
to good advantage. 

It would be worth while for the 
manufacturers of this country to sub- 
scribe to develop the agricultural re- 
sources of our country. They would 
get it hack with big interest. It 
would pay the storekeepers to put 
up an annual subscription for this 
purpose. It would come back to them 
in increased business. The railroads 
could help us and help us liberally, 
and they would have increased mater- 
ial to carry. It seems to me that to- 
rn 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



day this is a question outside of the 
farmers of this country; it is up to 
the professional men, the business 
men, manufacturers, and the railroad 
men of this country. 

Let uts stop talking albouit doing 
this work for the fanner, for the 
"poor farmer" as he is sometimes 
called. I think, on the average, the 
farming communities are as success- 



ful as any other class. They are able 
to take care of themselves. We are 
justified in 'developing this work still 
more, not so much because the farm- 
ers would benefit, but because there 
would be more national wealth, and 
also a more equitable distribution of 
wealth ; and we would have a happier, 
more contented and more prosperous 
people. 



The Poor Man's Farm 



By Mrs. Houston 



THE old-fashioned home, with its 
extensive grounds, is fast dis- 
appearing. Many of these places 
are being or have been sold as city 
and town lots. Not long ago the 
writer saw one of these old-fashioned 
homes still in use. The couple of 
fields in the rear were not unused. It 
was the plan which brought these 
fields into cultivation, that caught the 
eye. The country town and its large 
old-fashioned home did not allow the 
weeds to flourish. 

In such a plan as this did I see order 
and profit emerging from what had 
shortly before, and for years, been 
nothing but waste and disorder. Five 
acres would have covered the field. 
Around this the old tumble down fence 
had been replaced by a tidy wire one. 
The land has been parcelled out into 
quarter acre lots, and those had been 
rented to the comparatively poor in- 
habitants who occupy the usual row 
after row of red brick cottages or 
semi-detached small houses which 
abound on the outside edge of all 
cities or manufacturing localities. In 
such dwellings as these, gardens are 
never taken into consideration. There 
is no room to grow anything but a few 
nit 



blades of grass, or one or two sickly 
plants which may be seen struggling 
against odds in a soil made of gravel 
and tin cans. But to many of these 
householders a garden would be a 
boon and a delight. It might have al- 
ways been a dream when means per- 
mitted, only "a house with a garden" 
spelled "big rent," and to the wage- 
earner, to whom every cent of money 
means calculation, a garden is a lux- 
ury not to be dwelt upon for a mom- 
ent. Here, however, within a stone's 
throw was a solution of the difficulty, 
and profit as well as pleasure within 
sight. 

For the nominal sum of $5 a year 
a quarter of an acre was procurable, 
and thereon was produced flowers 
and vegetables in amazing quantities. 
In many instances two neighbors had 
combined in renting half an acre, and 
upon this large estate the joint labor 
produced quite phenomenal results. 
Yields of vegetables were ample to 
supply the small families during the 
entire season, and much of the winter. 

The healthfulness and enjoyment 
derived from the cultivation of these 
little plots, was beyond all question. 
In one corner of the field I saw a 



THE POOR MAN'S FARM. 



mother with her small son weeding, 
while in another "quarter" there was 
a policeman who had ridden up on his 
bicycle to have a look at his crop be- 
fore going on duty. 

The competition for excellence had 
been keenly entered into, and the re- 
sults produced were more than satis- 
factory to every one concerned. To 
the casual observer it was one of the 
prettiest fields imaginable and could 
not but prove interesting and instruc- 



tive to the passer-by. It brought a 
profitable return to the landlord too, 
did this small holding. Instead of be- 
ing a wilderness with a rubbish heap 
in the middle and an ever increasing 
crop of thistles and old bones, it had 
been transformed into an agricultural 
scheme, which carried itself along 
with its improvements and taxes. It 
had as well proved of immense benefit 
to a class which is difficult to reach in 
a practical way. 




SERENADE. 

Have thy Springtime ere it fade ! 

Never shall it come again. 
What is man but meant for maid? 

What are maids but meant for men ? 

April holds for lovers' play, 

But her thrice ten days and nights ; 

Take them, or they'll change to May — 
Few at most be thy delights. 

Youth's a friend while winks the eye, 
Time doth rob the high and low, 

Kings must kiss their Spring good-bye, 
Princes meet the Winter snow. 

Thine and mine be this safe hour! 

Thee and me O let it bless 
With a memory that shall flower 

In to-morrow's wilderness ! 

Owen Wister, in Harper's. 



119 



Canada Gets the Box but 
Not the Socks 



Pointing Out Some of the Reasons Why Canada Hesi- 
tates to Enter Into Conventions with the United States 

By Arthur^Conrad 



IN that rollicking old song, which 
used to be whistled and sung by 

everybody some years ago, and 
which ended with the plaintive re- 
frain, 
"The Bowery, the Bowery, I'll never 

go there any more," 
there occurred a verse that described 
the sad experience of a stranger in 
New York for the first time. Going 
down the Bowery, a glib-tongued 
salesman enticed him into a shop 
where goods were being sold at auc- 
tion. A box of fine socks was put up. 

"How much for the box?" cried the 
auctioneer. 

The green countryman's bid was the 
highest and he paid the price. What 
was his dismay to find that he had 
been skillfully hoaxed, and instead of 
getting a box containing socks, an 
empty box had been palmed off on 
him. So he sings : 

"I sold you the box, not the socks," 
said he. 

"I'll never go there any more." 

This adventure of the hero of the 
song on the Bowery affords a fairly 
good illustration of the way in which 
the United States politicians have been 
dealing with Canada and Great Bri- 
tain, ever since the United States be- 
came a nation. In the drama of in- 
ternational diplomacy Canadians feel 
that the States have always played the 
part of the Bowery auctioneer, and 

X20 



have on many occasions succeed- 
ed in selling Canada an empty box. 
Shrewd and clever such dealing may 
be, but there is very little to admire 
in it, and certainly the men who pur- 
sue such a policy are unworthy of 
esteem. 

What makes the situation all the 
more to be regretted is that the rela- 
tionship of Canadians and Americans 
as individuals is so close and friendly. 
Any one who has traveled through the 
United States and met Americans in 
their homes and in their places of 
business must have been struck by 
their sincerity, their geniality, their 
kindliness and their generosity. The 
real American people are probably 
the most fair-minded and open-heart- 
ed on the face of the earth. 

But, unfortunately, the characteris- 
tics, which are so charming in the in- 
dividual American, are wholly lack- 
ing among the average run of their 
politicians. They do not seem to carry 
into public life the same high sense 
of honor which they hold in private 
life. As a result, American diplomacy 
has been guilty in the past of ques- 
tionable tactics and reprehensible dou- 
ble-dealing. 

It must not be supposed, however, 
that in the negotiations between the 
two countries, which have occurred 
at frequent intervals, during the past 
century and a quarter, Canada and 
Great Britain have always been honor- 



CANADA GETS THE BOX, BUT NOT THE SOCKS 



able and above-board. Even the gen- 
erally impeccable British Government 
was at one time guilty of spending 
huge sums to bribe United States 
Senators, while the production of a 
false map and the suppression of a 
true map was all the villainy that could 
be laid to the charge of the Ameri- 
cans. Yet, this much may be said for 
the British side, that, when once a 
treaty or agreement was made, its 
provisions and its intent have been 
strictly adhered to by them. On the 
contrary, the United States has on 
many occasions, by virtue at one time 
of the supervisory power of the Sen- 
ate, and at another of the sovereign 
rights' of the individual states, over- 
ridden and made of none effect, agree- 
ments which were entered into by her 
accredited representatives, after long 
negotiations with the British and 
Canadian commissioners. 

It is this fact, viz., that the Ameri- 
can negotiators' work is subject to re- 
vision by the Senate and that ultimate- 
ly state laws may be put into operation 
to annul the effect of treaties, that ir- 
ritates Canadians so much and makes 
them timid about entering into any 
arrangement with their big neighbor 
to the south. Were they to feel that 
when their commissioners and the 
American commissioners in any nego- 
tiation met together and came to an 
agreement, that agreement would 
stand and be binding on both parties, 
the whole aspect of international poli- 
tics would be changed very decidedly 
for the better. 

There are not lacking many in- 
stances which may be brought for- 
ward to prove this contention. They 
will serve to show some of the diffi- 
culties with which Canadians have 
had to deal in the past, and will ex- 
plain why many people in Canada are 
averse to entering into any further 
negotiations with the United States. 

The Treaty of 1782 Was Flagrantly 
Violated. 

The very first treaty made between 
the United States and Great Britain 
at the close of the War of Independ- 



ence was violated in the most flagrant 
fashion by the United States. By Ar- 
ticle V. of the Treaty of 1782, it was 
understood by the British negotiators 
that the estates, rights and properties 
of the Loyalists who had fled to Can- 
ada would be restored to them and 
that freedom to return to any part of 
the United States for this purpose 
would be accorded them. But this was 
never done. Property was not re- 
stored, nor were the Loyalists suffer- 
ed to return to their old homes, with- 
out being subjected to all manner of 
indignities. This disgraceful treat- 
ment of thousands of men, who subse- 
quently demonstrated their ability as 
nation-builders by laying the founda- 
tions of what is now the Dominion 
of Canada, has been a blot on the his- 
tory of the American Republic, which 
will never be effaced. Had the pro- 
visions of the treaty been put into ef- 
fect and the property of the Loyalists 
restored to them, the history of North 
America might have been very differ- 
ent from what it is to-day. 

The fact of the matter is that the 
United States did not bind herself to 
restore the property of the Loyalists, 
however much her negotiators intend- 
ed to convey the impression that such 
restitution would be made. There was 
a string to Article V. and the United 
States held it. This article did not 
state definitely that the property would 
be handed back ; it said merely : "It is 
agreed that Congress shall earnestly 
recommend it to the Legislatures of 
the respective states, to provide for 
the restitution of all estates, etc." To 
recommend a course of action was 
very different from agreeing to it. 
Congress certainly did carry out its 
part of the agreement, and earnestly 
recommended the States to do their 
part, but the States simply laughed at 
the idea. They did not consider them- 
selves bound by any such bargain. 

This was the first instance where 
the sovereign states refused to adhere 
to an undertaking of the Union. 

But if there was some excuse for 
the non-fulfillment of Article V., there 
was none for Article VI., which stipu- 

121 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



Iated "that there shall be no future 
confiscation made, nor any prosecu- 
tions commenced against any person 
or persons for, or by reason of the 
part which he or they may have taken 
in the present war, etc." This solemn 
obligation was violated with malice 
and premeditation. 

Article IV., which "agreed that cre- 
ditors on either side shall meet with 
no lawful impediment to the recovery 
of the full value in sterling money, of 
all bona fide debts heretofore con- 
tracted," was also ignored. When the 
British creditors, after the establish- 
ment of peace, sought to proceed in 
the state courts, they found the treaty 
unavailing, since those tribunals held 
themselves bound by the local sta- 
tutes. 

In referring back to this far-dis- 
tant period, some allowance must 
necessarily be made for the feelings 
of revenge and passion which must 
have animated the revolutionists. They 
had thrown off British law, and it took 
them some time to evolve a new sys- 
tem. For the time being they were 
unrestrained, and national honor had 
not as yet taken form. 

Surveying the course of diplomatic 
relations between the two countries, 
ever since the Treaty of 1782-83, it is 
apparent that the field is divisible into 
two distinct sections. In the first 
place, the settlement of the boundary 
line has exercised the attention of the 
people of both nations on several occa- 
sions, and has been the subject of 
arbitration and treaty. And in the 
second place, the establishment of re- 
ciprocal arrangements in trade ana 
commerce has led to frequent negotia- 
tions between commissioners from the 
two countries. Of the first of these 
it is not the intention of the present 
article to deal at any length. If Can- 
ada has had grievances in the past 
with respect to her boundary, these 
can be attributed rather to Great Bri- 
tain's desire to strengthen her friend- 
ly relationship with the United States 
by making concessions to her, than to 
any sharp practices on the part of the 
Republic. But under the second head- 
122 



ing, that of trade and kindred agree- 
ments, Uncle Sam has been repeatedly 
guilty of unfair tactics, which must 
have an important bearing on the fu- 
ture. The boundary line has been set- 
tled, but there will be many opportuni- 
ties for trade negotiations in the years 
to come. 

The Famous Treaty of Washington 
Disregarded. 

Of all the treaties of the past, that 
of Washington, framed in 1871, has 
been the most disregarded by the Unit- 
ed States. 

This treaty, which provided for the 
creation of a tribunal to assess the 
damages inflicted by the famous 
cruiser "Alabama" and her sister ships 
during the war between the North 
and South, contained also some inter- 
esting provisions dealing with trade 
and commerce between Canada and 
the United States. One of the most 
notable of these was Article XXL, 
which provided, with one or two minor 
limitations, for the free importation 
of fish from one country into the other. 
The purpose of this article was plain 
enough ; there could be no misunder- 
standing it. Yet there was a string 
even to this simple agreement. Four 
years later, Congress enacted that a 
duty should be imposed by the United 
States customs on cans or packages 
made of tin or other materials, con- 
taining fish. The amount of the duty 
was one cent and a half on each can 
or package. The imposition of such 
a duty, intended, no doubt, to prevent 
further free importation of fish, was 
a distinct violation of the spirit of the 
treaty, and was naturally resented by 
Canadians, who were allowing the un- 
interrupted importation of American 
fish into the Dominion. 

In the case of another article of this 
same treaty, an equally reprehensible 
trick was played on Canadians by the 
United States Government. After 
considerable negotiation, the Ameri- 
can commissioners secured for the 
people of the United States the con- 
tinued use of tne Welland, St. Law- 
rence, and other canals in the Domin- 



CANADA GETS THE BOX, BUT NOT THE SOCKS 



ion. As a quid pro quo, the Govern- 
ment of the United States was to al- 
low the use of the St. Clair Flats canal 
to Canadians on terms of equality with 
the inhabitants of the United States, 
and was further to urge upon the 
State Governments to secure for Cana- 
dians the use of the several state canals 
connected with the navigation of the 
lakes or rivers traversed by or con- 
tiguous to the boundary line. 

Canada immediately complied with 
the requirements of this article, and 
all her canals were thrown open to 
American ships. But for a time no 
attempt was made by Canadians to 
make use of either the Erie Canal or 
the Champlain Canal, both of which 
belonged to the State of New York, 
and a feeling grew up that Canadian 
vessels would be prevented from enter- 
ing them. In fact, this feeling be- 
came so pronounced that the subject 
of the navigation of these canals was 
taken up by the Canadian Govern- 
ment. The result was that the State 
of New York formally declared that 
there was no law which prevented the 
free navigation by Canadian vessels 
of the canals within that state. 

So far, so good, but the United 
States Government held another 
string. Once more the Customs De- 
partment was made the instrument 
by Congress to prevent Canadian ships 
from enjoying the use of these canals, 
notwithstanding the fact that no 
obstacles were put in the way of the 
navigation of any Canadian canals by 
United States vessels. Congress en- 
acted that all vessels arriving in the 
United States from contiguous terri- 
tory on the northern frontier were 
obliged to make entry at the first port, 
and it further enacted that all vessels, 
not of the United States, which made 
entry, must unload where they made 
entry. These enactments successfully 
put a stop to the use of either the Erie 
or Champlain Canals by Canadian ves- 
sels. 

When representations were made to 
the United States Government that 
this treatment was unfair, the reply 
was made that Article XXVII. of the 



Washington Treaty did not specify 
that all the state canals were to be 
opened to Canadian ships, but only 
those connected with the navigation 
of the lakes or rivers traversed by or 
contiguous to the boundary line. It 
was held that the Champlain Canal 
was not of this class. Such a distinc- 
tion was a very narrow one, and, in 
view of the fact that all Canadian 
canals are open to American ships and 
that the State of New York herself 
saw no obstacle to the navigation of 
the canal by British ships, the action 
of the United States Government was 
most unfair. 

Attention was also given in the 
Treaty of 1871 to the bonding privi- 
lege. For instance, Article XXX. 
made it unlawful for British ships to 
transport goods from the ports of Chi- 
cago or Milwaukee to points in Can- 
ada, whence the goods would be railed 
through Canada and re-shipped in ves- 
sels destined to the ports of Oswego 
and Ogdensburg. This provision ap- 
plied equally to British or American 
vessels, but, so far as the former were 
concerned, it was made of none effect 
by a regulation of the Customs De- 
partment, which required its collec- 
tors to refuse to issue clearance papers 
to Canadian ships proceeding to a 
Canadian port, with goods destined 
for an American port. 

Some Other Examples of Unfair 
Tactics. 

The Behring Sea arbitration of 1892 
is still fresh in the minds of adult 
Canadians. An award was made on 
that occasion in favor of Great Bri- 
tain covering claims for damages. In- 
stead of paying up promptly, as did 
Great Britain in the case of the Ala- 
bama Award, the United States dilly- 
dallyed for years until the outbreak 
of the Spanish-American war, when, 
in a panic to retain the friendly sup- 
port of England, she rushed her pay- 
ment through. It is even a question 
whether all the damage claims have 
yet been liquidated, and on this point 
the Canadian Government could, if 
they would, throw some interesting 

123 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



light. How different this behavior to 
that of Great Britain. An immense 
sum of money was paid over to the 
United States Government to cover 
damages inflicted by the Confederate 
warship "Alabama" and her consorts, 
and of this sum a large part still rests 
in the United States treasury, because 
no claimants have come forward to 
demand it. 

While not directly affecting Can- 
ada, the Bond-Hay convention, enter- 
ed into between Newfoundland and 
the United States, has a bearing on 
the subject of this article. In this case 
Premier Bond of Newfoundland, and 
Secretary Hay of the United States, 
came to an agreement on a treaty, 
which would settle differences between 
the two countries arising out of the 
fisheries. The parties to the agree- 
ment both secured what they consid- 
ered the utmost concessions, the one 
from the other. In its final form the 
President of the United States ex- 
pressed his agreement with the ar- 
ticles of the convention. In all fair- 
ness, the treaty should have been im- 
mediately ratified by both Govern- 
ments. But what happened? The 
United States Senate took hold of the 
treaty, and, after expunging practical- 
ly every stipulation in favor of New- 
foundland, passed it over to the New- 
foundland Government, and said in 
effect, "Take it or leave it." New- 
foundland, under the circumstances, 
had little choice in the matter, and was 
virtually bullied into accepting it. 

A somewhat similar state of affairs 
resulted in the case of the more recent 
Waterways Convention, entered into 
by representatives of the two coun- 
tries to govern water power and kin- 
dred problems arising on the boun- 
dary. This convention was the studied 
work of experts, and was an eminent- 
ly fair arrangement, agreed to, in its 
final form, by both parties. Canada 
was ready to accept it as it stood. But 
once again the United States Senate 
stepped in. A senator from Michigan, 
representing interests which would be 
prejudicially affected by the enforce- 
ment of the regulations proposed, sub- 

124 



stituted an amendment, and the Sen- 
ate accepted the amended document. 
Rather than destroy the whole con- 
vention, Canada reluctantly consented 
to the change, but in so doing she con- 
sidered herself most unfairly treated. 

Warships on the Great Lakes. 

Any article on international rela- 
tionships between Canada and the 
United States would be incomplete 
without some reference to the vexed 
question of the maintenance of war- 
ships on the Great Lakes. Here an- 
other excellent illustration of the 
strange workings of U. S. politicians' 
minds is to be obtained. 

On the 28th day of April, 1818, the 
then President of the United States, 
James Monroe, issued a proclamation 
which gave the effect of law to an 
agreement that had been drawn up in 
the previous year by representatives of 
the British and United States Govern- 
ments, now known to fame as the 
Rush-Bagot Treaty. By this agree- 
ment, the naval force to be "main- 
tained" by each Government on the 
Great Lakes was to be limited, on 
Lake Ontario to one vessel not ex- 
ceeding 100 tons burden and armed 
with 18-pound cannon, and on the up- 
per lakes to two vessels, not exceed- 
ing the same burden and armament. 
All other armed vessels on the lakes 
were to be forthwith dismantled, and 
"no other vessels of war" were to be 
"there built or armed." Six months' 
notice was to be given in case either 
party desired to terminate the agree- 
ment. 

This now famous treaty was in 
reality the outcome of a fear on the 
part of the United States that Great 
Britain was going to increase its naval 
force on the Great Lakes. It was pro- 
posed by the United States, sanction- 
ed by the United States, and received 
with applause by the United States at 
the time of its negotiation. 

But what is the situation to-day? 
The nation which in 1815 was about 
to create a strong navy on the Great 
Lakes has stood by the Rush-^got 



CANADA GETS THE BOX, BUT NOT THE SOCKS 



agreement and has practically no war- 
ships on the lakes, while the nation 
which in 1817 was so anxious to stop 
the construction of any warships at 
all, has in commission ten vessels, ag- 
gregating 8,000 tons. The six months' 
notice of the termination of the Rush- 
Bagot agreement has never been made 
by the United States, and yet she has 
practically ignored all her obligations 
under it. 

If remonstrance were to be made, 
she would probably explain that, as her 
ten vessels were intended simply for 
training ships, the agreement had not 
been violated, and possibly, following 
the letter of the treaty, this is the case. 
But there can be no denying the fact 
that the United States has violated 
the spirit of a solemn agreement, 
which she herself was the first to pro- 
pose, in bringing to the Great Lakes 
ten armed ships, capable in a few 
hours of annihilating Canada's entire 
lake traffic. 



There are in Canada to-day many 
people who are strongly of the opin- 
ion that, in view of the way the Unit- 
ed States has treated the Dominion 
for many years, the Canadian Govern- 
ment should refuse politely, but firm- 
ly, to enter into any further negotia- 
tions with the American Government. 
Notwithstanding, the course being fol- 
lowed by Sir Wilfrid Laurier and his 
colleagues is to be commended, but 
he should demand a provision in case 
any agreement be arrived at that the 
United States abide by the spirit, that 
there be no equivocation or mental re- 
servation on the part of that country. 
He should make his demand public in 
order that the people of the United 
States have a chance to read a lesson 
to those of her political diplomats, who 
prefer the questionable methods of the 
Bowery, to the straight-forward busi- 
ness methods of the twentieth cen- 
tury. 



The Diseases of Childhood 



By Dr. Helen MacMurchy 

Dr. Helen MacMurchy has made a special study 
of child diseases and has promised a series of articles 
on this subject. Mothers zvill welcome these. We like 
to see our children make a name for themselves in the 
world and they are not able to do this if they are 
physically weak. 



<<"-p 



HE patient had the usual dis- 
eases of childhood." The above 
sentence is the usual way we 
begin when we write down what doc- 
tors call "The history of the case." 
It is to be hoped that our children, if 
not ourselves, will live to see the day 
when that statement will be changed 
for a better one, to read something 
like this : "The patient had the usual 
health of childhood." The world is 



moving that way. Tuberculosis is los- 
ing much of its terror. Malaria has 
met, in the war against the mosquito, 
a war of extermination. Yellow fever 
has been banished from Cuba. Cholera 
is no longer the dread scourge that it 
was. There is no smallpox in Ger- 
many — only vaccination — because con- 
scientious objectors are against the law 
in Germany. 

Now it is Canada's turn. And we 

125 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 

We arc apt to treat the diseases of children lightly. 
}} 7 c believe they are only trifling. The reverse is very 
often the case. Many children are ruined for life 
because of lack of care during illness. Others never 
reach manhood or womanhood. Measles, mumps and 
whooping cough arc often forerunners of Tubercul- 
osis, consumption and other dread diseases. 



could not do much better for Canada 
than to start a crusade against chil- 
dren's diseases. Canadian children, 
most of them, start fair on life's jour- 
ney. Indeed, nature wonderfully and 
eternally contrives to start every one 
of her babies fair. There is a great 
tendency, even with parents who are 
not all that one could wish, in the 
matter of health, for the baby to be 
normal. And sometimes the sad pov- 
erty of the slum is a less fatal handi- 
cap than the foolish indulgence of the 
palace, with its over-heated atmos- 
phere and its rich food. What, then, 
about the diseases of Canadian child- 
hood? 

CONSIDER THEM NOT SO LIGHTLY. 

In the first place, we consider them 
far too lightly. Mumps and measles 
are thought of rather as jokes. We 
think that nobody dies of measles. We 
are mistaken. The following figures 
g ; ve the facts of the case so far as the 
Province of Ontario is concerned, for 
1907: 

Deaths from measle: 166 

Scarlet fever 102 

Whooping cough . . 214 

Diphtheria 3S0 

pTTi " __ 

Total deaths 862 

Deaths from 

Measles, under 5 years of age 128 

Scarlet fever, ditto 57 

Whooping cough, ditto 209 

Diphtheria, ditto 185 

Total 579 

DIRECT CAUSES OF DEATH. 

Two things we may learn from the 
foregoing tables. First, that these dis- 
eases of childhood are the cause of 

manv deaths in the early years of life. 

126 



Thus we have 862 deaths certified as 
directly caused by measles, whooping 
cough, diphtheria and scarlet fever. 

INDIRECT CAUSES OF DEATH. 

And this is not all. Every one of 
these is an important indirect cause 
of death. How often do we see mo- 
ther at the dispensary with a nice lit- 
tle girl. "No. doctor," says the poor 
mother, in answer to your question, 
"Mary has never been strong since 
she had the measles." And then you 
ask the mother if she would mind un- 
fastening Many's dress for a moment, 
and you see the outline of the bones 
and the blue veins all too plainly 
through the transparent skin, and you 
put the stethoscope to your ear and it 
tells you the old story, and you say, 
"T.B." under your breath. Our old 
enemy, the Tubercle Bacillus, follows 
measles so often. 

THE GERM OF MEASLES. 

Whatever germ causes measles is, 
and we know it must be a germ, is 
seems to prepare the soil for the Tu- 
bercle Bacillus, which, if it fall there, 
flourishes deathfully, and the poor 
patient has to fight hard for life. No, 
the germ of measles is not yet discov- 
ered, likely enough because it is so 
small as to defy detection. Pfeiffer's 
Bacillus, which has given you "Grip" 
— influenza — oftener than you want- 
ed it, may be seen clearly under the 
microscope with a magnification of 
1,600 times. But no magnification so 
far, not even the wonderful ultra- 
microscope, has shown us the germ of 
measles. 

THINGS WE DO NOT KNOW. 

That is one of the interesting things 
about studying medicine — that there 



THE DISEASES OF CHILDHOOD 



are so many things we do not know 
yet. When your eldest son leaves 
the farm to study medicine, 
here is a chance for him to 
make his name famous. If he will 
only discover the germ of measles for 
us it will he called after his name — 
your name — and again Canadian doc- 
tors will he "mentioned by the Ger- 
mans." But the second thing we may 
learn from the above tables is too im- 
portant to be hurried over, and we 
shall, therefore, begin our next ar- 
ticle with it. 



THE DEAR MOTHER. 

Meanwhile, we must say a kind 
good-bye for a month, to you, dear 
mother, for it is to you that these ar- 
ticles are addressed. The sick child 
will not have anything to do with 
anyone but his mother. Hers is 

"The heart that never hardens, 
The temper that never tires, 
The touch that never hurts." 

And that is what the sick child needs. 
Poor lamb, he needs his mother. 



A Westerner's First Visit 
to the Theatre 

The Extraordinary Behaviour of a Wealthy Scotch- 
Canadian at a Theatrical Performance in Winnipeg 

By C. B. Lucas 



THE curtain lumbered up slowly. 
The kerosene footlights cast up 
their sallow glow in expectation. 
The stringy orchestra carried on its 
conversation with the Muse in a lower 
tone of voice as the feet and then the 
skirt and finally the be-wigged head 
of the heroine was revealed under the 
edge of the soaring curtain to the 
audience. 

Down in the front seat, among the 
crowd, in the old Winnipeg City Hall, 
three pair of broad shoulders leaned 
forward and three necks were craned 
in order that the trio might not miss 
the opening words of the play or the 
slightest move on the part of the hero- 
ine. One of the three leaned forward 
farther than the other two. His eyes 
beheld for the first time a world 
portrayed within a world. His ears 



for the first time were tickled by the 
blandishments of an orchestra, and 
he waited eagerly, like a boy. His 
name was McLeod, and he was High- 
land Scotch. He had lived from his 
sixteenth to his fifty-sixth year in 
what was then the wilderness of 
western Canada. 

This is merely an incident concern- 
ing a man who saw a play for the 
first time. Thousands of men — those 
who have not been initiated as child- 
ren — have perhaps had the same ex- 
perience, and this, the experience of 
McLeod, would not be remarkable 
had it not been McLeod, or a man of 
McLeod's type that went through it. 
Other men feeling as he did would 
have manifested it in different ways. 
McLeod had his own way. t 

As a lad of sixteen years he had 

127 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



been consigned from the nearest port 
to Mr. Donald Smith, of die Hud- 
son's Bay Company. He had come 
to Canada by what was then "the 
back door." He had crossed the 
Isthmus of Panama and, taking ship 
on its western side, had sailed to 
Vancouver. He had worked hard in 
the new country. He had grown as 
large as a Buffalo and as strong. At 
twenty he knew nothing of the world 
of cities; his world was the then un- 
populated prairie and Rocky Moun- 
tains. His Monarch was the Hud- 
son's Bay Company. In the back of 
his head he probably had some faint 
recollection of the misty Scottish 
hills, and his tongue still curled lov- 
ingly around the Gaelic. To him the 
earth seemed peopled with fellow 
pioneers who played at nothing, pre- 
tended nothing and knew nothing at 
all about "play-acting." 

At the time of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway's construction across the 
plains, certain railway contractors 
found their way from the East and 
happened upon McLeod, who was 
just then busy operating a line of 
freight wagons into the interior of 
the country. He and they became 
friends and so it happened that with 
them he travelled into Winnipeg to 
see "the World." They had taken 
him to the theatre and had seated 
him between them. 

The villain and the heroine occu- 
pied the stage. The climax of grief 
was about due to arrive. The man 
in the dyed whiskers was trying to 
escape his honorable engagements. 
He was talking to the girl. Little by 
little she was beginning iu see wh.Lt 
he meant and with the denouement 



was to come the climax and the end 
of ihe scene. The perfidy would lie 
revealed, and the lady would weep. 

Meanwhile McLeod leaned for- 
ward. He had forgotten that it was 
a mere play. He was, he felt, wit- 
nessing a real story in life. He was 
interested in the Scotch girl who was 
being treated so shamefully by the 
villain. His wrath grew, and when 
finally, the climax came and the vil- 
lain was about to depart, the Scotch- 
man reached suddenly for a weapon 
with which to avenge the girl, but his 
hand found nothing. 

"Mac an diabhuil !" he cried, — 
which, being interpreted, means Son 
of the Devil, "Mac an diabhuil!" and 
reaching down he pulled off his 
heavy top-boot and brandished it over 
the heads of the audience toward the 
stage. 

They rescued him in time. He did 
not throw the boot. But he might 
have thrown it had his two compan- 
ions not held his arms. He left the 
theatre disgruntled and for awhile 
threatened to wait for the villain out- 
side the stage door. 

He is used to theatres now. He is 
now one of the West's rich men. He 
has a great house and a wife and 
children. He is the dictator of a 
Board of Trade and arbiter of the 
destiny of many a section of land, 
and the wheat thereon. But in the 
old days, as a Hudson's Bay man, he 
would have argued with you that such 
land could not be made to grow 
good wheat. But that was before his 
emancipation, in the time when he 
could not easily understand how the 
histrionic villain might be the sainted 
father of a large family off the stage. 



em 



&Z 



L. 




s^i~* 



*> 






128 




ueer 
hxture. 



tj JJ.Bell 



"\Y/ H0 ' S the Wue - e y ed little 

VV thing?" inquired the smart- 
ly-dressed, fat-faced man, 
tilting back his chair and his silk hat 
simultaneously. 

"Who?" The younger man at the 
desk spoke absently, without raising 
his eyes from a broad sheet of paper 
crossed with red and blue lines and 
peppered, so to speak, with black fig- 
ures. "Your pardon, Mr. Fashner — 
what did you say?" 

"Oh, nothing of importance. She's 
rather a pretty little piece — the girl 
who brought you that statement. Re- 
minded me of my little friend Lottie 
Helm who's playing at the Octagon 
just now. You have some nice-look- 
ing girls around you, Locksley." Mr. 
Fashner laughed, and selected an 
Egyptian cigarette. 

"Yes, I suppose so," said the other, 
making a pencil jotting on a slip of 
paper. "Excuse me for a minute, 
while I get out this percentage. . . . 
H'm! It's as I feared, Mr. Fashner 
— not very satisfactory." He repeated 
some figures, the results of his brief 
calculations. 

"No," said Mr. Fashner, frowning 
as he struck a match, "it's as you 
say — not very satisfactory. You'll 
have to buck up, Locksley." 

Locksley said nothing. Apologies 
and explanations did not come read- 



ily to him, and he was not the sort of 
man who makes airy promises. He 
was wishing Mr. Fashner would take 
his departure, and leave him alone to 
think things out. 

"Of course," continued the older 
man, perhaps a trifle patronizing, "we 
must not expect too much all at once. 
Still, the business is two years old 
now, and we should be glad to see a 
start at profit-making. We are pay- 
ing you a generous — but I need not 
refer to that, since I am sure you 
fully appreciate the fact. Well, I 
must be getting along. By the by, 
what is the name of the blue-eyed lit- 
tle thing?" 

"I'm sorry I don't know whom you 
mean, Mr. Fashner," Locksley re- 
plied. 

"Why, I told you; the girl who 
brought you the statement." 

"Oh, yes — yes. But I didn't notice 
her. She came from the sales office. 
That's all I can say about her." 

"I thought she might have been 
your secretary or stenographer," said 
Fashner with a laugh which was not 
unpleasant, but rather silly for a mid- 
dle-aged man. 

Locksley smiled in spite of himself. 
"I'm afraid you would not have call- 
ed my chief stenographer a 'blue-eyed 
little thing,' though she does wear 
blue glasses. She stands nearly six 

129 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



feet." He sighed. "Poor creature! 
She leaves us this week because of 
her sight." 

"Hard lines, I'm sure," said Fash- 
ner, getting up and putting his hat 
straight, with deliberation. Then he 
extracted his pocket-book and took 
from it a five-pound note. "Put it 
along with her salary, when she gets 
it for the last time," he said, throwing 
the note on Locksley's blotting-pad. 
Then he held out his hand. "Buck 
up, Locksley, and let me have a bet- 
ter report of things next time we 
meet," he said. "I don't blame you, 
but the others are inclined to get 
rusty." With a nod he left the room. 

"A queer mixture," said Locksley 
to himself. "Wonder if he'll do as 
much for me when I leave this place. 
Hardly — because I'll be sacked," he 
said. Leaning his head, which felt 
unusually heavy, on his hand, he be- 
gan to examine the figures on the 
broad sheet with red and blue rul- 
ings. Presently his pencil stopped at 
a little block of figures. At the end 
of a minute's reflection he put out his 
hand and rang the bell. 

Following a tap on the door, a girl 
entered. Locksley glanced up, and 
allowed his eyes to linger for a mo- 
ment. She was not what he would 
have called "little." His eyes went 
back to the figures. 

"Who is responsible for the mak- 
ing-up of this statement?" he asked. 

"I, sir." 

"Then can you assure me that these 
figures — these here" — he indicated 
them with his pencil — "are correct?" 

"Yes, sir." 

Locksley stroked his dark mous- 
tache, regarding the figures thought- 
fully. They showed an appalling drop 
from the previous week in the lace 
department. 

"Sure they're correct?" 

''Yes, sir." 

"No mistake in the figures sup- 
plied to you?" 

"I thought there must be some 
error when I first got them, so I went 
to the lace department and made 
sure." 

130 



"Ah! You take an interest in the 
business !" 

She smiled slightly. 

"A great many people here take an 
interest in their own part of the busi- 
ness," he remarked, "but not many, 
I'm afraid, do so as regards the busi- 
ness. I'm obliged to you. Now I 
want the lace figures for the past thir- 
teen weeks — it will do in the morn- 
ing — also the figures for the corres- 
ponding weeks of last year. You un- 
derstand ?" 

"Yes, sir." She scribbled on a tab- 
let. 

He looked up. "You write short- 
hand?" 

"Yes, sir." 

"Good speed?" 

"I believe it's pretty good," she 
said frankly. 

It was here that he noticed her eyes. 

"Take this down," he said, and read 
fairly rapidly from a circular which 
he took from a basket. "Bring a 
typed copy with the figures to-mor- 
row morning. What is your name?" 

"Mildred Harvey." 

"Thank you. That is all just now." 

The remainder of the afternoon saw 
him engaged in receiving callers, in- 
terviewing heads of departments, dic- 
tating letters. At seven o'clock he 
dined hurriedly in a restaurant, and 
returned to the office to wrestle with 
figures. The man's days were spent 
in talk, his nights, with rare excep- 
tions, in thought and calculation. John 
Locksley was strong of mind, as well 
as of body, but he was beginning to 
suffer from discouragement; he was 
an eager worker, but the feeling was 
growing upon him that he was striv- 
ing in vain. He could not get away 
from the fact that Locksley's Stores 
had failed to "catch on." For the 
first two months of its existence the 
enormous warehouse had certainly at- 
tracted the public; but now the peo- 
ple came in hundreds, instead of in 
thousands, and there were spells ot 
actual slackness. Probably the aver- 
age customer would still imagine that 
Locksley's was doing splendidly, but 
such an establishment was doomed un- 



A QUEER MIXTURE 



less the people came in their battalions. 
And Locksley knew it. He was tired 
of asking himself why the public did 
not over-run the place, why the daily 
flood of orders by post had dribbled 
to such a depressingly small stream. 
He was tired of trying to explain these 
things by "the general depression in 
trade," "over-competition," and so on. 
The cold and simple fact remained — 
Locksley's Stores had not "caught 
on" with the public. For the first 
time in his life — he was thirty-four 
now — he was losing confidence. Also, 
he was wishing that he had never 
come to London. 

In a city in the Midlands Locksley 
had, a few years earlier, undertaken 
the management of an old-established 
but failing business, revivifying it and 
forcing it again to the very heights 
of prosperity. And then, whilst am- 
bition sang in one ear, temptation 
whispered in the other. A syndicate 
comprising seven immensely wealthy 
men invited him to London. They had 
the money, he the ability and experi- 
ence. They wanted his name also. 
Nominally he was the proprietor of 
the magnificent building that rose 
shortly afterwards in one of the west- 
ern thoroughfares. He was really a 
figurehead, though, to be sure, he had 
all the responsibility, unlimited pow- 
ers of management, and a yearly sal- 
ary of £1,500. Already he was count- 
ing his income as at an end, and his 
good name as beyond redemption. He 
could have endured the former mis- 
fortune. 

* * * * 

Figures, figures, figures ! Pounds, 
shillings, pence — and those silly farth- 
ings. Were the buyers or the sellers 
the bigger fools? What was business 
at all, except to take an advantage 
under the pretence of giving it? 

Locksley literally sweated over the 
sheets of figures. He absorbed them, 
he analyzed them, he wrought with 
them. But he could not juggle with 
them. They were black figures ; in no 
way could he make them golden. They 
represented a deplorable loss on the 
week's trading. 



At one o'clock in the morning he 
left the office for his hotel, determined 
to inform the syndicate on the morrow 
that the game was not worth the can- 
dle. But it was not the first time he 
had gone to bed with that determina- 
tion, only to wake, not so much with 
renewed hope as a fierce defiance of 
failure. 

"The statements you asked for yes- 
terday afternoon, sir." Miss Harvey 
laid the broad sheets at the side of 
his desk. 

"Thank you," he said absently. 

"And the typescript." 

"The what? ... Ah, yes; of 
course." He took it from her hand, 
and the circular, on which she had 
written her name, from a drawer. He 
compared the two, and laid them aside. 

"Any customers in the leather de- 
partment as you came through?" he 
inquired. 

"Eight, sir." 

He put his hand on the statements. 
"There is some work here," he re- 
marked. "Did you stay late last 
night?" 

"I came in early this morning, sir." 

Then he looked up. By this time 
he knew she was pretty, but at that 
moment he was struck more by her 
freshness than by her features. In 
her regulation pale grey dress, with its 
collar, cuffs and belt of white, she 
would have attracted most men. 

"What is your salary at present, 
Miss Harvey?" 

"Fifteen shillings, sir," she answer- 
ed, with a slight start. 

"My chief stenographer is leaving 
on Saturday. Do you think you could 
take her place?" 

She flushed, and a small laugh of 
delight escaped her. She bit her lip, 
and replied, demurely enough: 

"Yes, sir." 

"You think you can undertake the 
work?" Mr. Locksley was used to 
girls saying they would try. 

"Yes, sir." 

He looked at her again. She had 
the happiest blue eyes and the happi- 
est yellow hair and the happiest red 
mouth he had ever seen. His gaze 

131 




Drawn byLeslie Hunter. 



"LOOCKSLEY WAS TRYING TO TELL MISS HARVEY THAT SHE WAS LIKE NO ONE ELSE 

IN ALL THE WORLD.' 



132 



A QUEER MIXTURE 



went back to his desk. Opening a 
scribbling diary he wrote a word or 
two. 

"On Monday, then," he said. "You 
will occupy room 44, next door to 
this. The salary is twenty-five shil- 
lings." 

"Oh!" she exclaimed softly, and 
just managed to check a "really?" 
Recovering herself, she murmured a 
grave "Thank you, sir," bowed slight- 
ly, and left the room. 

For the rest of that day Locksley 
felt unwontedly cheerful. Night, how- 
ever, with its figures and facts, chang- 
ed all that. 



II. 



Locksley, who was peculiarly sensi- 
tive in some respects, differentiated 
between quickness and sharpness. He 
admired the former quality and tie- 
tested the latter. The predecessor of 
Miss Harvey, despite her poor sight, 
was what one would call a sharp busi- 
ness woman, and her manner annoy- 
ed Locksley, while her misfortune de- 
pressed him. Miss Harvey was mere- 
ly quick-witted and alert, and — in a 
vague way at first — he found her re- 
freshing. Later, he ascribed this ef- 
fect to her healthy brightness, her 
daintiness and her pleasant voice. 
Later still, he put it down to what 
he was fain to call her sympathy — not 
that she had ever even suggested such 
a thing. Perhaps he thought of sym- 
pathy because he wanted it. He had 
had no time for making friendships 
in London; and his relatives had 
shown their regard principally by bor- 
rowing the bulk of his income for the 
last two years. Yet his relations with 
the girl were absolutely of the busi- 
ness sort. Doubtless she knew more 
about him than when she first entered 
his employment ; that was inevitable ; 
but he remained as ignorant regard- 
ing her as when he had asked her her 
name. Well, he didn't want to know 
any more — so he told himself one 
atternoon as he watched her face 
while she wrote to his dictation 



A week later Locksley had an un- 
expected visit from Mr. Fashv.er. As 
be entered the room from th; corri- 
dc~. Miss Harvey, a sheaf of papers 
in her hand, was leaving it by the 
door leading to No. 44. Fastinc- 
came forward with his lips shaped for 
whistling, which expression became a 
grin as the door closed behind the 
girl. 

"What! Blue Eyes again, Locks- 
ley! Surely you have noticed them 
by this time." 

Locksley had a wild desire to stran- 
gle the man. 

"Know her name yet?" asked Fash- 
ner, placing his hat on one chair and 
seating himself on another. 

"Miss Harvey, I believe," said 
Locksley stiffly. 

"And is that all you know about 
her?" 

"That is all I know about her." 

Fashner went into a fit of laughter, 
which to the younger man seemed as 
idiotic as it was offensive. "Well, 
well," he said at last, bringing out his 
cigarette case : "Well, well. ... By 
the way, Locksley, wish me joy, Miss 
Lottie Helm has done me the honor 
of promising to marry me." He made 
the announcement so bashfully, so boy- 
ishly, that Locksley's resentment fell 
away. 

"Why, certainly, I congratulate 
you, and wish you joy, Mr. Fashner," 
he said, rising and holding out his 
hand. 

"Thanks, thanks. . . . Only wish 
I had been twenty years younger, for 
her sake as well as my own. But I 
believe she does like me a trifle. She's 
a good, honest little woman. Had a 
rough time of it till she hit it off at 
the Octagon. But she's going to 
chuck the stage when she marries me, 
next month." He smiled, then sighed. 
"I've been a bit of an ass in my time, 
Locksley, but, thank the Lord, I've 
escaped being a blackguard." He lit 
a cigarette and fell silent. 

"Queer mixture," thought Locks- 
ley once more. Aloud he said, going 
back to his desk : "You have all my 
best wishes, Mr. Fashner." 

133 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



The older man nodded. 

"There's another thing," he said at 
last. "I thought I'd tell you, lest the 
others should spring it on you when 
you haven't time to think. You see, 
I had a good deal to do with bringing 
you to London, and I'm afraid it 
hasn't been all you expected." 

Locksley stared. "You mean," he 
said presently, "that I haven't been all 
you expected." 

Fashner waved a podgy hand. 

"What I have to tell you is this," 
he said slowly. "Locksley's Stores is 
probably on the eve of being floated 
as a public company. Have you got 
that?" 

Locksley sank back in his chair. 

"Well?" 

Locksley said nothing. 

"The prospectus is in course of pre- 
paration," the other continued; "the 
subscription list may possibly open 
some time next month." 

"But— but it won't float! It 
can't I" 

Fashner smiled. "My dear boy, wait 
till you see the prospectus ! The pros- 
pectus at present being drafted by my 
colleagues would float a battleship!" 

Locksley recovered himself. "It 
must be a romantic document," he 
said drily. "You believe the public 
will come in, Mr. Fashner?" 

"Helter-skelter ! My colleagues are 
anxious to get their money back, you 
know, and they'll get it back in this 
way with — well, interest." 

"What's to be the capital ?" 

Fashner mentioned some figures 
that made Locksley raise his brows. 

"They'll never pay a dividend on 
that, Mr. Fashner." 

"Never is a big word. LocksleyV 
is a big business, and its turn may 
come yet. The shareholders will have 
the odd chance, I fancy. Oh, yes, 
Locksley's turn may come yet." 

"After they have got rid of Locks- 
ley himself," said the younger man, 
with a bitter laugh. "Are they going 
to change the name of the firm also?" 

Fashner was watching the smoke 
rising from his cigarette. 

134 



T understand that you, Mr. Locks- 
ley, will be invited to remain where 
you are, as managing director, at your 
present salary." 

"Why should they want me to re- 
main?" 

"My dear fellow, a prospectus of 
Locksley's Stores without John Locks- 
ley in it would not charm the public. 
That's obvious!" 

"I suppose it is. The public don't 
know, of course, that Locksley is a 
failure. I begin to see, Mr. Fashner. 
I might remain for a time as manag- 
ing director — in name. How's that?" 

Without replying, Fashner rose and 
took up his hat. 

"I've mentioned the matter, simply 
because I thought you ought to have 
time to think it over. I have no ad- 
vice to give you, but I'll be interested 
to know how you feel about it, say, a 
week hence. I'll look in this day week. 
This puts a good deal of responsibility 
upon you. And a bit of a problem, 
too. You can see that the company 
can't be floated without you. On the 
other hand, I'm not saying that the 
business would come to an end if you 
— er — left it. I hardly think my col- 
leagues would let it go just yet. Your 
agreement, I believe, expires next 
February. I do not suppose you 
would be asked to— er — retire before 
then. But you might wish to do so — 
eh ? Personally I am sorry — but we all 
know that business is business, don't 
we ? However, you must think it over. 
You know better than I do what you 
have at stake." He held out his hand. 

"You have something at stake your- 
self, Mr. Fashner," said Locksley, 
looking straight at him. 

"I've twenty thousand in this show," 
he returned simply. 

"Naturally you desire the flotation 
to—" 

"Sorry ; but I've an important en- 
gagement. See you a week hence." 
And Fashner hurriedly left the room. 

"Queer mixture," thought Locksley 
again. Then he muttered: "What an 
infernal swindle!" 

But it was a problem all the same — 
and a bigger problem than it would 



A QUEER MIXTURE 



have been three months earlier. 
Locksley had ever done the straight 
thing, but now it was more difficult 
than usual. Why should he beggar 
himself to save some scores of the 
silly public from losing money? And 
it was not absolutely certain that 
they would lose; they had, as Fash- 
ner had said, the odd chance of 
Locksley's Stores' turn coming yet. 
Beyond a few hundred pounds — a very 
few — he had no resources ; and what 
sort of berth could he hope to obtain 
in the circumstances ? 

Suddenly, in the midst of his self- 
questioning, like an actual blow the 
great truth struck him — he loved Mil- 
dred Harvey. 



III. 



The week had passed. The day had 
come for Locksley to declare his de- 
cision. He had received a note curt- 
ly stating that Fashner would call at 
four o'clock. It was now three- 
thirty. 

Locksley had not made up his mind. 
The temptation to accept the syndi- 
cate's offer was not so easily put 
aside. Again and again he had told 
himself that for good and all he 
was quit of it ; again and again it had 
returned. Could he afford to reject 
the offer ? Heavens ! he might come 
to be a shopwalker in a fourth-rate 
drapery establishment. And would he 
not deserve it? Before him lay an op- 
portunity that most men — respectable 
men, too — would snatch at. Why not? 
Never in his life had he so greatly 
dreaded poverty — or, at any rate, pen- 
ury. It is one of the penalties of our 
civilization that love and money are 
inseparable. 

He roused himself. Only twenty 
minutes remained. He must force him- 
self to decide. 

There was a tap on the door of No. 
44. Miss Harvey entered. 

"In the letter for Bullard & Co. you 
gave me the sum of £1,350 as our 
final offer. Is that correct, sir?" 

"Why, no," he said, after a mo- 
ment's reflection, "it should be 



£1,530. Yet I remember giving you 
£1,350. Thanks for letting me know. 
And' — Miss Harvey, let me know if 
you strike anything else that doesn't 
seem right. I — I'm in the way of 
making slips to-day." 

Involutarily she glanced at him. His 
eyes were on the papers before him. 

"Yes, sir," she said, turning to her 
door. 

"Miss Harvey—" 

"Yes, sir?" She paused. 

He rose and placed a chair near 
his desk. 

"Miss Harvey, would you mind sit- 
ting down for a minute or two? I 
want to ask your advice." 

Looking frankly surprised, she seat- 
ed herself. 

Locksley leaned against the side of 
the desk. 

"What I shad first tell you, Miss 
Harvey," he began in a low voice, "is 
private and confidential — in the mean- 
time, at least. Of course, you are 
quite used to things that are private 
and confidential in this office. Well, 
the owners of this business are de- 
sirous of converting it into a limited 
liability concern — selling, it, or a part 
of it, to the public. You under- 
stand?" 

"Yes, sir." 

"Perhaps, you wouldn't mind drop- 
ping the 'sir' during our present con- 
versation?" 

"Very well, sir — Mr. Locksley." 
Her voice became just the least thing 
shy. 

"Thank you. By the way, have 
you been regarding me all along as 
the owner of this business?" 

"Yes." 

"May I ask you why you have done 
so?" 

"Why? Oh — because — because it 
has your name, of course. And, per- 
haps, because you always seem so wor- 
ried," she added gravely. 

"Ah! Well, I must tell you that 
I'm only the manager. I lent my name, 

135 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE. 



and — I'm afraid I can't get it back. 
I'm no lawyer, and I'm not sure that 
I'm much of a business man either, 
though I used to fancy myself as the 
latter. However, I must grin and 
bear that bit of it. The point is the 
the people who do own the business 
want me to become manager of the 
proposed company, chiefly because 
they believe that my name will induce 
the public to buy shares. Now sup- 
posing the shares were not, let us say, 
going to be very good for the public. 
Do I make it clear enough?" 

She nodded. "Quite clear, Mr. 
Locksley." 

"Then what should I do? I have 
to give my decision ten minutes 
hence." 

"Oh!" 

"What ought I to do, Miss Har- 
vey?" 

She half rose. "That is too big a 
question for me." Then she sat down 
again. "Supposing you refused the 
offer—" 

"The probability is that there would 
be no company; and the certainty is 
that I should find myself unemployed, 
with little chance of getting anything 
but a — an ordinary job. You'll ad- 
mit that I have something to make 
up my mind about, Miss Harvey?" 

"Oh, yes." She rose with decision. 
"But no one can make up your mind 
except yourself, Mr. Locksley. May I 
go, sir?" There was pride but no un- 
kindness in her voice. 

"I had hoped," he said sadly. "I 
had hoped you might help me." 

"I?" 

"I — I would be guided by you." 

"Oh, dear !" The words escaped her. 
"I am honored by your confidence, 
Mr. Locksley," she went on, soberly, 
"and I think that you are in a most 
difficult position, but — " 

Suddenly he drew himself erect and 
faced her squarely. 

"Miss Harvey — would you care 
whether I did the one thing or the 
other?" 

136 



The blue eyes fell before his grey 
ones ; the fair face went rosy — then 
white. 

"Oh, how unfair of you!" she cried, 
and ran to her room. 

Locksley threw himself into his 
chair, a prey to many emotions. He 
would have given all he had then for 
the touch of her hand. 

Four-thirty. Fashner was late 
Locksley did not care. He was con- 
sumed with misery, but he had made 
up his mind. Perhaps the blue eyes 
had helped him in spite of their own- 
er. There would be no prosperous 
John Locksley. There would be no 
Mildred for him. With his head on 
his hands he tried to proceed with the 
heap of documents. Presently he 
pushed them aside, and wrote a let- 
ter. 

"Well?" 

Fashner had entered in his quiet 
way. He did not seat himself, but 
waited for the other to speak. 

Locksley sat up. "Good-afternoon," 
he said. "I've just been writing my 
resignation." 

Fashner's face betrayed nothing of 
his thoughts. "Sure you won't 
change your mind?" he asked. 

"Quite sure, thank you." 

"I see. Then I don't suppose there's 
anything for me to say. Besides, I'm 
pressed for time. Lottie is waiting 
for me in the motor." Fashner took 
an envelope from his pocket and threw 
it on the desk. "Look at it afterwards. 
By the way, have you found out yet 
who Blue Eyes is?" 

Locksley's face turned dull red, but 
ere he could command his voice, Fash- 
ner, with a laugh, had gone. He rose 
and opened the door of No. 44. 

"There will be no company, Miss 
Harvey," he said. 

She raised her eyes from the type- 
writer and met his fairly. A very 
sweet little smile played on her lips. 



A QUEER MIXTURE. 



"I didn't thinnk there would 'be, sir. 
I have found a doubtful point in one 
of the letters. I will bring it to you 
immediately." 

The machine clicked, and Locksley 
retired, helpless, hopeless. 



IV. 



Mr. Fashner got into the brougham. 

"Find what you wanted, Percy?" 
inquired Miss Helm. 

"I did, my dear," he replied with 
unnusual gravity. "Locksley is a 
straight man. He was ready with his 
answer. So I left him the note offer- 
ing him seven-fifty a year to look 
after my affairs. I hope to goodness 
he agrees." 

"Do you lose a lot through the 
company thing not coming off?" she 
asked. 

Fashner made a grimace, but chang- 
ed it quickly to a smile. 

"If Locksley could face losing 
everything, surely I can face losing a 
bit. You shan't starve, sweetheart." 

"I wasn't thinking of that," she 
said warmly. 

"Besides, it was you, Lottie, who 
really kept me off the crooked road. 
I've admired Locksley all along, but I 
couldn't have followed his example if 



I hadn't had you. Fact, my dear!" 
Then he laughed. "By Jove ! some 
people will be mad when they get his 
resignation." 

"But what about the girl you said 
was like me? Are you sure she is 
the girl you thought she was — the rich 
Miss Somebody who wanted to learn 
all about business?" 

"Absolutely certain. I'm not sure, 
though, if I've succeeded in directing 
his attention to her existence. He got 
mighty red when I mentioned 'Blue 
Eyes' to-day, but I'm afraid it was 
with rage. The good fairy game isn't 
in my line, Lottie." 

Lottie squeezed his arm. "You're 
just a dear!" she said. 

He beamed on her. "Lord, but I 
am happy!" he whispered. "I'd give 
something to see Locksley happy, too. 
She's the very girl for him. I know 
what I'll do. I'll get to know her 
through her uncle, whom I've had 
deals with. Then I'll introduce — " 

"You seem to think he won't be 
able to resist her, goosey !" 

"Of course! She's so like you!" 

But at that moment Locksley, with 
a letter in one hand, and Miss Har- 
vey's fingers in the other, was try- 
ing to tell her that she was like no 
one else in all the wide, beautiful, 
wonderful, glorious, happy world. 



It was intended that we should live to 
learn and so — learn to live. But some 
people do neither. 



137 



Our Patterns 



WE have made arrangements with 
one of the large pattern houses 
to supply these patterns at a 
very low figure. Because of this we 
are able to offer these to our readers 
at eight cents each, postage paid. If 
there are any of them you would like. 
send us eight cents for each pattern, 
with the numbers of the patterns want- 
ed. Remit with postage stamps or 
any other convenient way to Pattern 
Dept., Farmer's Magazine, 145 Uni- 
versity Ave., Toronto, Out. 




4850 



4830 — A neat and becoming apron, 
which is easily and quickly made. The 
best material for making is gingham of 
a substantial quality. Pattern is in four 
sizes, for ladies from 32 to 44 inches bust 
measure. To make an apron in the 36- 
inch size will require 3 yards of materia' 
36 inches wide. 

8201 — To be transferred to any ma- 
terial suitable for embroidery. The con- 
ventional design may be adapted for 
burnt work, stenciling or hammered 
brass equally as well as for solid em- 
broidery. These frames make excellent 
Christmas presents. 

138 




4595 



4595 — Boys should be so dressed that 
they will look neat and at the same time 
be able to run and romp as boys always 
do. This suit of outer jacket and pair 
of knickerbockers will be greatly ap- 
preciated by the future men of the farm. 
The pattern is cut in sizes 2, 4 and 6 
years. To make the suit in the 4-year 
size will require 3% yards of 27-ineh 
material, or 2% yards of 36-inch; %-yard 
of contrasting fabric 27 inches wide will 
be needed for the collar. 




820) 



For My Wife 



THE 'mother who is her own 
housemaid, as well as her child- 
ren's nurse, often finds it almost 
impossible to go to baby as soon as 
he awakens, and when fretful with 
teething, he is apt to get in a bad 
humor if left too long. I have found 
it a good plan to suspend some of his 
playthings in front of him, where 
they will catch his eye upon awaken- 
ing, and amuse him long enough for 
me to finish whatever work is at 
hand. For this purpose, two yards of 
garter elastic is serviceable. Sew a 
loop in each end to slip over opposite 
corners of the bed posts, over chair 
posts on either side of crib, or in any 
way to bring it to the right height, 
then loop or pin the playthings to the 
elastic. With his rubber ring hung 
within reach he will grasp at it and 
set a rattle ringing or a bright ball 
or rubber doll dancing, that aie hung 
out of reach. In the country, where 
trees are plentiful, if a branch filled 
with green leaves be thus suspended, 
baby seems never to tire of pulling 
the elastic and watching and listening 
to the resultant dancing and rustling 
of the leaves ; but great care should 
be taken to place the bough so far out 
of reach that no leaves can find their 
way to the little hands. 

® ® 

IN laundering skirts made of pique, 
cotton goods, or of woolen mater- 
ial, it is better to pin them to the 
line by the waist-band, so that they 
will hang straight down, instead of 
by the hem. If pinned at the top 
they will shrink evenly all around, in- 
stead of sagging, as they too often 
do by the other method. 

® ® 

To renew pencil erasers keep a 
piece of old plaster handy. There is 
nothing that will clean rubber so well 
or so quickly. 



BABIES who seem hungry and 
fretful all the time are sometimes 
only thirsty. All people do not 
realize that a baby gets thirsty, and 
that one or two teaspoonsful of wa- 
ter a day is not all the baby needs. 
Instead of a spoon, procure a rub- 
ber nipple and put it on any clean 
bottle of convenient size. If a bot- 
tle is used a child gets all the water 
he needs in a natural manner, and 
does not soil his dress. Always have 
the water almost lukewarm. A child, 
if accustomed to taking water in this 
manner, will take any kind of medi- 
cine readily if it is first diluted with 
a little warm water and then put in 
his bottle. From two to eight ounces 
a day may be given up to six months 
old, A drink of water the last thing 
on going to bed is a splendid thing 
for the health of all children, no 
matter what age. 

® ® 

HAVE a horseshoe magnet, to 
which is attached a long cord, 
or ribbon, in your work basket; 
it will pick up needles or scissors 
when they fall on the floor. This is 
especially useful for invalids and 
elderly ladies. 

® ® 

IT is the object of Farmer's Maga- 
zine to give valuable information 
wherever needed in the home of 
the farmer. Realizing the many dif- 
ficulties in securing reliable advice 
on educational and home matters, the 
editor has arranged that letters re- 
ceived relative to schools for the 
daughters, private schools, private tui- 
tion in music, drawing or domestic sci- 
ence, hospitals or homes for the aged, 
will be given careful consideration 
and promptly replied to if addressed 
to Woman's Department, Farmer's 
Magazine, 143 University Avenue, 
Toronto. 

139 




MRS JONES' favorite warning 
to her young progeny when they 
were in mischief was that she 
would tend to them in a minute. 
"Tending" was accomplished by ap- 
plying her open hand where it would 
do the most good. When Harry was 
four years old he was sent for the first 
time around the corner to the grocery. 
In a few minutes he came strolling 
soberly back with the nickel still in his 
hand, but no bag of onions. 

"What's the matter?" asked his 
mother. 

"I'm 'fraid of the man," he said sol- 
emnly. 

"Oh, he won't hurt you," reassured 
Mrs. Jones. "Run along and bring the 
onions. I'm in a hurry for them." 

A second time Harry disappeared 
around the corner, and a second time 
returned without the purchase. 

"I'm 'fraid of the grocer man," he 
explained as before. 

"Well, what makes you afraid of 
him," demanded his mother impatient- 

iy. 

"Why," answered the little fellow, 
"bofe times when I goed in he looked 
at me and said: 'I'll 'tend to you in a 
minute!' " 

<3> 

MR. Olsen had a cow killed by a 
railroad train. In due season 
the claims agent for the rail- 
road called. 

"We understand, of course, that the 
deceased was a very docile and valu- 
able animal," said the claim agent in 
his most persuasive claim-agentle- 
manly manner, and we sympathize 
with you and your family in your loss. 
But, Mr. Olsen, you must remember 
this : Your cow had no business being 

140 



upon our tracks. Those tracks are our 
private property and when she in- 
vaded them she became a trespasser. 
Technically speaking, you, as her 
owner, became a trespasser also. But 
we have no desire to carry the issue 
into court, and possibly give you 
trouble. Now, then, what would you 
regard as a fair settlement between 
you and the railroad company?" 

"Vail," said Mr. Olsen slowly, "Ay 
bane poor Swede farmer, but Ay shall 
give you two dollars." 

<S> 

WILLIAM had just returned from 
college, resplendent in loud- 
checked trousers, silk hosiery, 
a fancy waistcoat, and a necktie that 
spoke for itself. He entered the library 
where his father was reading. The 
old gentleman looked up and surveyed 
his son. The longer he looked, the 
more disgusted he became. 

"Son," he finally blurted out, "you 
look like a silly fool !" 

Later, the old Major who lived next 
door came in and greeted the boy 
heartily. "William," he said, with 
undisguised admiration, "you look ex- 
actly like your father did twenty-five 
years ago when he came back from 
school !" 

"Yes," replied William, with a 
smile, "so father was just telling me." 

<$> 
<<"\V/HAT you want to do is to 
W have that mudhole in the 
road fixed," said the visitor. 
"That goes to show," replied the 
farmer, "how little you reformers un- 
derstand local conditions. I've purty 
nigh paid off a mortgage with the 
money I made haulin' automobiles 
out o' that mud hole." 



The Business of Buying 



By Lewis Austin 



The points which the author of this article men- 
tions regarding the usefulness of catalogues and adver- 
tisements to the farmer are interesting. Cases are 
often heard of which shoiu direct financial benefits from 
such a plan as followed by the author. Our readers 
are invited to write the editor, giving their experiences 
in this respect. This magazine refuses all advertise- 
ments except those of reliable concerns making honest 
goods, in protection of our readers. We wish to know 
if this is approved by them. 



TWO generations ago — and even 
less — the farmer of Canada 
bought very little. He had few 
tools — an axe, a log-chain, and such 
simple articles ; and with these he 
made most of his other requisites. 
Furniture and farm tools were made 
by hand. Even the blacksmith was, 
if necessary sometimes, regarded as 
an expensive part of the community! 

A startling difference is evident, by 
comparison of those conditions with 
the state of things to-day. Instead of 
the simple cradle blade, with home- 
made handle and teeth, we now all 
use the binder, with its multitude of 
intricate parts of the most peculiar 
shapes and uses. Instead of the line 
of hired men who were needed of old 
to bind up the grain before shocking, 
a tricky little tangle of steel and a 
lever or two, get up on a shelf and 
do the work of a dozen men ! 

So with other tools — and the result 
is — more work done, and done more 
cheaply by far. In this side of farm 
life — the productive or business end 
— the farmer's advantage is seen in 
the fact that with European markets 
paying less for wheat than in the day 
of the cradle, the farmer of Canada 
still makes much greater cash profits 
from his business, even after paying 



the due return to inventor and maker 
of his more expensive tools. 

But, with the necessity of buying 
tools, as well as household and per- 
sonal articles, a new difficulty arises. 
How are we to know, when buying, 
which article is the best for our pur- 
pose, and how to be sure whether 
the materials, design and workman- 
ship are what we require — the best? 

My experience is that careful study 
of all articles, as made by all makers, 
is necessary to get the best thing for 
our need. I read several papers regu- 
larly, which teach valuable lessons to 
me and all farmers. There is no part 
of these papers more useful than the 
pages in which goods are described 
by their makers. Usually, also, cata- 
logues are offered free, of which I 
have now sent for and received a large 
number. Thus I am familiar with 
farm machinery, pianos, dairy sup- 
plies, articles of clothing and other 
goods necessary on the farm, and I'd 
like to see the agent or dealer who 
would mislead me about his own or 
other makes of goods ! I believe in 
reading the advertisements in the 
papers I subscribe for and read. I 
believe in writing to the advertisers 
and getting them to write to me. The 
subscription and the 2-cent stamp are 
my best investments in these days! 

141 



142 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE— ADVERTISING SECTION 



Factory Equipment 



The Economical Application of Labor-Saving Machinery. 



In the early days of manufacturing 
in Canada, when factories and plants 
were small because of the restricted 
field for the sale of their wares, the 
equipment of these factories in econo- 
mical and labor-saving devices was 
very meagre. They were ample for 
the necessities of the times, for the 
times did not demand anything more. 
But with the growth of the country, 
and the increase in the population, 
and the consequent demand for more 
and better and cheaper goods, it has 
been necessary to improve the equip- 
ment of our manufacturing plants 
with the most up-to-date tools, so that 
the output might keep pace with the 
constantly increasing calls from this 
comparatively young but growing 
community. 

One of the most perfect exemplifi- 
cations of this industrial expansion is 
the Massey-Harris Co., Limited. In 
the last issue of this Magazine the 
growth of the business from the little 
shops in the country villages to the 
four immense factories in our largest 
manufacturing centres, was noted and 
illustrated. During this period of 
factory expansion the methods of 
manufacture have undergone some 
wonderful changes. The Itools and 
appliances that were amply sufficient 
for the early days would now be total- 
ly inadequate to meet the demand 
either for quality or bulk of output. 
Most of the hand work has been re- 
placed by use of machinery, much of 
it automatic, so that one man can now 
produce more than five men could 
formerly. The use of moulding mach- 
ines for making castings, of automatic 



tools of many kinds, of compressed 
air and electricity, of tools in gangs 
and multiples, of numerous devices 
for the easy and quick handling of 
stock, have revolutionized the manu- 
facture of implements during the last 
twenty-five years, and have made 
feasible the production of more and 
better implements than would other- 
wise have been possible. Many of 
these special tools and appliances have 
been invented and designed by the 
employees of the company, and are 
covered by patents which it controls. 
To be of real value to the manufac- 
turer, a special device must be capable 
of doing better work or more work 
than heretofore. The Massey-Harris 
Co, have many that meet both these 
conditions — some of the most import- 
ant of these being the devices for 
bending and tempering Rake and Cul- 
tivator teeth, making, tempering and 
sharpening Knife sections — for mak- 
ing spokes and wheels, etc., etc. 

The Massey-Harris Factories are 
equipped with the highest class of ma- 
chinery that it is possible to obtain. 
As their latest erected factory build- 
ings are models of factory construc- 
tion, so the working tools and appli- 
ances are the best that is known. These 
two conditions, with the additional 
fact that the manufacturing depart- 
ments are managed by men of great 
mechanical skill and long experience 
in building implements, and that noth- 
ing but the best of materials enters 
into the construction of Massey-Harris 
goods, is the reason why they are con- 
sidered the Standard of Excellence 
throughout the world. 



In writing Advertisers mention Farmer's Magazine. 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE— ADVERTISING SECTION 



M3 



Some of the Splendid Equipment in the 
Massey - Harris Plants. 




1. — A Powerful Press. 2.— Group of Automatic Turret Lathes. 3-4. — Automatic Gear Cutters. 

5.— In the Separator Department. 6.— Parts ready for Assembling. 



In writing Advertisers mention Farmer's Magazine. 



144 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE— ADVERTISING SECTION 




CONCRETE IS EXCELLENT FOR WELL COVERS 

COMPARED with wood, concrete is infinitely cleaner 
and more sanitary. If you have children about the farm 
you should consider the important fact that concrete 
makes an absolutely safe well cover. Loose boards in such 
a position can be removed too easily to be safe. A concrete 
well cover as here illustrated makes it impossible for scrub or 
surface water to flow into the well from the walk which sur- 
rounds it. For well covers, in fact for the construction of 
any farm utility, 

CANADA CEMENT 

The Canadia?i Standard 



is certain to give the greatest satisfaction. It is pure — uniform and of 
highest grade. Modern machinery, careful selection of materials and 
painstaking care are employed to make it as nearly perfect for the purpose 
it is intended to fulfill as human skill and ingenuity can accomplish. 
The use of Canada Cement in any structural undertaking practically 
assures the permanency, stability and attractiveness of that structure. 
"What the Farmer Can Do With Concrete," a finely illustrated book — 
sent FREE to those who ask. A post card request will bring it promptly. 

Canada Cement Co., 




It is to your advantage to answer advertisements. 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE— ADVERTISING SECTION 



145 




CONCRETE WALKSiLAST FOREVER 

CONCRETE walks are as cheap as walks of any other ma- 
terial with the exception of wood. And, considered from 
service cost rather than first cost, they are cheaper than 
wood. They require no repairs — no painting. They always 
present a smooth, even surface. They dry off quickly after rain 
and are easily kept clean. Grass cannot grow in a concrete walk. 
Concrete walks impart a prosperous, well-kept appearance to 
the farm and consequently increase the value of farm property. 
To be sure of attaining economy, beauty and durability, specify 

CANADA CEMENT 

The Canadian Standard 

the brand that is always pure — always uniform — and of one grade — 
the highest. All cement manufactured in each of our ten mills 
must meet a certain high standard of quality which is set for the 
very best work. The services of a general superintendent and a 
general chemist are employed to supervise the production of 
"Canada" Cement and to insist upon a continuous adherence to this 
standard. "Canada" Cement in spite of its superiorty, is no more 
expensive than any other cement. Look for label when ordering. 



Limited, Montreal, Can. 




THE 

BRAND 

TO LOOK FOR 



Say you saw the ad. In Farmer's Magazine. 



146 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE— ADVERTISING SECTION 




The March of Events ! 

Plowing the Mighty Prairie 

Here is a Picture of " Big Business " 

Aerial navigation may or may not replace other forms of transit ; that remains to be seen, 
but it is an established and self-evident fact that Traction Plowing is rapidly revolutionizing 
that of horse power and it is good to know that to the big Canadian Firm of Hamilton, 
Canada, is largely due the success of this great enterprise in the West. 

The above gives the Reader an idea of how rapidly and well Sawyer-Massey Tractions are 
turning up the virgin prairie and converting it into wheat fields. Does not its very excellence 
give you a desire to go iato the business ? The two Sawyer-Massey plowing Engines are owned 
by Messrs. Grinan & Wilson of Swift Current, Sask. These same people own a third Sawyer- 
Massey Traction Engine all of which are kept busy the greater portion of the Season. It 
should be explained that these Sawyer-Massey "Combination" Tractions not only plow in the 
excellent manner shown above, but drive Threshing Machinery to perfection and moreover are 
capable of performing all the duties that a Traotion or Portable Engine is called upon to do. 

The Sawyer-Massey Co. are the Manufacturers of the celebrated "Great West" and "Peerless" 
Separators as well as the "Monitor" Clover Huller. 

Incidentally it will be well to state that they have a large Road Making Machinery Depart- 
ment from which has been supplied very nearly all of the modern Road Making Machinery used 
in connection with Road Making enterprises so far in Canada worthy of the name. 

Our Western Readers wishing Catalogues and information will direct their inquiries to Win- 
nipeg, while Eastern Readers will address the Head Office at Hamilton, both of which will be 
pleased to respond. 

SAWYER-MASSEY CO., LTD. 

THE L4RGEST manufactory of its kind IN CANADA 

Factory and Head Office: Hamilton, Can. Established 1836 



Reading advertisements is profitable to you. 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE— ADVERTISING SECTION 
♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦^++*»»<> <>»<»♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

WHEN Paderewski, 

Eyes ablaze, 
Flirts with old Chopin's 

Polonaise 
You say: "It's great!'' 

But you can play 

That way. 



147 




: 




IF you have listened to 
other Player Pianos 
that are mechanical, 
come and hear how 
Artistic and Human 
is the playing of the 
Gourlay-Angelus. 



♦ 
♦ 



DESCRIPTIVE LITERATURE SENT FREE ON REQUEST. 



Gourlay, Winter & Leeming, 

188 YONGE STREET, TORONTO 



♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 



♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

Say you saw the ad. in Farmer's Magazine 



♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦» 




FARMER'S MAGAZINE— ADVERTISING SECTION 



&&G&k§ 




Secret of 
The Steinway 



To 'assemble," or put together, a piano — the keys 
from one maker, the action from another, the case from a 
third, and so on — is a comparatively easy task. To build 
a piano from the beginning, is an entirely different matter. 

A peculiar distinction of Steinway & Sons is that 
they manufacture in their own foundry and factories 
every portion of a piano, building their instrument en- 
tire. In this fact lies one of the secrets of its greatness 
and worth. 

This makes the Steinway, not an assemblage," but an 
artistic whole, producing a harmony and unity that can 
be achieved in no other way. 

The workmen likewise are more than makers of parts; 
they are artists all working intelligently toward one end — 
the production of a perfect piano. Consequently, they im- 
part a beauty of workmanship, a perfection of art and of final 
result, impossible to be attained under other conditions. 

For the same reason also the Steinway possesses an indi- 
viduality, an integrity of being, an endowment of rich, ten- 
der, emotional beauty of tone, which distinguish it from 
every other piano in the world. 

The Miniature Grand Piano is five feet ten inches in 
length. Scientific experiments have determined this to be 
the exact size necessary to reproduce the remarkable attri- 
butes of the larger Steinway Grand Pianos. 

The Vertegrand, the new model in upright form, pos- 
sesses all the fundamental qualities of the more expensive 
Diano 

Canadian Representatives: 
THE N0RDHE1MER PIANO & MUSIC CO., LTD. 

15 KING ST. E., TORONTO. Branches in all leading cities. 

Write for our booklet illustrating and explaining the won- 
derful manner of construction of these pianos and their prices. 



It Is to your advantage to mention Farmer's Magazine. 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE— ADVERTISING SECTION 



149 




ARE YOU getting a maxi- 
mum return from your 
money invested ? You 
probably hear of opportunities 
to invest your funds advanta- 
geously, but you hold back, be- 
cause you are not sure of the 
offering. 

The 

Financial Post 
of Canada 

Published every Saturday, will 
keep you informed upon all 
attractive investment opportu- 
nities. You will find it of finan- 
cial benefit to read The Post 
regularly. Take advantage of 
our special offer. We will send 
you the paper from now until 
January 1, 1912, for the price of 
a year's subscription — $3.00. 

SAMPLE COPIES 
SENT FREE ON REQUEST. 

ADDRESS : 

143-149 University Avenue, 
TORONTO 

Branch Offices in London, Eng. ; New 

York; Montreal; Winnipeg and 

Vancouver. 




Haines 
Bros. 

J\.ew York ana Toronto 



The great reputation of the Haines 
Bros. Pianos has been of steady 
and permanent growth. This is 
because every Haines Bros. Piano 
was a good Piano. All over Can- 
ada and the United States you will 
find Haines Bros. Pianos in musical 
homes — oftentimes serving the 
second or third generation of young 
people, since its original purchase. 

Haines Bros. Pianos are now also 
manufactured in their own factory 
in Canada, and sold in Toronto at 
New York prices. 

If you are going to buy a piano you 
will secure valuable information by 
writing for our illustrated catalogue 
and prices — sent free on request. 



Foster -Armstrong Co. 

LIMITED 
4 QUEEN EAST, - - TORONTO 

Winnipeg Piano Co. 



295 PORTAGE AVE., 



WINNIPEG. MAN 



It will pay you to answer advertisements. 



J 50 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE— ADVERTISING SECTION 



A $45.00 BICYCLE FREE! 

DO YOU WANT A WHEEL? 



Here's a chance for every Canadian boy to get one FREE by doing a little 
work in his spare time. 




All you have to do is to get 32 yearly paid-in-advance subscriptions to 
Farmer's Magazine. We will send you immediately on the receipt of payment 
for 32 subscriptions a $45.00 bicycle. This wheel has all the modern improve- 
ments, including coaster-brake, mud-guards, full set of bicycle tools. It is 
substantially built and will stand the most severe road test. 

These wheels have been shipped to our representatives in all parts of Canada 
and in no case have we had a single complaint. 

If you are interested in earning a wheel, fill in the coupon below and mail 
to us to-day. 



Farmer's Magazine, 

143-149 University Ave., Toronto, Ont. 
Gentlemen,— I would like to win one of the Bicycles you offer for 32 new yearly paid-in- 
advance subscriptions to Farmer's Magazine. Please send sample copy and order book. 



Name. 



Address. 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE, 



143-149 UNIVERSITY AVE. 
TORONTO, - ONT. 



Say you saw the ad. in Farmer's Magazine. 



•• 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE— ADVERTISING SECTION 

"*"€» Christmas ©ijft" 

€| A woman appreciates a sensible 
gift from her husband or son at 
Christmas. 

€| Something that will relieve 
her of the back-breaking and nerve- 
racking worries of ordinary household 
duties — something that shows her you 
really care — 

A New Century Washer 

for instance. It sweetens a woman's disposition. 

It enable* her to get cheaper help and keep them 

longer. It saves the clothes and thoroughly cleanses 

them, because it forces the water 

through the fabrics. It prevents 

disease entering your home from 

public laundries. 

t| Write for "Aunt Salina's Wash 

Day Philosophy." 

<J At all dealers or direct. 

CUMMER-DOWSWELL 



151 



Limited 
HAMILTON, - 



ONT. 



Teach the 
Children 
to Save 



Encourage them to 
put money in the 
bank. It is a lesson 
in thrift that is easy 
for them to learn now, 

And 

Is one that will stand 
them in good stead 
when they grow up. 




Deposit a dollar, 
and give them the book at Christmas. 



Children's Bank Accounts can be opened at any branch of this bank. 

THE TRADERS BANK OF CANADA 



CAPITAL AND SURPLUS, $6,550,000 



152 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE— ADVERTISING SECTION 




TWINS 

Are a Blessing 



WOODWARD 



-ONTVIND ENGlNExPUMPi 



So are these two to the Farmer. Our CHAM- 
PION COW STANCHION is something a cow 
appreciates. No chafing at neck; no getting 
loose. The sides are brazed steel tubes, and the 
ends are malleable. Self-locking. 

Our WOODWARD WATER BASINS will increase your 
milk flow, as well as save labor. 

Write us. We will tell you all about them. 

Ontario Wind Engine and Pump Co., Ltd. 



WINNIPEG 



TORONTO 



CALGARY 



Newest Designs 
Best Materials 
Carefully Made 



BEATH 

I M PROVED 



Stiongest Construction 
Easiest Running 
Quickest Hoisting 



FEED m LITTER CARRIERS 




1910 Model No. 1 7 

Endless Chain Hoist 

No dog or brake required. 

Heavy galvanized and soldered 

Box, double truck wheels. 

Strong and easy to operate. 



Made in two styles — 
They're both leaders- 
Awarded [Medals and 
Diplomas at Toronto 
Exhibition. 

Beath Litter Carriers 

are made better and of 
better materials than 
any other Litter Carrier 
on the market. Their 
construction is super- 
vised by W. B. Beath 
andfinally tested and in- 
spected by him. There 
is no other carrier as 
good as Beath's. 

Write for further infor- 
mation antt prices 




11910 Model No. 19 "O 

Crank Windlass Hoist M- 

Fitted with automatic friction 
brake, double truck wheels, 
extension handle. Box same 
as in No. 17. 



W. D.BEATH & SON, LIMITED TORONTO 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE— ADVERTISING SECTION 



153 




Shaving in its simplest form 



manhood at its best — these are the ideas 
the "GILLETTE" always suggests. 
Neatest, handiest, quickest, most satisfac- 
tory in the razor world, the GILLETTE 
has won its way to the four corners of 
the earth. The GILLETTE face, clean 
and forceful, meets you wherever men 
of action and achievement congregate, 
for work or relaxation. 

Your dealer will be glad to show you 
the GILLETTE— the razor of to-day. 

The Gillette Safety Razor Go. of Ganada 

LIMITED 

Office and Factory, 63 St. Alexander St., MONTREAL 



©iHette^ 



KNOWN THE ^^^^^^VVORLD OVER 

Say you saw the ad. in Parmer's Magazine. 



154 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE— ADVERTISING SECTION 




PCCfiCSS the Fence tliat saves expense 

THE PEERLESS FENCE is built for service. 

Our No. 9 PEERLESS Fence is made from hard steel wire. Has 
double the strength ever required in a wire fence. Then, too, the galvaniz- 
ing on the PEERLESS stands the test. This means long life and good 
service. Do you want quality or is it simply a question of price with you? 
We are after quality customers. Send for our fence literature — tells you 
how to build a good fence. WRITE TO-DAY. 

The Banwell Hoxie Wire Fence Company, Lim ted 

Makers of Farm, Poultry and Ornamental Fencing and Gates 
Dept L., HAMILTON, Ont. WINNIPEG/lMan 



THE "SELKIRK" 

STIFF STAY FENCE IS THE 

BEST FENCE MADE 

It is the one fence that will keep its good appearance 
and perfect shape in spite of the hardest usage from 
animals or the elements. You can adapt it to every 
requirement. It is easy to erect, consisting of lateral 
wires and stiff straight stays joined together with a 
lock that holds tight even when direct pressure of 
more than half a ton is brought upon it. How would 
you like to 

make some cash profits 

in return for a little pleasant work done in your spare time? We want a good 
agent in your locality — a man who can interest his neighbors in Selkirk Fenc- 
ing. You can do this, and by doing it you can make a splendid proht 
without spending much time or effort. This proposition is worth im 
mediate investigation — investigation costs nothing. Fill in the coup- 
on and mail it to-day. 

SELKIRK FENCE CO., 

HAMILTON, ONTARIO 





Manufacturers of 
Selkirk Woven Wire Fence 
Selkirk Lawn Fencing 
Selkirk Poultry Fencing 
Selkirk Ornamental 
Farm Gates 




The 
SELKIRK 
FENCE CO., 
Hamilton, Ont. 

Gentlemen— -I wish to 
examine for myself the merits 
of your fences. Send me a free 
sample piece with descriptive mat- 
ter and agent's terms. 

Name 

P.O Prov 



Say you saw the ad. in Farmer's Magazine. 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE— ADVERTISING SECTION 



155 



113 We Want to Send This Book To if, 



m 

Every Farmer in Whose Neighbor- 
hood There is No Rural Telephone System! 



\A^E want every farmer in Canada to know how to build Rural Tele- 
phone Lines. We want to put the whole story of Rural Telephones 
before you so that you will have all the details at your fingers' ends 

and so that you can go 
out among - your own 
neighbors and organ- 
^-♦•" ize a Telephone Sys- 
'*** tern in your own community. 

Send us Your Name and Address 




"'•v 



and we will be pleased to send this book to you absolutely free. 
On account of the clear manner in which it has been written, we be- 
lieve that after having gone over this book carefully, you will know 
4§? enough about the construction of Rural Telephone Lines to enable you to ap- 
<8y proach your neighbors with every vital fact in detail to command their attention 
^y and to secure their interest and support on a telephone system for your own com 



M 



mumty. 

Our No. 1317 Type 
Telephone Set 

is the set with the famous No. 48 type 
generator, the most powerful and efficient 
generator on the market to-day ; with a ringer having 
3-inch gongs, thj loudest ringing gongs ever put on 
any telephone set; wilh the standard long distance type 
transmitter and receiver. This set, which was specially 
de-signed tor Rural Telephone work by the most expert 
telephone engineer on this continent, is told of tul y 
1 in this book. 





The Story That The 
Book will Tell You 

is a story that is full of interest and of vital 
importance to every farmer in Canada. 
We believe tha> every farmer realizes the advantages 
of a Farm Telephone; but we always believe that few 
farmers realize the symplicity of organizing and con- 
structing a Rural Telephone System of their own. The 
details of organization are simple, the costs of install- 
ing the system are low, and the only reason that a 
greater number of communities have no rural sys- 
tem of their own is due to lack of accurate knowl.dge 
on the question of the Rural Telephone. 



We offer you this book that you may possess this knowledge; for soorer or later, a Rural TeW hone 
System is going to be started by you or somebody else in your o.\n neighborhood. Now is 
the time for you to get busy. Write to-day for Bulletin No. 1180. Remember we send it free. 




It is to your advantage to mention Parmer's Magazine. 



i56 FARMER'S MAGAZINE— ADVERTISING SECTION 



A Christmas Gift 1 



<][ Receiving a Christmas present is indeed pleasing. Not 
only does the recipient possess something he lacked 
before, but he has concrete testimony of the apprecia- 
tion of his friends. 

Cfl What better Christmas gift could be given than a 
year's subscription to Farmer's Magazine. It satisfies 
the utmost Christmas requirement. 

€| Its monthly arrival is a reminder of your gift. It 
multiplies both the pleasure of receiving and the divi- 
dends of gratitude. 

<J Farmer's Magazine is indispensable to every farm home. 
Its mission is to assist the farmers in their efforts to se- 
cure better recognition from the different Governments 
in Canada. It will ask for more money to be spent in 
the interests of agriculture, and will fight all combines 
which make for the retarding of any phase of agri- 
culture. Farmer's Magazine will also take up the 
question of cost and profit or loss, in all farm opera- 
tions. It will show the best uses of time, money and 
labor for the farmer. It will aim to bring farm homes 
closer together, by suggesting new and good social 
entertainments. Farmer's Magazine aims to be the 
home magazine of the farmer and his family, providing 
the best reading for all, and assisting the farmers to 
work together for the best advancement of agriculture 
in Canada. 



THE MacLEAN PUBLISH 

143-149 UNIVERSITY AVENUE, - 



It will pay you to answer advertisements. 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE— ADVERTISING SECTION 



i-57 



/velve Times a Year 



Farmer's Magazine for 1911 will contain 

Service's Complete Serial 

THE TRAIL OF '98 

CJ The most vivid and thrilling Canadian serial ever pub- 
lished. Other features, equally as interesting, will 
appear in Farmer's during the coming year. 

€][ Fill in the coupon with a list of friends whom you wish 
to remember and forward it, with two dollars to cover 
each subscription. The Christmas number will be 
mailed to each in order to reach them not later than 
Christmas Eve, along with a beautiful Christmas card, 
in colors. 



1910 

FARMER'S MAGAZINE 

143 University Avenue, Toronto 
Kindly forward Farmer's Magazine for one year, commenc- 
ing with the Christmas Number, to the following addresses: 

Name Address 



Enclosed is dollars to pay for same. 

Name 

A ddress 



SENT) IN THE LIST OF JT>T)RESSES TO-T>A Y. 

NG COMPANY, LIMITED 

TORONTO, ONTARIO, CAN. 



Say you saw the ad. in Parmer's Magazine. 



158 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE— ADVERTISING SECTION 

VANCO 

Lime Sulphur Solution 

carries more active sulphur in 
solution than other brands, and is 
the most effective spring spray for 
San Jose" Scale, Aphis, Bud Moth, 
Apple Scab, Leaf Spot, Pear Scab 
and similiar parasites and fungi. 

VANCO is a clean, uniform 
solution, free from sediment. One 
barrel makes 12 for spring or 50 
for summer spray. 

#8.00 per bbl. f .o.b. Toronto. 

VANCO 

Lead Arsenate 

Is rapidly replacing Paris Green for 
Codling Moth, Potato Bugs and all 
leaf-eating insects. Easier to spray, 
stays on longer, and kills more. 

VANCO Lead Arsenate contains 
15% to 16% Arsenic Oxide and 40% 
moisture average. 

10 to 13c. per lb., according to 
quantity. Write for our free Booklet 
on Spraying. 4, 

CHEMICAL LABORATORIES LIMITED 

Van Home Street, Toronto, Canada. 




Don't 
Miss the 

Profits 

Prime Poul- 
try is at a 
remium. The best 
birds bring the best 
prices. Pratts Poultry 
Regulator will make 
your birds plump, 
quick growing, healthy 
money-makers. Give 
every day to turkeys, 
geese and fowls. 




Poultry Regulator 

s a wonderful tonic — a great aid to digestion and a 
powerful preventive of disease. It doubles the nour- 
ishing value of the feed, increases the weight and 
improves the flavor of your birds. Every pound 
pays — if it fails it costs you nothing. It is 

Guaranteed or Money Back 

Give it a fair trial this season at our risk. We know 
you will be more than satisfied. If it does not make 
good your dealer will refund your money. 

25 lb. pail $2.50, also in smaller 
packages and in 100 lb. bags. 

Pratts Roup Cure, prevents as well as cures. 

Frills " Poultry Wrinkles" Is yours lor a postal, worth a dollar. 

PRATT FOOD CO. OF CANADA, Limited, fM 



Why you should use 

BITTER-LICK 



Because 



t — It is cheap. 

(That fattens your pocket book.) 

i — It is not a food. 

(You raise that yourself.) 

i — It is a conditioner. 

(Good condition adds dollars.) 

i — It is a grand tonic. 

(Your stock may need just this.) 

Because— It aids digestion. 

"~™ — ™^""" — " (That means less waste.) 

-It is a worm destroyer. 
'There is no money in worms) 

i — It is cheaper than stock foods, 
Condition or Worm Powders. 

(Its cost does not exceed ONE CENT 
A WEEK per head for horses or 
cattle, and ONE CENT A MONTH 
for a sheep or a goat.) 

Because — It insures your stock against 

"~ ~ ~"~" ~ ~ disease. 

(Can you find any cheaper insur- 
ance ?) 

Wm. Cooper & Nephews 

TORONTO 



Beeause- 



Because- 



Because- 



Because- 



Because- 



It is to your advantage to mention Farmer's Magazine. 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE— ADVERTISING SECTION 



159 



FOR SALE 

Tattooing dies for marking all kinds 
of live stock for identification. 
Manufactured under Canadian Pat- 
ent No. 115,484. 

International Consolidated Record 

Association, Manufacturers 
Canadian Agents : 

Hamilton Stamp and Stencil Works 
Hamilton, - - Ontario 



POULTRY WANTED 

CHICKENS, FOWLS, TURKEYS, 
We Pay Highest Prices. 

The Laing Packing & Provision Co., 

Limited 

Mill Street, Montreal 



A SQUARE DEAL 

As publishers we are determined 
that our readers shall always be given 
a square deal by our advertisers. 

We therefore have refused to 
accept, and always shall, every adver- 
tisement which upon investigation 
we find cannot justify our thorough 
recommendation. 



It is only fair, in return, that our 
readers should remember that 

/. Our advertisers pay us for giving you, for $2 
a year or less, a magazine costing $6 to produce. 

2. Our advertisers pay this money so that they 
may TALK BUSINESS with you personally. 

3. Our readers should therefore seek to PROFIT 
BY READING EVERY ADVERTISEMENT 

sometime during the month. 



$1,100.02 IN CASH PRIZES 

will be awarded the winners at the 
First Annual 

Toronto Fat Stock Show 



Union Stock Yards, 



Toronto 



Monday and Tuesday, December 12 and 13, 1910. 

Entry Free— Entries close Dec. 1st, 1910 

Admission Free. Public Invited. Reduced Rates on all Railroads. 

AUCTION SALE OF PRIZE WINNERS 



Entry Blanks and full particulars on application to 

J. H. Ashcraft, Jr., General Manager 



UNION STOCK YARDS, 



TORONTO- 



It is to your advantage to mention Parmer's Magazine. 



i6o 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE— ADVERTISING SECTION 



iii 



• 



i 



OH R I 



"There's a 

Christie Biscuit 

for every taste, 
and they all taste delicious" 

Note the quotation marks, madam ! 

Thousands of Canada's particular housewives — ladies 
you would be proud to know — make that statement every 
day. A million Canadians eat Christie Biscuits every day. 
What's the reason ? 

The best wheat of the best wheat lands on earth, rolled 
into flour in the best Canadian mills — these flours sifted, 
blended and tested in the Christie scientific way — that's 
the foundation of Christie Biscuit excellence. 

But — that's not all, madam ! Every ingredient entering 
our bakes must be of the high standard quality ycu 
insist on for your own table — nothing less would sus- 
tain Christie reputation. Quality and Purity — these 
are the first considerations in the Christie factory — the 
biggest, brightest and cleanest in all Canada. 

If you have visited the home of Christie biscuits — 
hundreds of housewives visit it every year — you know that 
our employees are healthy, happy and contented, and 
devoted, heart and soul, to Christie ideals. No wonder they 
call Christie Biscuits : — " The Purest of all Pure Foods." 

Christie, Brown & Co., Limited 



iff* 



■ i 



u I 



The Trade Mark that 

Means Success 

in Baking 







& MANITOBA HARD T5 

WHEAT 



More Bread and Better Bread 





15,000 Canadian Poultrymen 
Have Doubled Their Profits By 

THE PEERLESS WAY 

What these poultrymen have done you can do — no matter in what part of Canada you live; you 
can raise the crop that never fails — the crop that knows no bad years! If you have never kept 
poultry do nut let that deter you; you will have fewer formed habits to overcome and will be ready 
to let The Peerless Way lead you to success. Or, if you have been keeping poultry in a haphazard 
way, The Peerless Way will show you how to systematize your enterprise into a real money-maker. 
Even if you have made a failure of poultry-raising — even though you be discouraged — disinclined 
ever to consider poultry-raising again — investigate The Peerless Way for yourself and study the 
guarantee that it has to offer you; for, let us say this, whether you are simply a beginner, whether 
poultry forms only an incidental part of your farm work, whether you are already in poultry- 

raising as a business, The Peerless Way affords you a real way 

FRFF Book With The to increase the profits. Consider this very carefully. Then 

»*I-il«i Complete : read every word of what follows and send for our big FREE 

book entitled "When Poultry Pays." 



This Book With The 
Complete Story Of 

The Peerless Way 

^•^^Simply fill out the coupon and 
■^send it to us. Then when you 
.TMget the book, read it at least 
^ twice. You will find it packed 
^■^ full of facts about raising poultry 
for profit. There is no clever writing nor 
empty theory about the book. "When 
Poultry Pays"; but it certainly does cl.ar 
up a whole host of problems that have 
long and often puzzled practical poultry- 
men Let this book put its plain, terse 
facts before you — let it tell you why and 
how you can put The Peerless Way to work 
to make money for you. Do not put 
it off — there is no time like the present 
for increasing your knowledge. 



Send Us The Coupon 



Knowledge Is More 
Essential Than Money 










Manufacturing 
Company, Ltd. 
558 Pembroke Rd. 
Pembroke, Ont. 

Gentlemen : Without obli- 
gating myself, you may send 
me your book When Poultry 
Pays," and the proof of how The 
Peerless Way has successfully co- 
operated with others. 



Name 

Address 

Town. 



. Very little money will start 
fyou right in profitable 
jW poultry-raising — if you know 
' how to go about the busi- 
ness. And The Peerless 
Way will show you exactly what 
you have to do and how you have 
to do it to make money. The Peer- 
less Way is more than merely a 
system for raising poultry; it is a 
system for raising at a profit! The 
knowledge that The Peerless Way 
offers you is so explicit that a child 
could not misunderstand it — it ex- 
plains everything — and if. beyond 
that, some unusual problem does 
arise, our Poultry Advisory Board is 
at your service without charge to 
consider your case individually and 
to write you personally. 

Poultry Raising is the 

Profitable Branch of 

Agriculture 

^^^ Given the same care, time 
^^ BJand attention as any other 
W -jW branch of agricultural work, 
\*]w there is no department that 
can be made to yield such 
handsome returns on small invest- 
ment. We know this — 15,000 Can- 
adian poultrymen, working with our 
co-operation, have proven it for us. 
But it is one thing merely to "keep 
poultry" and quite another to get 
every last cent of profit out of the 
work. The profits are in the knowl- 
edge you possess — knowledge of 
how to proceed, in the first place, 
and after that, knowledge of How 
to market your output. The Peer- 
less Way will guide you on both these 
essential points — will show you what 
to do and how to do it — and then, 
through our co-operative marketing 
plan, will take care of all the eggs 
and poultry you can produce and at 
highest market prices. When you 



The Peerlest Incubator .guaranteed for 
ten years) that has helped 15,000 Can- 
adian Poultrymen t o greater Profits. 



JJ 



I 



. ProTia 



LEE 



get our book, read the letters we have 
printed in it from hundreds of fol- 
lowers of The Peerless Way in every 
part of the Dominion — letters from 
practical poultrymen who have never 
been able to do by any method what 
they have done by The Peerless Way. 
Get the book — just send the coupon 
— that brings it. 

Let Us Show You How 
To Market-Right 

^^k Let us explain what we 
^^ '<M mean b y Co-Operative 
m -jM Marketing — let us tell you 
Jj about the method that has 
^U^ been proven by 15.000 
poultrymen who command higher 
prices than the old way of selling 
poultry and eggs could ever have 
given them. Let us explain to you 
how to get all the profits that right- 
fully belong to you. Write us for 
further information about this proof 
of successful poultry-raising; let us 
tell you how it has been worked out. 
how it has been tested, and how it 
has been proven; let us tell you why 
it is the only way that successfully 
meets Canadian climatic conditions 
— whv there is no farm in Canada 
on which poultry would not pay bet- 
ter than any other crop — why our 
methods are so simple and yet so 
practical, that a schoolboy could not 
fail with them — why you could not 
find a better investment for either 
part or all of your time Send for 
the book. 

38S 



Manufacturing Co. Ltd. 
558 Pembroke Road 



PEMBROKE ONTAR '° 



CANADA 



wenty Cents a Copy 



Two Dollara per Year 



m 



minim imiiiimr 



m 



Rag a z, i n e 



m 




A Tariff for Farmers 

How to Evade Taxation 

A Real Canadian King 

An Expert and a Plant 







£T P III$ 



WHEN the late distinguished actor, Mr. 
Richard Mansfield, was giving delight 
to thousands of Net* Xork theatregoers, 
many were the stories told of his so- 
called peculiarities. 

One habit loudly commented upon was that of 

g home as quickly as possible after each per- 

Cormance and steadfastly refusing to join the 

late supper parties In the Broadway restaurants. 

Far Erom being eccentric in this regard, as 
generally claimed, Mr. Mansfield only showed his 
appreciation of the fact that if he was to keep 
his head clear for the work of his profession he 
must keep his digestive organs in perfect condi- 
tion. His great successes were his rewards. 

The same thing is true for all of us. Bach has 
his work to do, and no matter what that work 
is, it cannot be done perfectly unless the liver, 
the stomach and the bowels are unhandicapped. 
Late suppers are but one form of abuse; over- 



eating at any time, persistence in eating indigest- 
ible foods, neglect of slight attacks of constipa- 
tion — all these things are sources of sickness and 
suffering and distinct loss of ability to work 
well. 

Even obstinate difficulties of the digestive 
organs will, however, yield to the positive but 
gentle powers of Parmelee's Vegetable Pills. 
They spur the sluggish liver, tone the stomach, 
and, without griping, coax back the bowels into 
a natural condition. 

Take these pills at the first sign of trouble. 
Neglect may cause chronic conditions which are 
far more serious. Remember that Parmelee's are 
the Pills which have been tried and tested as a 
family remedy for years and years. Order a box 
to-day and have them handy. 

Parmelee's Vegetable Pills are sold everywhere 
in 25c boxes. Prepared by Northrop & Lyman 
Co., Limited, Toronto. 



The "BT" Litter Carrier Track and Hangers 



FIG. 214 





The success of a litter 
carrier outfit depends 
a great deal on the 
style of track and 
hangers used. 

The New "BT" Lit- 
ter Carrier Track is 

a full 2 inches in depth 
— half an inch deeper 
than any other. It is 
designed in the shape 
of an "I" beam, so that 
it will carry the great- 
est possible strain for 
the amount of mater- 
ial used. 
With this track there is very little surface for snow 
or ice to collect on when it is run out on a swing 
pole or on posts. 

WRITE US TO-DAY FOR CATALOGUE AND COMPLETE INFORMATION 



Fig. 214 shows the parts of the splice for 
the "BT" Track. 



Fig. 215 shows the "BT" Patented Extension 
Hanger. We supp'y rods any length. 

FIG. 213 



Fig, 213 shows the track joined solidly to- 
gether with the "BT" Joint Clips 
and four bolts. 



BEATTY BROS., 



Fergus, Ont. 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE— ADVERTISING SECTION 



I 



WE WILL HELP MAKE 



Cbe farmer a 
Business man 



well equipped with a complete 
business training (by correspon- 
dence if desired). Modern farm- 
ing methods are calling for 
more business ability each year, 
and our school is thoroughly 
up-to-date and in a position to 
give you that specialized training 
that makes for success. 

School open all year round. 
Students admitted at any time. 

Tuition at moderate rates in 
any desired subject. 

Write for our illustrated catalog 

British American Business 
College 

Y. M. C. A. Building, Yonge Street 
TORONTO 





Sound Education Amidst Refined Home 
Surroundings. " 




BALMY BEACH COLLEGE 
SCHOOL of MUSIC and ART 




This is an undenominational school, where each 
pupil may attend any church chosen fay her parents. 
The teachers are all selected for eminence in teach- 
ing ability and scholastic qualifications and the 
school course includes : 

Piano, Violin, Voice, Tneory, 
Physical Culture, Expression, Art 

and preparation for Entrance Examination. 

Children of any age are admitted and we main- 
tain special courses for adults. 

Fall Term commences Nov. 18 
Enter any ttme. 






vi/rite for particulars to 

MRS. COURTICE, Directress 
59 Beach Avenue, Toronto, Ont. 






1 1 





463 Representatives 463 

_ The MacLean Publishing Company have a staff of 463 circu- 
lation men in Canada, men who are devoting their time to Mae- 
Lean's thirteen publications. 

It is a large organization — the largest and most efficient of 
its kind in Canada. 

We are anxious to secure more representatives — one in every 
centre of 100 or more population. We want to secure a repre- 
sentative in every farming community as well. 

This field offers the ambitious young farmer profitable 
employment in his spare time, in addition to an excellent business 
training. No other work could be more beneficial to him during 
his spare hours. The thorough training in salesmanship will be 
of inestimable value to him. 

Write at once. 

Maclean publishing company, 



143-149 UNIVERSITY AVENUE, 



TORONTO, ONTARIO 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE— ADVERTISING SECTION 




STRONG CLEAN -SANITARY- DURABLE 

Every farmer will find that it pays to replace his old wooden tanks and 
troughs with our everlasting 

Steel Tanks and Troughs 

Their cost is very reasonable, they never 
leak, never rot, are weather-proof and 
frost-proof , and any ice is easily removed. 

We make in all 
shapes and sizes to 
hold anywhere from 
1 to 100 barrels— 

STORAGE TANKS, 

ROUND TANKS, 

CISTERNS, 

OIL or GASOLINE 

TANKS, 
£ TROUGHS 

for watering, 

HOG TROUGHS, 

STABLE TROUGHS, 

WASH SINKS, 

GRAIN FEED BOXES 

MILK COOLING TANKS, 

WHEY TANKS, 
HEAVY STEEL PAILS, 
and DAIRY UTENSILS. 




SQUARE WATER TROUGHS 

Just what you want to replace 
those old, leaky, water-soaked, 
unsanitary, disease - breeding 
wooden troughs. Made 8 to 12 
feet long, 14 to 22 inches wide — 
holding from 80 to 190 gallons. 
Frost-proof, leak-proof, rust- 
proof. Guaranteed 5 years. 
No trough so good at so low a 
price anywhere else. 

ASK FOR PRICES 



THE PERFECT 
STEEL HOG TROUGH 

Trough is made of un- 
breakable galvanized 
steel, and to prevent hogs 
from crowding and lying 
in trough, steel bars are 
fastened across. Steel 
tubing along sides makes 
nice finish to feed over. 
A trough that hogs can't 
chew ! Cost so little and 
are so immeasurably 
better than sour, rotten, 
half-gnawed wooden 
troughs that you should 
get one at once. 




There are many 
things in onr de- 
scriptive catalog 
you're sore to 
want. Send to- 
day for a copy 
of Catalogue "S" 
FREE. You'll be 
glad to get it! 




UP-TO-DATE 
FEED COOKER 

A necessity 
on every up- 
to-date farm. 
Foods cook 
quickly, a s 
tank fits 
directly over fire. Econ- 
omical on fuel. Cag be 
brick-lined and fitted 
with grate to burn soft 
coal to heat water for 
spraying. Capacity 45 or 
60 gallons. 



GENERAL PURPOSE 
BARN AND TANK CISTERNS 

Made of best quality gal- 
vanized steel, very strong, 
rigid and entirely self-sup- 
porting. Braced to prevent 
bulging. 

Made in ail sizes — square or 
round, with any desired 
capacity. 



All Goods Guaranteed 
Price* Very Low. 

The Steel Trough & 
Machine Company 

TWEED, ONT. 



Say you saw the ad. In Farmer'! Magazine. 



Farmer s Magazine 



Vol. I. 



Contents; for December, 1910 



No. 3 



EDITORIAL. 

What Happened > — Seed Improvement — Cheap Breeding — Canada and Mr. Hill ■ — Rail- 
way Laws — Canada Appreciated — Those Express Rates — East vs. West — The 
Ideal Teacher — Assist the Bees — Something Needed • — Again Sidetracked — Farm 
Education — Profitable Spending — Buying Eggs — Co-operative Building — Our Generosity 

SPECIALS. 



AGRICULTURAL 
A Real Canadian King 
An Expert and a Plant 
What Do We Need ? - 

Beet Growing for Canadians 
Only Dead Scales Wanted 
Coyote -Proof Sheep - 
Negotiating for Power 
The Farmer Leads Them All 
The Fall Fair as a Holiday 
The Smoker's Paradise 
An Agricultural Exploration in the North 

POLITICAL AND SOCIAL. 
Tariff For the Farmers - 

Why — a Tariff ?----- 
Henri Bourassa - 

Provincial Premiers ..... 

How to Evade Taxation - 
Trading at Home - 

BUSINESS AND FINANCIAL 
When Father Took to Writing . . . - 

SERIAL STORY. 
The Trail of "98 Roht. 



<P. W. Hodgetts 

T. C. Carter 

F. E. Green 

- L. A. Thompson 

Robt. A. Sanborn 

G Taylor 

David {Ruffman 

J. Fairfax {Rlak.eborough 

R. !Rruce {Bennett 

David Williams 



H. J. Waddie 

T. J. %ussell 

B. B. Cooke 

H.J. Pettypiece 
M. Moyer 



SHORT STORIES. 



The Indian 
A Garden of Eden 
The Ghost at the Inn 
Ten Thousand Dollars 



C. Lintern Sibley 

Mrs- C. N. Williamson 

Katherine Tynan 

Thos. L. Masson 



OF INTEREST TO THE HOME. 



Why Carefulness ? 
Entertaining for Amusement 
Bad Teeth vs. Good Health 
Cheerfulness in The Home 
To Crown The King 

A Fool 

A Swirm of Bees 

Westminster Abbey 



POEMS. 



Dr. Helen MacMurchy 

Mary McKim Harriott 

J. J. McCarthy), M.D- 

£KCary cftCorse 

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Editorial 




WHAT HAPPENED? 

Sir James Whitney 
has for his motto, 
"Something must be 
done or something 
will happen." With 
regard to Ontario ag- 
riculture this state- 
ment can be appro- 
priately applied to 
Sir James. Just one 
year ago, Sir James 
promised the staff of 
the Ontario Agricul- 
tural College at 
Guelph, a salary in- 
crease. "There was 
nothing done and 
something happened": Ontario lost the 
services of one of the best agricultural 
chemists in America. 

Recently something has been done. Sir 
James has granted permission to award 
$400,000 towards building a museum. 
This may be a good thing, but there has 
been nothing done for the beef industry 
in Ontario, and something must be done 
or something will happen. The decrease 
in beef production in Ontario from 1906 
to 1909 amounted to 241,483 head of 
cattle. The decrease has been steady and 
yet nothing has been done. 

Money should be spent to encourage 
the beef raisers and to get them to finish 
their animals properly. They should 
have statistics showing that it is to their 
advantage to feed to a finish instead of 
allowing the other fellow to do the finish- 
ing and the reaping of profits. Sires 
should be secured so that the dams will 



give enough milk to nourish their own 
calves, which would do away with many 
of the nurse cows that are used at present. 
The beef industry should be advocated as 
much by the Government as is the dairy 
industry. 

It looks as if the government were try- 
ing to build up the other industries at the 
expense of the beef industry. This should 
not be. One phase is just as important as 
the other and all are necessary for the 
proper development of Canadian agricul- 
ture. "Something must be done or some- 
thing will happen." What will it be, Sir 
James? 



SEED IMPROVEMENT 

MUCH good work has been done in 
Canada for crop improvement. 
Much yet remains to be done. 
Sweden has increased the average yield 
of grains about 30 per cent, during the 
past decade. This has been possible be- 
cause of the large amount of rust and 
lodging which was prevalent in that coun- 
try. This has been accomplished by 
means of specialists in each crop. For the 
upkeep of these men the Government of 
Sweden has contributed a yearly sum 
equal to half the needed amount. The 
farmers' organizations made up the other 
half. All farmers' organizations in Can- 
ada are under Government supervision. 
The Canadian Seed Growers' Association 
has done good work for seed improve- 
ment. Their method is to get each farmer 
to select his own seed from individual 
plants. This is the best and quickest 
manner of obtaining choice seed grains. 

7 



F XRMER'S MAGAZINE 



But the average farmer has little time for 
this work. Be must depend upon ex- 
ports to do this for him. The different 
experiment stations arc doing this, but 
each station has to handle all kinds of 
crops, and there is usually only one ex- 
pert to direct operations at each station. 
Hence his work is not as effective as it 
should be. 

For the best results we should have an 
expert for each crop. These men should 
be secured by the Dominion Government 
as soon as possible. Will it be a paying- 
investment to get them? The average 
wheat crop of Canada will easily amount 
to 150,000,000 bushels. With reasonable 
success this crop expert should in ten 
years be able to give us a new strain or 
variety of wheat which would be the 
means of increasing the yield of wheat 
from our present acreage by at least 10 
per cent. This increase would amount to 
15,000,000 bushels, which at an average 
of 80 cents per bushel would yield in rev- 
enue an extra $12,000,000 to Canada. 



CHEAP BREEDING 

HIGH prices of horses has not been 
the best thing for Canada. Prices 
have been so attractive that farmers 
and breeders allowed their good mares to 
be sold, or bred to inferior stallions. The 
result is that there are many inferior 
young animals at the present time that 
are not as valuable as they should be. 
The principles of breeding have been 
totally neglected, and the stallion with the 
lowest service fee has been used. It did 
not matter wliether it was suited for 
breeding purposes or not. 

While the scarcity of horses has not 
made this felt to any extent, yet it will 
not be long before some of the breeders 
will be wishing they had used better 
sires. Good animals bring all the way 
from $200 to $500, depending on the sec- 
tion of country and the demand. The 
inferior animal will sell for less than the 
$200, according to his inferiority. The 
owner had a pretty nice mare and bred 
her to a stallion because the fee was only 
$10, while a better sire went past the 




farm. He did not use the better sire be- 
cause the fee was $20. The foal is worth 
only $150, whereas it might have been 
worth $250, if the better sire had been 
used. It is a case of the cheaper article 
being the dearer in the end. 



CANADA AND MR. HILL 

James J. Hill, Presi- 
dent of the Great Nor- 
thern Railway has 
again been discoursing 
on the subject of reci- 
procity between Can- 
ada and the United 
States. His latest ven- 
ture was in a paper 
read before the Can- 
adian Society of New 
York on December 8th, 
in which he made the 
statement "that if a 
consensus of opinion 
could be taken, reci- 
procity would have a 
majority on both sides of the line." 

Mr. Hill is a wise and discerning man, 
but while his statement may be quite true 
as far as the United States is concerned, it 
is very questionable whether he has the 
right viewpoint in regard to the attitude 
of Canada toward reciprocity. In Canada 
the feeling is rather one of indifference, 
and this is born of the fact that there is 
no expectation that the United States will 
consent to such a modification of their 
tariff as would make it worth while for 
this country to enter into a hard and fast 
bargain with them. The feeling in Can- 
ada, therefore, may be said to be not 
against reciprocity as a principle, but 
there is an inherent belief that the only 
kind of a treaty we could get would be a 
"jug-handled" one. 

None would benefit more than the 
farmers of Canada if ways and means 
could be devised which would remove the 
unequal trade conditions which now exist 
between the two countries, but there is 
no disposition on their part to enter into 
any arrangement which will be inimical 
to Canada as a whole. The statement 
made by E. C. Drury in the November 



EDITORIAL 



issue of The Farmer's Magazine, probably 
indicates as clearly as anything can the 
attitude of the farmers of Canada on this 
question. 

"It is true," he says, "that the farmers 
have expressed themselves as strongly in 
favor of an arrangement which will allow 
free interchange of agricultural imple- 
ments between the two countries, but any 
arrangement which would tie our hands 
in making trade treaties with other coun- 
tries would meet with unqualified dis- 
approval." 

It is evident that, while Mr. Hill may 
be speaking as "one having authority," 
as far as the United States is concerned, 
he has no license to speak for the people 
of Canada. 



♦:♦ ♦'♦ 




RAILWAY LAWS 

THERE has been introduced into the 
House of Commons a bill to amend 
the railway act. The amendment 
states that, "whenever any person is killed 
or receives injuries causing death, on the 
property of, or by or in a train of, any 
company, the coroner of the county in 
which such death or injuries occur, shall 
hold an inquest on the body of the per- 
son so killed immediately upon receiving 
notice of such death." This is a step in 
the right direction but it seems as if the 
amendment will not be passed. Hon. 
Geo. Graham is of the opinion that the 
amendment is invading provincial rights 
as the coroners are provincial officers and 
the Dominion has no authority to pass 
legislation affecting the officers of the 
provinces. If the amendment should pass 
it should go a long way in assisting the 
prevention of railway accidents. 

Another amendment has been present- 
ed to the House. This has to do with the 



killing of animals on the railway tracks. 
As the law now stands it is the duty of 
the companies to prove that the animals 
were at large through carelessness of the 
owner. The amendment states that the 
companies should prove that it is only 
their carelessness that should compel them 
to pay for animals so killed. The fact 
that stock were on the track should be evi- 
dence that fences or guards were faulty. 
If this were the case then we would see 
an improvement in railway fences and 
guards. 



CANADA APPRECIATED 

CANADA has been very kind to the 
railways. She has given them much 
money and lands. For the year end- 
ing June 30, 1910, the Canadian Pacific 
Railway paid a dividend of &V2 per cent, 
and then had a net surplus of more than 
thirteen millions. What returns do the 
people of Canada get for their generous 
treatment? In every case there is a dis- 
crimination of freight rates in favor of 
American goods. The Americans did not 
give these railways their start, yet they can 
ship their goods into Canada at a lower 
rate than Canadians can get in their own 
country ! 

For example, the corn growers com- 
plain that they have to pay 17 cents per 
hundred for corn shipped to points in 
Canada out of Windsor, Ont. At the same 
time dealers can buy corn in Detroit, 
across the river, and get a rate of 13 
cents per hundred to Canadian points. 
No wonder the dealers are advocating the 
growing of American corn. This is the 
reason the feeders are not buying Cana- 
dian grown corn. There is no duty im- 
posed on corn brought into the country by 
the Government, if the corn is used for 
feed or seed, but the railway companies 
have placed a duty of 4 cents per bushel 
in favor of American corn. It looks as if 
the railways were trying to build up the 
United States at Canada's expense. 

At the same time there is liable to be a 
rise in freight rates all over. This is the 
action recently taken by the transconti- 
nental railways in the United States and 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE 



will likely be followed in Canada, Surely 
the railways would not be mean enough 
to discriminate against out goods after we 
have been so generous in our bonuses of 



money and land. It is a case for the Rail- 
way Commission and we must see that this 
body gets all information, so that they 
will be able to fix rates fair and just. 





THOSE EXPRESS RATES 

EXPRESS companies in Canada have 
been making from 26 to 100 per 
cent, profit. They have been charg- 
ing fruit growers rates equal to the value 
of the fruit shipped. These rates have not 
always been what they should be. For 
instance, the rate from Queenston to Tor- 
onto is 30 cents per hundred pounds. 
From places closer to Toronto the rate 
charged was 40 cents. As soon as the at- 
tention of the company was drawn to this 
it immediately refused to take any more 
fruit from Queenston by express. In pre- 
senting the case to the Dominion Railway 
Commission, the fruit growers had the 
station restored but they had not the rates 
fixed. The fruit men offered a schedule 
of rates for all parts of Canada based on 
the rate of 30 cents per hundred from 
Queenston to Toronto. This schedule the 
Commission has under consideration at 
the present time. 

In British Columbia there is similar 
difficulty. The express companies quote a 
rate of $2 per hundred for a car of 20,000 
pounds, and a rate of $2.65 for all lots of 
smaller amounts. Of course the com- 
panies are always able to charge the high- 
er rate for they have few cars of the 20,- 
000 pound capacity! At the same time 
there are cars of this capacity in the 
United States and as the rates are the 
same, the United States growers are able 
to get their fruit into the prairie markets 
at less expense than can the Canadians. 
Another task for the Railway Commis- 
sion. 

This is not the only grievance. When- 
ever fruit is shipped by express there is 
always the danger that the consignee does 



not receive all the fruit shipped. Many 
cases are on record where from one-third 
to one-half of the fruit has been taken 
from the baskets while on their journey. 
Any complaint to the express companies 
is politely ignored. No trouble is taken 
to look into these difficulties. If the ex- 
press companies were to assist the ship- 
pers to locate a few of these dishonest 
employees and put them behind the bars, 
fewer complaints of stolen fruit would be 
heard. It is the duty of the express com- 
panies to carry all goods to their destin- 
ation in as good condition as they are 
when received from the consignor. We 
hope to hear of the fixity of rates from 
the Canadian Railway Commission 
shortly. We do not mind the express 
companies making a neat profit for their 
labor, but we do object to pay the full 
value of our goods for carrying them 
every 100 mile haul. At the same time 
there is always the danger that we do not 
get paid for all the goods we ship, for 
some of them are appropriated by the em- 
ployes of these companies. If the express 
companies would like to enjoy their extra 
good profits, they had better get down off 
their high horse, and give us reasonable 
rates and decent service before they are 
compelled to do so by the Railway Com- 
mission. 



EAST VS. WEST 

IF we were aware of the true value of 
the land in our own locality we would 
make a greater endeavor to get more 
out of it and to get more people to settle 
on it. In Western Canada real estate men 
have bought large tracts of land for specu- 



EDITORIAL 



lation. The holders of this land adver- 
tise, and in their advertisements tell of 
the money which can be made in those 
localities. Westerners believe they have 
the best portion of Canada and they tell 
this every chance they get. 

Contrast this with eastern methods. 
There the real estate men work only in 
the cities and their suburbs. Farm lands 
receive little attention. Farmers do not 
advertise. They are too easily satisfied 
with the money they make themselves 
and would rather work hard and keep the 
land next theirs growing weeds than ad- 
vertise. Recently 500 acres of the best 
grass land in Canada was bought for $2 
per acre. This land consisted of a series 
of abandoned farms with some good build- 
ings on them. It is situated 60 miles 
from St. John, N.B., and is to be used for 
sheep farming. Unfortunately New 
Brunswick is not the only province in 
eastern Canada that can tell the same 
tale. 

If we go to the Old Country we will 
hear very little about eastern Canada. 
The people scarcely ever hear of it. It is 
the west that is impressed upon them. 
While the west is good and has a great 
future before it, we do not wish the older 
provinces to suffer while the west is being 
built up. To get the people on the land 
as is wanted we should advertise our local- 
ity. The local organization of farmers 
should take up the matter and keep the 
most prominent line of farming for that 
community before the public. In this 




way the value of their own farms would 
soon increase and there would be fewer 
vacant farms. 



THE IDEAL TEACHER 

THE ideal teacher should do his best 
for the advancement of every pupil 
in the school, and for the general 
good of the community. He should be 
a close student of human nature. If he 
is not he will not be able to observe the 
true bent of his pupils, and get the best 
out of them. No two are alike, and each 
must be treated differently if the pupil 
is to receive the most benefit from his life 
at school. All our nature leans to one 
particular branch of work. It is the duty 
of the teacher to find this natural bent in 
the pupils, and then promote it to the 
fullest possible extent. 

In the rural schools, pupils are almost 
always from the farm, and their inclin- 
ation is towards farm work, and yet there 
are very few teachers who are educating 
the scholars in this direction. The system 
does not allow for much of this work. 
A solid foundation in education is needed, 
but as soon as the pupil shows a strong 
proficiency in any line of work, this line 
should be taught, and the pupil given all 
possible encouragement, which will go 
towards making a success in after life. If 
this were done, there would be less trouble 
in getting pupils to attend school, and 
there would be less discontent on the 
farm. 

The teacher should be able also, to give 
advice and assistance about book-keeping 
methods for the farmers. He should show 
an interest in their work, and be willing 
to offer help in solving any difficulty 
which arises. There are times when pests 
are unknown to the farmer. If the 
teacher can give remedies or tell where to 
find them, the parents will lend their as- 
sistance more readily to the school. They 
will have more faith in the teacher, and 
will give all assistance they can to make 
the school a genuine success in the edu- 
cation of pupils for the farm. A good 
teacher is worth $1,000 per year, and we 
can pay them this amount if the railway 
taxes and half the succession duties are 
used for this purpose. 

a 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE 



ASSIST THE BEES 

SOMETHING must be done to bring 
Bee-Keeping more to the front. 
There is good money in the indus- 
try, but there is too much disease and too 
little encouragement at present for the 
average man to start an apiary. The only 
protection the bee keeper has is from foul 
brood. It is against the law in almost 
every province in Canada to allow hives 
containing this disease to be kept or to be 
moved from one place to another. In 
some sections tins law is not well enforced. 
The work of the bee inspectors has been 
to stamp out this disease and to encourage 
the keeping of more bees. The great 
fault is that these men have not as much 
time as they should have for the proper 
carrying out of their work. They should 
be allowed more time and given a freer 
hand in destroying hives which are 
diseased. 

In addition to the amount of money 
spent in the inspection of apiaries, as is 
done in most of the provinces, there 
should be a sum granted for demonstra- 
tions that would show how the disease 
should be treated and how bees should be 
handled. A great deal of money is lost 
every year because the owner does not 



taken from the bees. A wise expenditure 
of money in the spreading of information 
would accomplish much. 




know how to take care of the bees. He 
does not know when they are in good 
condition nor the best method of giving 
assistance to weak colonies. A few thous- 
and dollars voted by each province would 
enable practical lessons to be given in 
every district where bees are kept and 
would go a long way in destroying the 
foul brood in Canada. The loss in two 
of the largest counties in Ontario every 
year is estimated at $60,000 while in each 
of the smaller comities, loss is as high as 
$3,000 yearly. This loss is not all on ac- 
count of disease, but because the bee keep- 
ers do not know the best methods of hand- 
ling the disease, or the honey which is 
12 




SOMETHING NEEDED 

FLOWER, fruit and honey shows 
which have been held in Canada re- 
cently have exceeded all expecta- 
tions. Hundreds of visitors traveled hun- 
dreds of miles to see and learn, evincing 
an interest which is growing year by year. 
Information regarding apples and mixed 
fruit was eagerly sought by all. This in- 
formation was perhaps the most difficult 
thing to find. 

At the Toronto show there did not 
appear to be anyone to tell you anything. 
The man who knew was always some- 
where else or had just gone. One visitor 
from the United States and another from 
an Ontario county, having only 
a few hours in the city, and 
very desirous of ascertaining facts 
regarding the cultivation of cer- 
tain fruits exhibited, had to leave without 
getting any satisfaction, except that of 
sightseeing. We would suggest that a 
bureau of information be established so 
that visitors could get the required advice. 
This might take the form of a booth with 
experts in charge who could answer these 
questions. 



FARM EDUCATION 

IT is often stated that farmers do not 
spend any money of their own for the 
advancement of their own interests. 
This is untrue. There is perhaps no class 
which spends as much money on self edu- 
cation. In the report of the Ontario 
Farmers' Institute which has just been 
issued for the year ending June, 1910, 



EDITORIAL 



we see a total of $15,279 spent. Of this 
amount only $3,931 was granted by the 
Government. That is the farmers spent 
in this way alone, for their own education 




in 1909, $11,348. During this time there 
were 829 meetings held, at which address- 
es were delivered, and discussions carried 
on for the advancement of agriculture. 
There were also excursions to the Agri- 
cultural College, where practical lessons 
were learned from the experimental plots. 
Papers and magazines were paid for by 
the Institutes to the extent of $363, one 
Institute alone contributing about one- 
third of this amount. These figures are 
only representative of what the farmers 
are doing for themselves in all their or- 
ganizations. The Farmers' Clubs, Agri- 
cultural Societies, Granges, Breeders' 
Associations and many others all spend 
money for the advancement of agricul- 
tural interests. Yet a hue and cry is 
raised if a few dollars are voted by the 
government to assist the farmers in the 
work they are trying to carry on them- 
selves. 



AGAIN SIDETRACKED 

WITH characteristic adroitness it is 
again proposed in the estimates, to 
give agriculture the small end of 
the finances for the Dominion. The total 
increase which Parliament is asked to vote 
amounts to $6,035,575. Of this increase 
only $60,000 goes for the direct further- 
ance of agriculture, while the militia gets 
an increase of $592,201. For every dollar 
that is spent to advance agricultural 
methods there are nine spent on drilling 
soldiers. Yet these same soldiers can not 
exist without the work of the farmers. 
In 1909, we spent a little over one mil- 



lion dollars in the advancement of agri- 
culture. At the same time we paid out 
$979,326 for immigration purposes. Al- 
most as much to get farmers to come to 
Canada as is spent to take care of them 
After they do arrive ! 

The department of Trade and Com- 
merce spent during 1909, almost four and 
a half million dollars. This is three times 
the amount spent for agriculture. It was 
spent on bounties on steel, iron, manila 
fibre, lead and other products used in 
manufacturing. Very little benefit was 
given to the farmers from this large ex- 
penditure, yet it paid the country to spend 
this money. It will be profitable to spend 
more in developing the great resources of 
Canadian agriculture. 

Before the next session meets it is hoped 
that the report of the Technical Educa- 
tion Commission will be in the hands of 
the Government. This report will we 
hope pave the way for the grant of a 
million dollars yearly, to be divided 




amongst the provinces for technical agri- 
cultural education. The provinces are do- 
ing good work in taking the colleges to 
the farms, but they have not the funds at 
their command to do unlimited work in 
this direction and should be given assist- 
ance by the Dominion. When every 
county in Canada has its agricultural high 
school and its district departmental repre- 
sentative the farmers will be better edu- 
cated to cope with every difficulty, and to 
make the most out of their soil. 



BUYING EGGS 

POULTRY 
men have a 
good case 
against the Govern- 
ment. In every 
other line of work 
we have exact fig- 
ures to guide us in 
marketing our products. But where are 
we at in the poultry business? We do 

13 




FARMER'S MAGAZINE 



not know. We can look to the United 
States and see exactly what has been done 
and what is being done there. 

When we come home we do not know 
the value of our poultry nor the number 
in the country. So far this session we have 
heard nothing of the results which were 
asked for by the deputation which waited 
upon Hon. S. Fisher during the past sum- 
mer. What does the Minister intend to 
do about it? 

The dealers are asking for a law mak- 
ing it criminal to sell eggs unfit for food. 
This would be a good thing and should be 
enforced if it is passed. These dealers 
blame the farmer for all this loss through 
bad eggs. There are some farmers who 
will sell eggs that are not right but the 
largest loss is caused by the local store- 
keeper. He collects the eggs from the 
farmers and keeps them for a week or 
more till he has a shipment. It is this 
holding that does the damage. 

To prove that it is not all the farmers' 
fault we asked several of the dealers this 
question — Do you not receive better eggs 
from the farmers direct than you do from 
the local dealers. Those who answered 
the question said they did but those who 
did not care to admit this, evaded the 
question. 

Co-operative selling on the part of the 
farmers would assist matters, but we 
should go carefully along this line as it 
is new to Canadians. Recently an associ- 
ation of this nature was formed and a 
contract made for the whole year. This 
contract placed these farmers out of the 
hands of the dealers and guaranteed them 
a first-class price for their eggs the whole 
year round. We do not mean by this that 
the dealers are all crooks. Far from it. 
They are doing a good work with their 
cold storages, which assist in keeping 
prices at an average figure the year round. 



PROFITABLE SPENDING 

FIFTY-SIX cents per pound for a live 
steer 1 This is the highest price 
which has ever been paid for a steer 
in Canada. At this rate the butcher 
would have to sell the meat from the car- 

14 



cass at more than one dollar per pound 
to come out safe. But the question which 
concerns us is the cost of producing this 
animal. There is no doubt that it re- 
ceived more than average care. But did 
it pay and will it pay in all cases? 

The Massachusetts Experiment Station 
finds, after a series of tests, they are able 
to raise calves till they are two years old 
for $40. These were dairy calves and 
were not forced for fattening but were 
kept in good condition and growing well. 
They were average calves. Suppose that 
beef cattle are dearer to raise. Suppose 
that it costs more in Canada than in the 
United States. Taking these two factors 
into consideration a cost of $80 should be 
enough to cover the feed bill for the 
average beef two-year-old. We should not 
be content with the average. It is those 
animals which are above the average 
which bring in the extra money. This 
should give us enough feed to make a 
two-year-old weigh 1,300 pounds. This 
is not an extraordinary weight. Year- 
olds have been known to weigh 1,100 
pounds and over. Surely the other two 
hundred can be put on in one year. 
Steers of this class will readily sell at 
seven cents per pound, which would mean 
a selling price of $91, or a profit of $11 
on every steer at the age of two years. 
This is on the average steer. What then 
must have been the profit on this steer 
which sold for almost $800? 



HONEY VALUE 

THE sale of honey should be pushed 
with more vigor. There is not near- 
ly as great a demand for this food 
as its excellence deserves. The principal 
reason is that it is not advertised. Almost 
every sweet stuff has its show card except 
honey, and yet few are as wholesome. It is 
good for colds and coughs. It has a sooth- 
ing effect on the digestive system. It is 
easily digested and is popular amongst all 
classes. Our bee keepers and merchants 
should advertise a little more as this seems 
to be the only way that the produce sells 
these days. If the house keeper knew the 
full value of honey it would be found* on 
the tables more frequently. 




CO-OPERATIVE BUILDING 

RURAL depopulation is not as serious 
as some would indicate. The whole 
secret of this depopulation is the 
loneliness and isolation of farm life. _ This 
has been increased by the popularity of 
the mail order houses. They send attrac- 
tive catalogs to farmers who feel that the 
goods as advertised are cheaper than they 
can be secured at home. The money is sent 
to the cities and the local merchant is 
allowed to starve or move to larger centres 
where he can carry on a profitable busi- 
ness. It is like buying a pig in a bag, we 
do not know what we are getting till we 
have paid for it. On the other hand if 
we were to go to the nearest town we 
would choose our own goods and pay for 
them according to quality. The profit 
which is made by the local merchant is 
used in building up the town, which 
draws people to it, and more money comes 
with the visitors. We do not do this. We 
go to town with the idea that we are going 
to get the worst of the bargain. We feel 
that the merchant is going to take all the 
money he can from us and use it for his 
personal comfort. 

Too often this is the case. Local mer- 
chants have been neglectful of their busi- 
ness. They have not taken their custo- 
mers sufficiently into their confidence, nor 
have the customers confided in the mer- 
chants. Customers should see if they can 
get goods in the local store before they 
send to the mail order houses for them. 



They should read the ad\ertisements of 
the local merchants. They do not know 
the merchant socially or any other way 
except when they go into his store. The 
merchant is supposed to be a good busi- 
ness man. Then why not ask for some 
ideas which may be applied to the busi- 
ness methods of the farm? Attend the 
meetings of the local board of trade. In- 
vite the merchant to your home and know 
him better. You are just as proud of 
your town as he is, and you should take 
more interest in building it up. Work 
together and see how much more you wiP 
accomplish. 



OUR GENEROSITY 

THROUGH a typographical error we 
were more generous to the railways 
than we intended to be. $264,902,- 
019 is a pretty liberal amount to hand to 
private corporations, yet that is what the 
railways have received from the people of 
Canada. In the past they have success- 
fully tried all schemes to evade taxation. 
We believe that with their increased 
earnings they are now willing to share 
the burdens of Government with the 
Canadian people. We have proposed that 
the railways be taxed and the money 
raised be used to encourage ideal teachers 
to stay with their work. In this way we 
believe that we will get better results and 
the railways will get better employees. 

15 



The Tariff and Farmers' Prices 

By H. J. Waddie 

"The few who raise this Reciprocity cry are those ivho see, in 
Canada, a market for their goods, and a few who see a chance to 
buy their raw material cheaper." Mr. Waddie, who is a graduate of 
a Scotch university, and is president of the Canadian Drawn Steel 
Company. Hamilton, Out., thus sums up the whole tariff situation 
in Canada. Selfishness is at the bottom of it all. We all seem to be 
willing to pay our share towards the Government of Canada, but we 
arc afraid that some one pays less than we do. 



THE words "Tariff," "Reciprocity" 
and "Free Trade" have taken 
a more prominent place in 
the daily discussions lately _ than 
for some years past, and it is 
advisable that we should look more fully 
into these terms, and try to get a fuller 
understanding into their significance in 
relation to the daily life and development 
of Canada. 

Tariff means to us duty payable on 
nearly all the usual purchases we make if 
they are imported. It therefore means 
that we are' paying more for our goods 
than we would under a policy of Free 
Trade. Almost anyone is prepared to 
admit this. The questions to be consider- 
ed are, why do we pay more for these ar- 
ticles, what benefit, if any, do we get from 
these higher prices, and, if we benefit, 
does any class benefit to the detriment or 
loss of another class? The general opin- 
ion, which the writer gathered during a 
recent extended trip through the Middle 
West of Canada was, that some of the 
farmers felt they were being made to 
"fork out' in order to support the indus- 
trial populations in the manufacturing 
districts of Ontario and Eastern Canada, 
The primary object of the tariff in 
Canada is to raise a revenue to meet the 
ever increasing national expenditure due 
to the development of the central and 
western provinces, and to the opening up 
of vast tracts of agricultural and mineral 
lands to the north. Revenue is needed, 

16 



and must be had or the country must 
stand still. All must contribute to the 
national purse, and the government nat- 
urally decided that a percentage of the 
money earned by each individual must 
be given to the government. The fairest 
way, obviously, was to tax the amount of 
money spent by each person in the pur- 
chase of necessaries and luxuries, making 
the amount small on the former, and 
large on the latter. The national income 
could be raised in other ways, but the 
people of Canada decided that this was 
the fairest, and looking closely into the 
things which are happening every day we 
see that it has many advantages over an 
income tax, poll tax, land tax or other 
forms of taxation, at present practised in 
foreign countries. Now the result of our 
tariff has been to induce the people of 
Canada to establish factories and mills 
for the production of the goods required 
by the population, and by reserving the 
home market it has also forced American 
and other manufacturers to come here, 
bringing their capital, and providing em- 
ployment for hundreds of thousands of 
the unemployed from the Old Country. 
Everyone of these workers is an asset to 
the farmer and to the nation. Instead of 
millions of dollars going out of Canada 
for the purchase of goods, we have these 
millions spent here, and distributed 
amongst the farmers and manufacturers 
for their wares. Food prices have risen 
and the farmer is prosperous. Canada is 



TARIFF FOR THE FARMERS 



recognized as a growing country, and the 
money of England, France, Germany and 
the United States is pouring in to help us 
in the problems which we have to face 
daily in the financing of our ever increas- 
ing commerce. 

Without a tariff what would the result 
have been ? Where would these industrial 
centres of older Canada be to-day? What 
population would Canada have had in 
place of her eight millions? What would 
the farm help do nine months in the 
year, and where would our boys be who 
would not work on the farm? 

This brings us to consider whether with 
free trade our factories would go under, 
or could meet the competition from out- 
side, the Dominion. The cost of produc- 
tion of any article in a factory is a very 
complicated thing, dependent on a vast 
number of causes and circumstances, and 
for illustration we can take the manufac- 
ture of farm implements. We will as- 
sume that competition in these lines will 
come from the United States. The ques- 
tion is, can we in Canada make these as 
cheaply as they can there, or will we ad- 
mit we cannot? 

Given one hundred implements of any 
one kind to turn out in a given time, we 
have no hesitation in saying that with 
raw materials at the same figure the Can- 
adian factory can match the one in the 
United States all the time. Then why not 
have free trade in agricultural imple- 
ments? Because the factory in the Unit- 
ed States would be making these all the 
year round, and covering the market from 
Texas to the Peace River, whilst the Can- 
adian manufacturer would have to con- 
fine himself to making for the small mar- 
ket of Canada, together with export bus- 
iness during a portion of the year, and 
in this way his cost of production 
would be much heavier, and his men 
would be idle half the time, and be forced 
to find employment elsewhere. Geo- 
graphically, owing; to freight rates, he 
would be undersold in the States, and his 
rates in Canada would be approximately 
the same as his competitor. He would 
therefore^ probably divide the business 
with United States makers. Why are 
freight rates in Canada so high? Because 
of the expense of working the railroads 



we have built through a thinly populated 
country in advance of any freight require- 
ments, but in an endeavor to settle the 
country and build up the traffic. 

Volume of business is what counts in 
the cost of production, and, steady em- 
ployment to all hands. That, we cannot 
yet have in Canada, except by reserving 
our market to our own people, and we 
are entitled to the market we have made 
at the expense of blood and money. The 
farmer pays more for his goods, and thus 
gives employment to the artisan in Can- 
ada. He, in turn, pays more for his 
goods, and contributes to the revenue, and 
he also buys the products of the farmer. 
The whole process is interwoven, but the 
money remains in circulation in 
Canada. That is what we want. 
We have the natural resources and 
must develop them in our own coun- 
try. Every inhabitant is contributing, ac- 
cording to his purchases, to the revenue 
required for the reaching of these re- 
sources. If the population does not grow 
the cost must come more heavily on the 
individual or the programme must be cur- 
tailed. Free trade and direct taxation 
would undoubtedly be more irksome to 
us all, than the present method of tariff. 
The government must have the money or 
it cannot do the work. How we pay it 
will not make it less, except we can raise 
it in such a way as to induce population, 
increase our markets and cheapen produc- 
tion. 

The imports of machinery and ma- 
chines for the four months ending July, 
1910, amounted to the sum of $7,224,- 
591. The exports of this class for the 
corresponding period only totalled $1,- 
910,851, or a balance against Canada of 
over $5,000,000, for a third of the year. 
All that sum, or say fifteen millions, this 
vear, will be spent outside Canada. 
Ninety per cent, of it goes south of the 
line. What proportion of it will be spent 
in Canadian farm produce? This brines 
us to the item of exports, and on this sub- 
ject we will deal shortly, as statistics are 
dry, but there is a difficulty met with in 
understanding the reasons why exports 
are sold so much cheaper than the same 
articles at home. 

This refers to manufactured products. 

17 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE 



The farmer naturally feels aggrieved 
when he hears of a Canadian made im- 
plement being sold cheaper abroad than 
he can buy it at home for. The duty 
paid on all imported materials entering 
into the manufacture of farm implements 
is rebated to the extent of 99 per cent, 
when the finished product of the 
factory passes out of Canada on 
its way to a foreign port. In 
this way the manufacturer can make a 
lower price on export goods than he can 
for the home market. This rebate clause 
enables the Canadian manufacturer _ to 
compete in export business, and to give 
employment in the Dominion, to large 
numbers who would otherwise be forced 
to look for employment elsewhere. 
Again, the seasons differ in these other 
countries, thus making the production of 
the Canadian mills more steady, and the 
shipments and sales extend over the full 
twelve months. This cheapens the cost 
of production on implements for home 
use, and Canadian users get the benefit 
in addition to getting the larger home 
market due to the population employed 
on export manufacturing. Now the farm- 
er in the South experiences the same feel- 
ings when he hears the prices American 
implements sell for in Canada, but the 
manufacturer knows his business. Can- 
ada's season comes late, and he has his 
surplus stock to sell. We all know what 
a "clearing" sale is. We get just as good 
an article, but rather than carry it over 
for a season, it is better business to sell 
at a reduction. Personally the farmer 
may benefit, but his money goes out of 
Canada, and will not be used to buy his 
products. He must consider this when he 
makes his purchase. 

The exports of manufactured articles 
for the four months ending with June, 
1910, amounted to $10,810,630, or sav 
$30,000,000 for the twelve months. A 
very large proportion of this latter sum 
will be spent in farm products. 

Many articles of food and clothing 
must be imported, and the more people 
we have to buy these, the greater the rev- 
enue. What we all want is a good intel- 
ligent population who will consume our 
produce and settle the country. We must 
have diversified employment to offer, and 

18 



something to give the rising generation. 
All are not suited to agriculture, and un- 
less we can find work for our boys and 
girls in Canada, we will lose them for- 
ever. 

Free trade is a policy adopted in Great 
Britain, but how many people know what 
that policy means to her. She has obvious 
advantages as an exporting country, due 
to her coast l'ne and shipping facilities, 
also she has a long established connection 
which is world wide, but, and this is im- 
portant, she has an enormous and expens- 
ive Customs department required to 
search incoming vessels at all her ports, 
and this to collect duty on a few articles. 
Who keeps up this department, and what 
proportionate revenue does Great Britain 
derive from the expense? Every year the 
government has to hunt for some 
new means of collecting revenue 
for the demands of the Empire, 
and we have yet to find the 
working-man or farmer from Great Brit- 
ain who does not consider he is better 
off here. 

Our most natural field for the sale of 
our goods outside of Canada would be 
the United States. What are they anxious 
to buy from us, and how much would we 
buy from them in return? We venture 
to say the balance of trade on a reciprocity 
basis would be enormously to our disad- 
vantage. Who will dispute this? The 
United States are becoming anxious for 
reciprocity, but we do not believe it i 
with a view to giving Canada some of then 
good money. The few who raise this 
reciprocity cry are those who see in Can- 
ada a market for their goods, and a few 
who see a chance to buy their raw material 
cheaper. 

We must reason this thing out, and we 
believe that the people of Canada are 
spending a large share of their revenue 
in developing and assisting the agricul- 
ture of the country. Experimental farms 
and agricultural colleges are being estab- 
lished so that the best may be got out of 
the land. All the people of Canada are 
contributing. Railways are being pushed 
forward, canals built and deepened, and 
soon we may have elevators owned by the 
people. All this takes money, and all 
must contribute. 



Why- a Tariff? 



By T. A. Russell 



Mr. Russell, who replies below to Mr. Drury's article in our last 
issue, is chairman of the tariff committee of the Canadian Manufac- 
turers' Association. He is general manager of the Canada Cycle & 
Motor Company, is a graduate of and was lecturer in Political 
Science in Toronto University. 

Mr. Russell takes a broader view of tariff matters than many 
manufacturers, and when he was secretary of their association, had 
the reputation with the Government at Ottawa as being honest and 
straight. Some manufacturers foolishly make representations to the 
Government zvhich are not accurate. Sometimes the members point 
out the incorrectness of the assertions they make, while at other 
times they verify them. The late Hon. James Sutherland said to a 
member of FARMER'S MAGAZINE staff, that any time Mr. Rus- 
sell made a statement to the Cabinet, they knew it to be absolutely 
correct. Farmers would like Mr. Russell to have said more on the 
matter of trusts. Will the Manufacturers' Association support the 
farmers in their campaign against the formation of combinations 
with heavily watered capital? 



ANYTHING written by Mr. Drury on 
agricultural subjects, commands at- 
tention, for he is one of the most 
capable agricultural writers in Canada. 

What I have to say in answer to his re- 
cent article on tariff reduction is not so 
much in the way of contradiction and dis- 
pute as with the thought of suggesting 
some new points of view to those inter- 
ested in this subject from the agricultural 
side. 

Perhaps I may be permitted to discuss 
it not altogether as a stranger, for I was 
born and brought up on an Ontario farm, 
where I learned more about farming in 
general and Shorthorn breeding in par- 
ticular, than I ever hope to know about 
any other business or profession. No con- 
dition of life will ever break my early love 
for the things of the farm. 

Mr. Drury's first reference is to the 
present agitation for lower duties, an agi- 
tation which he says is unfairly under- 
estimated. On this I have little to say, 
for certainly everyone must concede to 



the farmer or to any citizen, the right 
to discuss any question that affects his in- 
terest, and to agitate for what he believes 
will help him. But it is right for us to 
ask that on a subject which affects all 
classes in the country, a serious attempt 
be made to look at the problem from more 
than one point of view. Human kind is 
much the same wherever found 1 A man 
is not an angel as a farmer, nor a robber 
because he happens to be a manufacturer. 
We are all much the same, and the at- 
tempt so often made to hold up the manu- 
facturer as being full of dishonest greed, 
while every farmer is an honest man un- 
fairly dealt with, is unfair and unworthy. 
We all have a common interest in the dev- 
elopment of our country. Let us ap- 
proach the settlement of the points where 
our interests appear not common, without 
bitterness or misrepresentation. 

THE HOME MARKET 

The article opens with a most unfair 
statement as follows: "The 'home market' 
promised by advocates of protection has 

19 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE 



proved a myth." Does their prosperity 
bear this out? Why has their land 
reached a value of $500 to $1,000 per 
acre, unless it be their proximity to the 
meat home markets of the manufacturing 
cities that adjoin it? Do the farmers of 
Montreal Island and the Eastern town- 
ships believe his statement? Is the 'home 
market' a myth, when in addition to our 
own production, 300,000 carcasses of Aus- 
tralian mutton were imported in Canada 
— Canada, the food supply source of the 
empire? And what of the mythical 
"home market'' which imported 7,683,- 
000 pounds of foreign grown wool as we 
did last year? In 1901 the census gave 
the value of farm products produced in 
Canada as $364,906,866.00 The value 
of farm exports in the same year was $80,- 
276,797.00. Thus the value of Canadian 
farm produce consumed at home that 
year was $284,630,069.00, or roughly, 
80 per cent, of the whole. Does that 
sound as if the home market was a 
myth? But this is not all. During the 
same year we imported from abroad farm 
produce valued at $29,881,504.00. Thus 
the total value of farm produce consumed 
in Canada in that year was $314,511,576, 
or equal to 86 per cent, of the value of 
all the farm produce grown in Canada. 
Reference to the annual report of Trade 
and Commerce for 1908 shows the value 
of farm produce imported into Canada in 
1908 has again doubled over the figures 
of 1910.* This attempt to disparage the 
value of the home market is a mistake. 
While it is true that the prices of some 
commodities like wheat is set in a world's 
market, it still remains a fact that from 
80 to 90 per cent, .of all the farm produce 
grown in Canada is consumed at home, 
and that the home demand has a most 
valuable effect on all prices. While the 
export market should be cultivated, let 
the Canadian farmer never forget that 
the home market is the surest and the 
most profitable. 



THE FRUIT GROWERS 



The second statement in the article is 
just about as inaccurate. It says "there 



is an agitation for protection on Canadian 
farm products." One answer to this, and 
there are many others just as pointed, is 
contained in the resolution of the Ontario 
Fruit Growers' Association, November 
17th, 1910. Evidently, Mr. Drury does 
not speak for this body of farmers who are 
striving to make this province of Ontario 
one of the gardens of the earth. The re- 
solution is as follows: Resolved "That in 
view of the possible negotiations with 
United States in regard to reciprocity of 
tariffs, the Ontario Fruit Growers' Associ- 
ation wish to place on record their un- 
qualified disapproval of any reduction 
of the duties on fruit coming into Can- 
ada, without consulting a committee to 
be appointed by the Association. The 
duty is now much lower than the duties 
on manufactured goods and lower than 
they ought to be in view of the fact that 
there can be no monopoly or combine in 
fruit: — the price being fixed absolutely 
by the law of supply and demand."* This 
reflects the attitude of a great many farm- 
ers, and it is a well known fact that most 
of the agitation for low tariff is from acad- 
emic writers in certain farm journals, and 
interested officers of Societies, who seem 
to feel that the success of their paper or 
their Association is dependent on keep- 
ing up an agitation that will inflame the 
farmer against other classes in the com- 
munity. 

THE TARIFF AND PRICES 

The statement follows that the tariff 
raises the prices by just so much. This 
is proven in offhand fashion by the state- 
ment "that Canadaian made farm im- 
plements are sent to Australia and New 
Zealand, and there sold for less than in 
Canada." There is only one answer to 
such a statement. It is incorrect. Neither 
Mr. Drury nor anyone else can point to 
a single farm implement sold in Australia 
or New Zealand lower or as low as in 
Canada, I challenge Mr. Drury to name 
a single agricultural implement used in 
Canada that is not at least 20 per cent, 
higher in Australia than in Canada. How 
can any man make such statements in 
good faith, and so claim that the tariff 



* 1, Canada Year Book 1908. page 98. 2. Canada Yeat 
Book 1909. page 62. 3. Canada Year Book 1909. page 172 
20 



See Ontario Department of Agriculture. Records of 
the Ontario Fruit Growers' Association. 



WHY— A TARIFF? 



enhances the price of goods by just so 
much? Binders enter Australia free. 
The Canadian duty on binders is 17 y% 
per cent. According to Mr. Drury's logic 
Canadian binders will be found 17% per 
cent, dearer than in Australia? What 
are the facts? Any binder in Australia 
is from 25 per cent, to 40 per cent, dearer 
than in Canada. It is the publication of 
uch inaccurate statements that sometimes 
makes one doubt the good faith of the 
men that use them. 

TARIFF AND TRUSTS 

The attempt to decry a tariff on the 
grounds that it develops trusts is not new, 
although those who have studied the evo- 
lution of modern business know that they 
develop irrespective of tariff. Free trade 
England is a leader in trust organization. 
There is a special book, and not a small 
one at that, devoted to them. They in- 
clude the Salt Union (a combination of 
64 firms), J. & P. Coats (5 firms), Brad- 
ford Dyers (22 firms), Calico Printers' 
Association (47 firms), Imperial Tobacco 
(13 firms) with $75,000,000 capital, etc., 
etc. France has had protection for two 
centuries, and is singularly free from 
trusts, because forbidden by law, and 
the law is enforced. Trusts are not the 
fruit of tariff, but are the result of the 
modern tendency to organization. Special 
legislation is required to control them 
when contrary to the public interest, but 
no tariff law would ever do it. In fact, the 
abolition of the Canadian tariff at the 
present time would in several businesses 
tend to shut down independent Canadian 
firms and place our market at the control 
of large United States trusts. 

TARIFF AND WAGES 

The suggestion that the work people 
are no better off here than in England 
(as he seeks to illustrate by reference to 
the cotton workers) would indicate that 
perhaps he knows not quite so much about 
manufacturing as about farming. The 
average wage of over 100,000 cotton oper- 
atives in Great Britain as shown by the 
"Board of Trade" labor gazette is 16s, 
lid per week, practically $4.50 per week. 
The average wage of over 1,000,000 tex- 
tile workers in Great Britain is only 17s, 
6d per week. Our Canadian people will 



not work for less than twice this. Yet 
the article suggests that our tariff means 
nothing to our work people. The writer, 
however, expects manufacturers in Canada 
to pay double the wages paid in England, 
and yet compete without a tariff against 
goods made by this cheaper labor. There 
are many clever men in the manufactur- 
ing business who would like to have a sug- 
gestion as to how it is to be done. The 
standard rate of wages in August last as 
shown in the report of the Amalgamated 
Society of Carpenters and Joiners, are as 
follows : 
London, Eng 10 V 2 d Montreal .. ..28c 

Manchester. . 9y 2 d Ottawa 30c 

Liverpool . . lOd Toronto 35c 

Birmingham 9V2d Vancouver . . 50c 
Glasgow .... 9d Winnipeg .... 45c 
Dublin .... 8V 2 d 

A whole book of similar wage statistics 
could be given, but they are unneeded. 
The work people of Canada know. 

FARM PRICES 

If the home market were a myth; if 
our tariff had depressed farm prices, and 
enhanced prices of manufactured goods, 
the statistics will show it. A comparison 
of prices of farm products in the years 
1873-1878 with those of the years 1904- 
1909, show an average increase in prices 
of farm produce of 18 per cent. A com- 
parison of prices of representative manu- 
factured articles for the same two periods 
shows an average decrease of 26 per cent. 
What does that mean? It means that a 
given quantity of farm produce will buy 
50 per cent, more in manufactured goods 
to-day under a moderate protective tariff 
than it did then under a low revenue 
tariff. I do not claim that the tariff has 
caused all this, but it does show that the 
farmer gets much more for the same ef- 
fort than he has ever got before. There is 
no definite information by which the ef- 
fect of a tariff on prices can be proved. 
Cases can be given which show that a 
tariff has increased prices; as many. can be 
given to show it does not. The result var- 
ies with the conditions. But generally, 
I think I am safe in saying, the effects of 
a tariff is to develop industries that will 
take care of the home trdae, and that the 
local competition which results brings 

21 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE 



down prices to a level based on the closest 
figuring of labor and material. "If after 
30 years of protection," he says "an in- 
dustry cannot stand, there is something 
radically wrong with it." This sounds 
plausible, but is hardly fair. We are side 
by side with a much more powerful nation 
very highly protected. Can we keep our 
fences down free to our neighbor's herd 
of ninety, and have our own modest herd 
of seven shut out from the other field? 

REVENUE RAISING 

Our great and growing country requires 
public money to develop it. In no other 
way can this money be raised with so little 
hardship on the farmer. The farmer 
grows more of what he uses, and there- 
fore buys less, proportionately, than any 
system of direct taxation could on the 
farmer with his large and valuable hold- 
ings of land. 

FARMERS PRESENT PETITION 

What is the position of the farmer to- 
day? He is better off, living in better 
houses, with more comforts, than ever be- 
fore. Ask any typical farmer about him- 
self, and you do not find him weeping 
about his position, and decrying his stand- 
ing in the community. He will refer with 
just pride to his progress; his indepen- 
dence; his prosperity. It is a well known 
fact that there are no men engaged in 
any business, financial, mercantile or 
manufacturing that are making as big a 
return on their investment as are the 
farmers in Northwestern Canada to-day. 
Strange then it seems that this sturdy 
class of independent yeomanry will con- 
sent to their leaders representing them as 
a weak, defenceless class, downtrodden by 
other classes in the community, and, by 
inference, almost objects of charity. 
Farmers as individuals rightly resent 
such suggestions; as a class they soon 
will. 

THE FARMERS' REAL NEED 

The reduction of the tariff is not the 
farmers' salvation to-day. Even if it 
were granted that the tariff increased the 
cost of the things he buys, it would prove 
the case. The increased cost to the farmer 
under any circumstances could only be 
a matter of so many cents per acre, while 
the farmers' real problem to-day is to in- 

22 



crease the productiveness of his soil by 
dollars and dollars per acre. 

Our greatest agricultural authorities to- 
day arc pointing the way, and what is 
it? Better drainage, which will increase 
the yield from 10 to 100 per cent. 

Better dairying methods to improve 
and increase our dairy output. 

Better roads to decrease cost of trans- 
portation of goods to and from the farm. 

Better systems of sheep and wool rais- 
ing. 

Better educational facilities, especially 
on subjects that pertain to the farm. 

Better methods of destroying noxious 
weeds and injurious insects. 

Better railway facilities to bring in his 
goods and ship out his produce. 

Improved canal systems to carry his 
grain to market more quickly and 
cheaply. 

While a tariff might affect his output 
one per cent., these conditions will affect 
it from 10 to 100 per cent. So I say, Mr. 
Drury, devote your ability and experi- 
ence to these great problems, and you will 
attain many times more for the men you 
wish to serve. 

manufacturers' attitude 

Many of these problems require the ex- 
penditure of public money to aid in their 
solution, and the message I would bring 
to you is, that the merchants and the 
manufacturers rejoicing in your prosper- 
ity, and sharing in it will support with 
enthusiasm any broad public policy that 
means the proper expenditure of public 
money for agricultural development, 
And I would further add, the hope that 
the leaders among our farmers cease to 
regard manufacturers as very different 
from themselves in character, hopes or 
ambitions. We are all citizens of a com- 
mon country, and partners in its welfare. 
When the promised monster farmer de- 
putation comes to Ottawa, the manufac- 
turers will be the first to extend the right 
hand of fellowship to them, and if we can 
get opportunity to sit down together on 
these national questions without bitter- 
ness or feelings of estrangement, I feel 
that when we part again, we will each un- 
derstand the others position a little better, 
and that we will have accomplished some- 
thing for our own and our country's good. 



Henri Bourassa 

and tke Nationalists. 

What La&rier's defeat in Quebec 
means to fatare Canadian Politics. 



QUEBEC follows a leader, Laurier 
leads it. But when Laurier is gone 
who does? 

Will it be Honorable George Graham as 
leader of the Liberal party, successor to 
Laurier? 

Will it be Honorable Richard McBride, 
said to be the coming leader of the Conser- 
vatives ? 

They are English. Quebec follows a 
French-Canadian. The question is : Which 
of the French shall it be. Laurier is near 
seventy. The new leader must have sprout- 
ed his comb by now. 

So is it Brodeur, the Minister of Marine 
and Fisheries? Or Rodolphe Lemieux, the 
Postmaster-General? Or Gouin, the Prem- 
ier of Quebec? Or F. D. Monk, M.P., 
Conservative leader of the French-Cana- 
dians in Parliament? 

Or, is it Henri Bourassa, the fire-brand, 
the man who defeated the Premier of Can- 
ada in his own home constituency the other 
day, the man who abetted his "puppet" 
against the Premier's "puppet," his plat- 
form of "Nationalism" against the old 
Premier's platform of "Liberalism" — and 
won? Is it he that is to lead Quebec when 
Laurier is gone? 

Brodeur is sick and Gouin likes the er- 
mine of a judge's cape. Monk, too, is 
sick, disappointed because he finds that 
peddling honest ideals to the public is often 
like trying to sell gold for philosophy. And 
the ruddy little Postmaster, Rodolphe Lemi- 
eux — is Rodolphe Lemieux, and a nice man 
at that. 

But Bourassa, with only one generation 
between him and the fiery blood of the hon- 
orable old rebel — Louis Joseph Papineau, 



is neither sick nor weary, nor satisfied, and 
he has one ambition — to lead Quebec. He 
seems to have made some headway in that 
direction. 

And, then, there is another thing. 

If he leads it, where will he lead it? To 
succor Honorable George Graham, leading 
the Liberals? Or Richard McBride, of the 
Conservative camp? Or will he become 
leader of a third party in Canadian poli- 
tics — leader of the French? If he does, 
what must be the price that the parties 
shall pay him for his aid in the House of 
Commons when it comes to putting through 
desirable or undesirable measures? What 
will he demand for his French support in 
each piece of legislation that goes through 
the House? What tinge of what color will 
he give each development of Canadian 
Nationalism? 



THE Naval Policy, to which Laurier is 
pledged, and on which Bourassa seeks 
to lead Quebec to condemn him, is 
neither here nor there in discussing Bour- 
assa. More people than Nationalists dis- 
approve of the Government's course. The 
attack upon the new Canadian navy was 
made the cry in the bye-election :.n the unit- 
ed counties of Drummond and Arthabaska- 
ville. It was used to stir the voters, one 
way or another. It was the subject of the 
despatches to the newspapers. But the real 
issue was Bourassa. The opposing candi- 
dates were the mere puppets of the two 
French-Canadians, Laurier and Bourassa. 
When Laurier's man was defeated, it was 
not a victory for the Nationalist candidate; 
it was Bourassa's personal victory. It is 

_, J . 23 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE 



that victory which leads those who consider 
the man to wonder what more is to come. 
They have seen him address spellbound 
audiences of ten or fifteen thousand for 
two hours at a time ; they have seen the 
mob pour out of Notre Dame church at 
midnight, at the close of a meeting, and fol- 
low him for blocks, to listen to him or to 
one of his aides address them from a street 
platform. They have seen him champion 
losing sides in seemingly hopeless fights 
and turn the current of defeat into the 
channels of victory. And now, he threat- 
ens to invade Protestant Ontario. He de- 
fies the Premier to open the constituency 
for which the Secretary of State — himself 
a Roman Catholic — sits. It is, of course, 
with much skill that he selected that rid- 
ing for his defiance. He knows the split 
that took place between two factions of 
the Liberals before Hon. Mr. Murphy was 
in the consideration at all. It is partly 
French-Canadian. He knows, no doubt, 
that it was with difficulty that the successful 
candidate was persuaded to resign and to 
allow Hon. Mr. Murphy to run in his place, 
and no doubt he has long since calculated 
the advantage which is to he had from a 
split between two factions and the dissatis- 
faction of the man who resigned. Such be- 
ing the case, the opening of this constitu- 
ency would scarcely be a fair test of Laur- 
ier's strength or the popularity of the naval 
programme. But Bourassa, by thus op- 
posing Laurier, is revealing his intention 
of becoming the leader of Quebec, if not 
at once, then surely, when Laurier has quit 

the stage. 

* * * 

THERE are four essentials to that lead- 
ership : Ability, courage, integrity and 
ambition. Laurier himself has given 
testimony to Bourassa's ability. When, as 
a young man of twenty-eight years, Bour- 
assa entered the House of Commons as the 
member for Labelle, Laurier singled him 
out as worthy of honors. He gave him 
encouragement, advice and opportunities. 
When the Canadian delegation was ap- 
pointed to confer at Washington in 1897, 
concerning the trade relations of the two 
countries, Bourassa was secretary. It was 
the Premier's gift to a man whom he ad- 
mired. 

24 



But after that, Bourassa chose to com- 
pel atttention, rather than to have it given 
him. When Laurier sent the Canadian 
troops to South Africa without first sum- 
moning Parliament, Bourassa retired in 
protest, and the people of his French-Cana- 
dian constituency supported his protest by 
returning him to Parliament on his stand- 
ing for re-election. 

When J. Israel Tarte saw fit to talk Pro- 
tection in the face of his Free Trade con- 
freres, and left the Cabinet, it was Bour- 
assa who challenged Tarte, the free lance, 
to oratorical combat, and Bourassa, who de- 
feated Tarte so badly at Laprairie as to 
give him a push into the outer-darkness 
of political failure, towards which he had 
already set out. 

When, in 1904, certain political powers 
plotted to gain control of La Presse and to 
do certain things which ought not to have 
been done, it was Bourassa who found it 
out and gave voice through his little paper, 
"Le Nationaliste." 

When the autonomy hills were being dis- 
cussed in the House of Commons and the 
separate school question was a sore issue, 
it was Bourassa who took the stump and 
raised so much noise in Quebec that despite 
Clifford Sifton's resigning in protest against 
the clauses which the Government included 
in the charters of these new provinces, the 
situation resulted in a compromise. 

And at every appearance in the spot-light 
Bourassa was a stronger figure. He had 
but a small following when he protested 
against the sending of the soldiers to South 
Africa. After his victory over Tarte it 
was larger. After his fight in favor of the 
separate school clauses in the charters of 
Saskatchewan and Alberta, he had still a 
greater following. His name spread over 
the Province of Quebec. It became synony- 
mous with "the rights of the French-Cana- 
dian." 

People began to talk of Bourassa's 
speeches. He made them on all sorts of 
topics, without invitation from anyone. But 
he had always large 'audiences. Once he 
talked on "Patriotism" in Le Monument 
National, in Montreal. There were all 
sorts of people there, judges and lawyers 
and priests, on one hand, and on the other, 
longshoremen and laborers. The address 



HENRI BOURASSA AND THE NATIONALISTS 



was academic, and yet the attention was 
tense. The audience was brought to a 
state where it lay like soft wax in Bour- 
assa's hands. He had only to speak, to 
sway it to one thing or another. In the 
end, he paused, tilted slightly forward on his 
toes, and addressing the young men in the 
gallery, he adjured them quietly not to 
waste their enthusiasm on passing objects, 
but to cherish it for the occasion when it 
might serve the country's good. 

That was all. It wasi very simple, and 
yet — yet in an electric instant the erstwhile 
silent, closely critical audience was trans- 
formed. Rarely is such a scene as follow- 
ed, to be witnessed nowadays. It was an 
ovation — such a yielding to the power of 
the orator's spell as one reads of, but sees 
too seldom. 

But there have been other signs of what 
Bourassa could do. 

He took to criticizing provincial affairs 
in Quebec. He objected to the manner in 
which Parent, who was then Premier, was 
disposing of the forest and water-power 
rights of the province. So he attacked Par- 
ent, and Parent fell. 

Again, there came a day when a certain 
Premier offered him a certain position in 
his Cabinet. 

"No," replied Bourassa, "I do not think 
that I can accept it, though I thank you for 
the honor." 

Pressed for a reason, he said that he dis- 
approved of certain men in that Cabinet. 

The Premier happened to need Bourassa 
very much, and hinted that it might be pos- 
sible to arrange for the disposition of these 
two gentlemen in some quiet and satisfac- 
tory manner. 

"No," said Bourassa, "I cannot accept." 
And with that he set out to bring down 
for himself the two Cabinet ministers he 
objected to. He took the stump and de- 
manded the heads of the two upon his 
salver. He cried that these men be 
eliminated. 

One was. The other, as it happened, 
challenged Bourassa to contest. He would 
resign his seat if Bourassa would resign 
his. Bourassa accepted, and was beaten. 
The other man was returned to the Pro- 
vincial Legislature by an enormous ma- 
jority. People said, "Bourassa is dead." 



His friends thought he was sick. Few knew 
his whereabouts. But in the general elec- 
tion which followed he emerged from the 
temporary retirement into which he had 
gone, stood for election in two constitu- 
encies, and won both. People realized then 
that although he might be beaten some- 
times, he was rather inevitable. The one 
of these seats was Sir Lomer Gouin's own 
preserve, St. James, Montreal, where he ex- 
pected to be secure, and the other was St. 
Hyacinthe, an old Liberal riding of his 
grandfather's, but which turned — not Tory, 
but against the Liberals, for the sake of 
the grandson. 

To-day, comes Bourassa with his chal- 
lenge to Laurier over the naval policy, and 
into the country which was Laurier's birth- 
place, which has had Laurier for its pride 
and its glory, he carries the victory. 

Surely these things show his ability. His 
ability as an orator and his ability to de- 
feat strong men, either by that oratory, or 
his personal charm or "political genius," 
or by being wise enough to see where the 
men were weak and where they were easiest 
attacked. Whatever the explanation of his 
victories, their reality remains. As to the 
depth of the foundation which he has laid 
for the support of his future operations, we 
shall take that up farther on. 



TWO things have gone to enhance his 
native ability. His courage and his 
personal integrity. It is known in 
certain quarters that Bourassa has had 
many temptations thrust in his way, not 
the least among them are said, on good 
authority, to have been cabinet positions. 
But he refused them. They would have 
been the price of his personal political in- 
dependence. 

After his defeat by the politician, whom 
we have mentioned, but whose name we 
have not used, he accepted a position in a 
large financial company in the Province. 
The remuneration was low, and since 
Bourassa had no other considerable means, 
and was a valuable man, the company in- 
creased his stipend by a thousand dollars 
a year. 

But it raised discussion. Bourassa's op- 
ponents made capital of it. They said he 

S 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE 



had been offered this money in order to 
stay out of politics — that he had been 
"bought." 

So Bourassa quit the position. He 
scraped his means together and told the 
general manager of the firm that he intend- 
ed going. They protested. They hinted 

that he was a trifle Quixotic, and that 

but he left. He went into a corner and 
stayed there till he was ready to come out. 
That was when he ran in the general elec- 
tion and was successful in two seats. He 
preferred to come out into the open of 
political battle and face the possibility of 
defeat again rather than to have people 
say of him that he was paid to keep out 
of politics. 

These then are intsances of his ability, 
his courage and his integrity. They seem 
to have been sufficient to have carried him 
some distance. Not every man defeats 
Laurier among his own people. 

But the question of Bourassa's ambition 
is the heart of the whole matter. For if 
Bourassa is to be the leader of Quebec, 
now, or when Laurier is gone — and it 
seems likely — then in what direction is he 
going to lead it? What is his ambition? 
Why is it that he leaps into the light every 
now and then advocating different things? 
What is the common basis for all his agita- 
tions. Suppose that in time he becomes 
the leader of Quebec what shall be the key 
in which his song is written? 

It is — Quebec. Years ago he told it 
to a man. He pointed at Quebec on the 
map, and a picture of Laurier on the wall, 
and he enunciated his ambition. "When 
Laurier is gone, who leads us?" he demand- 
ed. "Who is to speak for us? Quebec 
shall be in need of a leader, and it is I 
that shall try to lead it." 



HE can command no friends among the 
ardent Imperialists of Canada, nor 
among the ordinary English Protest- 
ants, so far as mere policy is concerned. 
As a man, as a brave opponent, he is 
worthy of respect. But in his pro-Catholic 
tendencies, and his obvious design to foster 
things French-Canadian, and to uphold the 
traditions of the French against the wear- 



ing effects of Time and the encroachments 
of the English he is bound to rouse the 
opposition of many Canadians. 

But his "Nationalism" has been griev- 
ously misunderstood. Although in the 
heat of the recent election in Quebec things 
were said, words and phrases were used, 
which would seem to show that it is anti- 
British and ultra-montagne, still from the 
personal assurances of Bourassa's own 
friends, and from a study of Bourassa's 
speeches, one is led to the belief that his 
Nationalism is simply an avowal of faith 
in the future of Canada as a self-contained 
nation, one of a group of friendly, and in- 
ter-related nations, which compose the 
British Empire. The difference between 
Bourassa and the ardent British Canadian 
is as to the degree to which Canada would 
participate in the wars and general external 
relations of England. The Imperialist 
would have Canada go to war automa- 
tically with whatever nation had become a 
declared enemy of England, while Bourassa 
would have Canada refrain from all such 
wars unless the cause of the war were close- 
ly connected with the interests of Canada. 
In this way, while the Imperialist would 
probably be willing to leave the making of 
war to England, and to follow her wher- 
ever she led, Bourassa would have Canada 
remember that not all her citizens have the 
same sentimental interest in a British war 
and that there would have to be a reason 
for Canada's participation before it could 
command the sympathy of the French- 
Canadian. A discussion of the Imperialist 
or Nationalist view is not in order in this 
article. One might leave the subject by say- 
ing that the extreme Imperialist would 
have Canada more or less a colony, while 
Bourassa would force Canada into a co- 
operative nationhood within the Empire; 
in which state England would have to con- 
sult her, as well as the other sisters in the 
Empire before embarking on any warlike 
venture. His view does not seem far from 
that of many moderate "Imperialists" in 
English Canada. 

Everything that Bourassa has done has 
been along this line. He has held up the 
interest of the French-Canadian. He has 
pointed out that not all Canada would be 
sentimentally interested in a British war, 



HENRI BOURASSA AND THE NATIONALISTS 



although the French-Canadian would sup- 
port England were she in actual danger of 
defeat. He has reminded people that the 
French-Canadian has no desire to go to 
war for sentimental reasons only. And, 
after all, the average Canadian, of fair 
mind, will admit that it is a fairly reason- 
able stand to take. 

Then, suppose that this is Bourassa's 
stand. What foundations has he laid to 
support himself on such a platform. In 
the past years of his activities has he ac- 
cumulated political strength? We may say 
that he has personal ability, courage, in- 
tegrity and ambition, but unless he has been 
building his ground-work he must be badly 
off when all the forces of established lead- 
ership are brought against him. How deep, 
therefore, is Bourassa's strength? Whence 
come the roots of his political vitality? 

When he used, in the Quebec Legisla- 
ture of a Thursday afternoon, to stand up 
and speak for hours on uncalled-for topics 
— what was it that he aimed at, people ask- 
ed. They saw nothing but a few young 
priests sitting in the gallery. And yet Bour- 
assa measures the littlest advantage; each 
young priest, as he knew, would grow to 
be an active priest, an influence in a rid- 
ing some day. He would talk about the 
speech when he returned to the seminary, 
and would remember the man, Henri 
Bourassa, years hence, when he might be 
tending his little flock of souls in his future 
parish. With graduation class, after gradu- 
ation class, of these young priests has Bour- 
assa planted the seed of "Bourassa-ism." 

What is his relation with the young 
French Catholics of Quebec? They have a 
strong organization. Not many years ago, 
this organization agitated for a law com- 
pelling the railways to supply timetables 
printed in French for the districts where 
only French was spoken. Their agitation 
seemed in vain until Henri Bourassa pass- 
ed by, and taking up their cause, carried it 
to a successful end. There, again, he plant- 
ed for a future reaping. 

He has stood always for the French- 
Canadian and for the use of the French 
language. The French clergy firmly be- 
lieve that the life of their religion depends 



upon the life of the French tongue in 
Canada. Consequently, there was almost 
consternation when at the recent Euchar- 
istics Congress, Archbishop Bourne, speak- 
ing in Notre Dame, was held to have sug- 
gested that the day of the French language 
was passing, and that English was taking 
and to take its place in the Church. 

Quick to see an opening, Bourassa, who 
spoke shortly afterward, took the other side 
of the question in a speech, which is said 
by those who heard it, to have completely 
dominated the nearly fifteen thousand peo- 
ple who were present in the church. Again 
had he enlisted the friendship of the digni- 
taries of the Roman Catholic Church in 
Quebec. 

He has his faults, this man. He some- 
times repeats conversations which other 
men would regard as personal and secure 
against repetition. He goes great lengths 
in acting upon Cobden's theory that in 
agitation it is necessary to move your audi- 
ence to a high pitch of anger or enthusiasm. 
But on the whole he is a strong man, a 
master of oratory and an opponent to be 
respected, at least. As an orator he is a 
man of force, and yet of great charm. 
There is nothing slipshod about his oratory. 
At a mass meeting he catches his hearers 
at the very outset. He can be serenely 
courteous and yet he often pains and sur- 
prises people by the use of expressions that 
are unworthy of him. The best passages 
of his speeches are all carefully worked 
out before he delivers them and when there 
is a repetition of a phrase he delivers it 
each time with increasing dramatic effect. 
He speaks rapidly and with vigorous ges- 
tures. He uses English well, but French 
better. 

He is the knight of Quebec, impetuous 
and yet cold ; hasty, yet cautious ; imagina- 
tive, yet practical ; he flares into prominence 
every now and then like a torch, relighted 
by some mysterious hand at odd intervals. 
Like a torch, someday, he will set afire the 
imagination of the people, inspire the en- 
gines of their minds and direct the energy 
of Quebec — one way or another, as he 
please*. — B. B. C. 



27 





c< 






TIfa® Pro^nnndkll Firamnair 









'E reproduce in the following pages engravings 
of seven Provincial Premiers, with some re- 
marks about each one, and pictures of their re- 
spective legislative halls— two appeared last issue. 
They met in Ottawa on December 9th to discuss cer- 
tain troubles in the family of provinces. Whitney and 
Gouin convened the meeting. The three Maritime 
Provinces are the aggrieved ones. It is incumbent 
upon the four western provinces to be generous. 



THE British North America Act is the trouble. It 
continues to take M. P.'s from the Maritime Pro- 
vinces just because they are not growing very 
quickly, and it hands them to the western provinces, 
which are very tall for their age. 



T?T is not the fault of the east. It is because capital 
Jjj and incoming population naturally seek a high in- 
terest and a good living without preliminary trouble. 
The east is not less blessed with natural resources, but 
these resources are harder to develop. In forty years 
they will be flourishing. But in the meantime all legis- 
lative power is falling into the hands of the family 
prodigies. The nine Premiers have to try to correct 
this. They may be able to do it by petitioning the 
British Government to alter Canada's charter. 



gfflj 

=r v, c\ J 



S3 



The Provincial Premiers 




NIGHTED on the Plains of Abraham at the 
hands of His Majesty King George Fifth, who 
was then visiting Canada as the Prince of 
Wales, Sir Lomer Gouin is an example of the success 
with which two races have been living as one under 
the British Flag. It is said that the amiable Premier 
and Attorney-General of Quebec is losing his political 
ambition and that when the Great Reaper comes and 
offers him a judgeship for his premiership, he will ac- 
cept. He is a clever debater and can usually give a 
Rolland for any man's Oliver. He is in manner grave- 
ly courteous, in mind, urbane and erudite. 




The Provincial Premiers 




'HEN Honorable Mr. Fielding resigned the pre- 
miership of Nova Scotia to join Sir Wilfrid 
Laurier's administration at Ottawa in 1896, 
Liberal Government of the province was left in 
hands of Honorable George H. Murray. He ap- 
pealed to the peoole in 1897 and was returned to the 
office. He did it again in 1901 and 190'6 and was again 
told to go back and keep on governing. He lives at 
Halifax and knows Mr. R. L. Borden, though he 
doesn't agree with his politics. He will be appealing 
to his people again shortly and expects the same an- 
answer as before. 



7WP 




The 
Indian 

By 
C. Lintern Sibley 




THE Indian had been lying on his 
stomach and gazing through the 
forest undergrowth with un- 
blinking eyes. Suddenly he went 
tense with eager attention. The quick 
flattening crouch of his body was just 
such a movement as a cat, lazily 
watching birds, would make if one 
of the bird's were to stray beyond the 
safety line. 

His beady eyes, glittering with sur- 
face lights, were fixed upon a strange 
spectacle. One hundred yards away 
from him, on the side of a forest riv- 
ulet, a lone white man was behaving 
with all the abandon of a moonstruck 
rabbit. He had swung his hat round 
his head and flung it into the air, and 
was engaged in an excited and ludi- 
crous burlesque of a ballet dance. 
Pretending to lift up skirts, he began 
to pirouette, essaying, in an uncouth 
way, all the professional flourishes of 
the stage. 

His extraordinary movements came 
to an abrupt stop. It was as though 
that mysterious sixth sense which be- 
comes especially acute in the wilds, 
even in the most civilized of men, had 
warned him of the two dark eyes, 

36 



low in the undergrowth, that were 
fixed on him with such eager atten- 
tion. He, too, was now on the alert, 
but his attention was not fixed, like 
that of the Indian. He was uncertain 
what it was that warned him of a men- 
ace. Indeed, he was not certain of 
anything. He crouched low, listen- 
ing, peering. Not a creature moved 
in the tangle of the forest floor. Not 
a breath of air played in the tops of 
the tall spruce. The instinct of the 
old hunters had revived in the In- 
dian. He raised his rifle and sighted 
it. He lowered it again and sighed 
with a happy contentment in the sure- 
ness of his victim's fate. He would 
wait. 

Perceiving nothing to justify his 
suspicions, the white man stripped a 
considerable quantity of moss from a 
decayed log and planted it in the spot 
beside the rivulet over which he had 
danced so wildly. That done, he pro- 
ceeded with the work which had been 
occupying him earlier in the day — 
that of thoroughly prospecting the 
neighborhood. Each time during the 
afternoon, when the results of his ex- 
amination seemed satisfactory, he care- 



THE INDIAN 



fully covered up all traces of his 
operations, and toward dusk he dis- 
appeared. 

* * * * 

The red man went to the rivulet 
and lifted up the moss laid there so 
carefully by the white man. He saw 
an outcropping of white rock, and 
on the face of the rock was a splash 
of yellow metal as big as the eye of 
a deer. He carefully replaced the 
moss, and following up the trail of 
the other, uncovered various holes 
which the white man had dug in the 
ground. At each spot he found rock 
just beneath the surface — rock that 
glistened, and that had in it many tiny 
specks and splashes of dull yellow. 
Presently, as the forest grew dark, 
the Indian stole back to his wigwam 
on the Kamistakwa Lake. 

Two years before his hunting 
ground had been farther south, down 
in the Porcupine country. But a white 
man had come and discovered rocks 
that were dusted with yellow specks, 
and before he had been gone a month 
back to "the steel" thousands of white 
men had poured into what had been 
the Indian's hunting country. The 
game fled, and with it the Indian re- 
tired to the North. His new hunting 
ground was in the watershed of the 
Kamistakwa Lake, and it had been 
profitable. After his first winter he 
had carried more fur into the Hud- 
son's Bay post than ever before. But 
now the white man had come again. 
Apparently the rock with the yellow 
specks was about to cause another in- 
flux of the fortune-hunters and an- 
other exodus of the rightful tenants 
of the country. Picturing it to him- 
self, he let a gleam of menace light 
his eyes for a moment and then pur- 
sued the preparations for his evening 
meal, impassive. He would strike 
when the spirit moved him ; when it 
pleased him to kill. 

•Meanwhile, the unconscious cause 
of his apprehension went back to the 
camp. He was quite as perturbed as 
the Indian. For years, he, Reuben 
Bayes, had been engaged in mining 
work. He had been in at some of the 



richest strikes that had been made in 
Canada's last quarter-century of min- 
ing history. But he had always been 
somebody else's employe — the tool in 
some other man's hand. He had re- 
ceived a wage and a grub-stake, while 
the other man reaped the great pro- 
fits. He had saved nothing. His youth 
had been spent in wild and lawless 
places, and yet he had never been a 
"bad man" — merely shiftless. 

He had lived in that way for years, 
in fact, until just recently — until he 
made his last visit to the rail-head at 
Cochrane. He had met a woman there, 
different, to him, from all other wo- 
men. They had been thrown to- 
gether in the panic of a fire in the 
little hotel in which both happened to 
be staying. He had not told her what 
he thought ; women were a new thing 
to him. He went away to think it 
over and to earn enough and save 
enough to be able to go to that woman 
and tell her. But she guessed it, and 
laughed, afterward. 

He joined Big Bob Callaway's pros- 
pecting expedition into the country 
even beyond the new Porcupine coun- 
try. He was employed as one of a 
number of men to each of whom, each 
day, a section of country was given 
to be examined inch by inch for traces 
of metal. Callaway, in turn, was em- 
ployed by a group of New York finan- 
cial men. The expedition, having been 
organized at a secret rendezvous, had 
covered a ribbon of land fifty miles 
wide. From the Temagami Forest 
Reserve it had worked its way north 
over the great Height of Land and 
had descended into the watershed of 
Hudson's Bay. The 'work was organ- 
ized with the precision of a factory 
system. Each man, each day, filled 
in a blank map of the region he had 
covered that day, with markings of the 
mineral indications, the water-courses, 
the timber and the contours. From 
these maps, and from the samples of 
rocks which the men were required 
to bring in, Callaway composed his 
map each evening. For with Calla- 
way, prospecting was a science, grim- 
ly in earnest, relentlessly logical. 

37 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE 



So far, no important strikes had 
been made until Reuben Bayes made 
this find, this afternoon. Lying down 
on his face to take a drink from the 
clear rivulet which traversed his allot- 
ted piece of the day's territory, Bayes 
had seen, beneath an over-hanging 
growth of ferns, the solid white quartz 
with the splash of gold upon its sur- 
face. He had followed the indica- 
tions and discovered signs of a rich 
out-cropping, and it was in elation at 
his discovery that he went through 
the exercises which the Indian had 
watched. His hopes were maturing. 
Hi9 plan was working out. It was 
the only plan he had ever made in his 
life. 

II. 

So there was no question is his mind 
as he walked back to the camp, as to 
what he intended doing. He had never 
had a motive in doing anything be- 
fore now. He was going to keep the 
find a secret until he could get back 
to civilization and sell it. He knew 
it would bring a fabulous sum. Al- 
ready he felt as independent as though 
the wealth were his. And yet, as he 
approached the clearing where the 
tent9 had been put up he felt weak, 
cowardly, he called it, to himself. He 
had never been really dishonest be- 
fore. He had always been more or less 
strong and simple in his motives, and 
he felt that it would be hard to keep 
a secret from Callaway — that man 
with the stern mouth and determined 
jaw, whose keen grey eyes, night after 
night, as the samples and reports were 
brought in, reflected neither disap- 
pointment nor pleasure. He knew, 
vaguely, that Callaway was a man 
who made his own deductions with- 
out saying very many words. He 
knew that the other men of the party 
both admired him and feared him ; 
and he knew that he was no better 
able to cheat Callaway than they were. 
But he remembered the light of that 
yellow metal. He saw what he might 
obtain with it — not so much the fine 
clothes, the expensive habits and the 
luxurious surroundings which in his 



earlier days he had contemplated with 
mild interest, but that woman, the 
daughter of a railroad contractor — 
that was what he saw. The money, 
to his mind, would give him access 
to her, and then — he would ask her, 
grandly, how much money she could 
spend, and he would give it to her. 
The thought of it sharpened his wits. 
He forgot Callaway. His ideas of 
women were childish. 

He was thinking of his newly-made 
future as he took his place on a spruce 
log at the long supper table. He dump- 
ed the beans into his plate in a drream. 
He lifted his pewter spoon to stir his 
coffee, after he had had his soup out 
of the same dish, and forgetting to 
put it into the liquid, in his abstrac- 
tion, held it suspended. He gripped 
the edge of his tin plate with his fist 
and dreamed, Oblivious to his com- 
panions. As he dreamed a smile start- 
ed to creep over his face, but he caught 
it in time and looked up — straight in- 
to Callaway's unreadable eyes. But 
Callaway said nothing. After the 
meal the men handed in their reports 
and their samples. Bayes' went in 
with the rest. His map was marked 
barren. 

"Funny," remarked Callaway, leaf- 
ing over the soil-stained papers, "but 
I'd hoped to find the Mother Lode 
hereabouts. But howsomever!" he 
closed his jaws tightly, ran his eyes 
over the men with a swift glance of 
inspection, and lit his pppe, "We'll 
have to wait." 

Later that night Bayes paused on 
the edge of his bunk with one boot in 
his hand. 

"Now, what the h did he mean 

by that?" he growled to himself. 

"What in Hades are you talking to 
yoursellf about?" demanded a fellow- 
prospector, half asleep in his bunk, 
"Get to bed, Rube, an' put the light 
out." 

III. 

The camp was moved next day. 
Bayes left behind him a cache of sup- 
plies which he had stolen from the 
cook-tent. They moved again the next 




-THERE STOOD BOB CALLAWAY 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE 



day. and again Bayes made a cache. 
On the third day his plan was com- 
plete for escaping from the party. He 
knew that no excuse would secure for 
him the liberty he needed. He would 
be watched. Callaway knew the minds 
of a certain class of men in the North, 
and would be suspicious. 

But he made a scheme. He found 
a piece of muskeg not far from the 
third day's camp, which was covered 
with moss, but into which some unfor- 
tunate deer had apparently stumbled 
not long before and been swallowed 
up. He would make a trail to the 
morass in the morning and leave his 
hat on the spot where the deer had 
evidently disappeared. Then he would 
set out for the little rivulet, secure 
some good samples and make for the 
end of the steel. 

He was elated with his plan. He 
was no longer dreamy, 'but the night 
before his plan was to be put into 
execution, he told stories with the 
best of them and made several jokes 
at the expense of Ba'tis'e, the French- 
Canadian, who was sharpening his 
axe in a corner of the tent. And yet, 
when Callaway thrust his head in at 
the opening, it sent a chill through the 
schemer. Why was that man always 
watching him, he wondered. He had 
told no one. He had been careful. 
And, why, too, had he always the feel- 
ing that something was following him? 
It wasn't Callaway, he knew that 
much. But there seemed always a 
something behind him. Almost in- 
voluntarily he turned to look behind 
him. He went to sleep in his bunk, 
but woke up several times, and once 
he thought he felt something sharp 
pressing against his grey flannel shirt. 
He sweated with fear. 

He was better in the morning and 
strolled around to the cook tent. 

Breakfast late. Cook drunk. "Boss 
gone for a stroll, too," remarked the 
cookee. 

"Which way?" asked Bayes. 

"That way," said the boy, pointing, 
and Bayes, much relieved, took an- 
other direction, the one leading to the 
muskeg. He thought it better, now, 

40 



to go without breakfast. It would 
appear that he had been caught in the 
muskeg and dragged down while wait- 
ing. 

IV. 

Once out of sight of the camp he 
hurried. Arrived at the muskeg, he 
nibbed his hat in the slime as though 
it had been gripped by a struggling 
man, and tossed it on the place where 
the deer had broken the moss. Then 
away he struck into the brush, travel- 
ing lightly, choosing rocks for step- 
ping-places, and leaving no trail. He 
stopped at times to listen. Twice, lis- 
tening, he cocked his revolver and 
waited. But the woods were still, save 
for the soughing of a young wind in 
the spruce and the falling of a dried 
leaf. Once the stillness was so tense, 
and yet so seemingly full of a soft- 
footed menace, that the man almost 
cried out with fear, and the beads of 
sweat stood out on his forehead. Ly- 
ing down to sleep that night he thought 
he saw a brown figure, trailing a rifle, 
step out of the bush and standing smil- 
ing grimly, over him. 

He was haggard, when, two days 
later, he arrived at the little creek. 
Trembling, he fell upon his knees in 
the wet ground and with shaking 
hands laid back the moss. There was 
the yellow-spattered rock ! There was 
his fortune! There was the. hand of 
the railroad contractor's daughter! 
There, indeed, lay a new life to Reu- 
ben Bayes ! — but, as he looked up, a 
nugget in his hand, there stood Bob 
Callaway. He was not two yards 
away. His arms were folded. A sneer 
played over his grim face. 

"So that's what you were after, 
Rube!" he drawled. "Nice little 
game. I just happened to be taking 
a stroll myself. Had sort of a notion 
you were thinking too much about the 
work you did the day you discovered 
this and I knew the short cut. I see 
the nugget in your hand. Nice nugget, 
Reuben, but I'm afraid the little game 
is up." 

The sneer cut Bayes. He felt like 
slinking away and forgetting the thing. 



THE INDIAN 



but of a sudden the ambition which he 
had neglected to cultivate all his life, 
but which had grown so rapidly with- 
in him since his meeting with the 
woman in Cochrane, flared up. His 
passion took fire and he sprang at 
Callaway. Callaway's revolver flash- 
ed out, but missed its target, and 
Bayes' fist crashed into the face of his 
chief. But just then there was a re- 
port of a rifle. Bayes staggered back 
and fell, writhing weakly. Callaway, 
recovering from the blow from the 
fist, leaned over him, and another shot 
rang out. Callaway dropped heavily 
over the body of the other. 

The woods were still The little 
'stream, finding an impediment to its 
course, rose several inches and found 
another path. It laughed, a tinkling, 
chromatic, secret, little laugh, as much 
as to say, "Oh, you can't block me, 
you know." As it rose it lapped the 
little mat of moss which overlaid the 
white rock, and the moss floated off, 
leaving the yellow splashes bare. The 
same sounds in the trees went on ; 
boughs, rubbing together, leaves slid- 



ing down through the air, squirrels 
gossipping, and one other thing — a 
little cloud of gun smoke, over a place 
where an Indian had sighted his rifle 
five minutes before, floated up. 



V. 



The second engineer took charge of 
the prospecting party, and it went on 
with its work, after sending a letter 
back to Toronto that Big Bob Calla- 
way had been lost in a muskeg, and 
that Reuben Bayes, a prospector, had 
died with his trying to save his chief. 
They erected a monument to Calla- 
way in Montreal, where his father was 
buried, and wired the news to his 
brother-in-law in Winnipeg. The rail- 
road contractor's daughter, mean- 
while, heard about it and cried quite 
sincerely, to think that poor Mr. Bayes 
had been such a heroic sort of a fellow 
after all. And to this day she holds 
his memory quite sacred. Lynxfoot, 
the Indian, is the father of two more 
papooses. The hunting is good. 



HOME 



By W. E. Channing, D, D. 



w 



HAT is the end of human habitation? Is it 
•merely a place wherein fellow-mortals meet lo 
eat, drink and sleep securely beneath a roof? 
A house is reared to be a home — the centre where a 
family may gather into one; to be a serene retreat, 
where the tenderest affections may find rest ; that 
within its walls love may have a dwelling-place, and 
the charities of life gain ample scope and happiness ; 
that parents and children may there press one another 
heart to heart; that sorrows and joys may be freely 
shared in confidence ; that troubled spirits may dis- 
burden themselves and be blessed with pardon and 
peace ; and, in a word, that the great work of training 
human beings for the duties of the present life and 
the perfection of another, may be begun and carried 
on. These are the true end of a human dwelling. 



41 



How to Evade Taxation 



By H. J. Pettypiece 



The gross earnings of the railroads have been greater this year 
than ever. It is estimated that the total earnings for the present 
year will be:—G. P. R., $100,000,000, and G. T. R., $50,000,000. 
Other railways show similar increases. Mr. Pettypiece shows that 
Canadian railways have been able to pay taxes in the past. With 
their earning powers increased they will easily afford taxes enough 
to adequately pay rural school teachers. 



IN the two previous articles on this 
question it was dealt with in a 
general way. In this article it is 
proposed to deal with some of the ob- 
jections which are urged against the 
taxation of railway property in Can- 
ada 'by giving some concrete examples 
of what is now being done in this im- 
portant matter. 

One of the stock-in-trade argu- 
ments of those who oppose an in- 
crease of railway taxation in Canada 
is that the railways here have not 
sufficient earnings to enable them to 
pay taxes at the same rate as the own- 
ers of other classes are required to 
pay. Every tax-payer uses the same 
argument whenever it will likely 
avail him anything. An investigation 
into the financial condition of these 
poor, struggling railway corporations 
in this country reveals some very in- 
teresting facts. 

Take the three great lines doing the 
bulk of the international traffic of 
Canada and the United States, viz. : 
the G.T.R., the C.P.R. and the M.C.R. 

The G.T.R. has 3,578 miles of lines 
in Canada, on which the taxes are 
$423,852, or $118 per mile, and 1,442 
miles in the States, on which the taxes 
are $639,902, or $444 per mile. The 

42 



gross earnings in Canada are $30,- 
000,000, or $8,400 per mile. The 
gross earnings in the States are $13,- 
250,000, or $9,100 per mile. The 
$423,852 in taxes paid in Canada on 
$30,000,000 of earnings is a rate of 
14 mills on the dollar. The $639,902 
in taxes paid in the States on $13,- 
250,000 of earnings is a rate of 48 
mills on the dollar. 

The C.P.R. has 9,646 miles of lines 
in Canada, on which the taxes are 
$746,741, or $72 per mile, and 3,256 
miles in the States on which the taxes 
are $963,113, or $292 per mile. The 
gross earnings in Canada are $71,- 
000,000, or $7,360 per mile. The 
gross earnings in the States are $18,- 
000,000, or $5,500 per mile. The 
$746,741 in taxes paid in Canada on 
$71,000,000 of earnings is a rate of 
10 mills on the dollar. The $963,- 
113 in taxes paid in the States on 
$18,000,000 of earnings is a rate of 
53 mills on the dollar. 

The M.C.R. has 382 miles of lines 
in Canada, on which the taxes are 
$43,074, or $113 per mile, and 1,315 
miles in the States, on which the taxes 
are $987,241, or $751 per mile. The 
gross earnings in Canada are $7,760,- 
000, or $20,000 per mile. The gross 



HOW TO EVADE TAXATION. 



earnings in the States are $19,700,- 
000, or $15,000 per mile. The $43,- 
074 in taxes paid in Canada on $7,- 
760,000 of earnings is a rate of three- 
fifths of a mill on the dollar. The 
$987,241 in taxes paid in the States 
$19,700,000 of earnings is a rate of 
51 mills on the dollar. 

Had the G.T.R. paid on gross earn- 
ings in Canada the same rate of tax- 
ation that was paid on gross earnings 
in the States the amount of taxes paid 
in Canada would have been $1,440,- 
000, instead of $423,852, a difference 
of over $1,000,000. 

Had the C.P.R. paid on gross earn- 
ings in Canada the same rate of tax- 
ation that was paid on gross earnings 
in the States, the amount of taxes 
paid in Canada would have been $3,- 
763,000, instead of $746,741, a differ- 
ence of over $3,000,000. 

Had the M.C.R. paid on gross earn- 
ings in Canada the same rate of tax- 
ation that was paid on gross earnings 
in the States the amount of taxes 
paid in Canada would have been 
$395,760, instead of $43,074, a differ- 
ence of over $350,000. 

To summarize, these three railways 
paid in Canada $1,200,000 in taxes on 
$109,000,000 of gross earnings, while 
in the States they paid $2,600,000 on 
$51,000,000 of gross earnings. 

In making the above comparisons 
the U.S. figures are taken from the 
Interstate Commerce Commission's 
statistical report for 1907, the latest 
at present available, and Canadian 
figures are taken from the Govern- 
ment Railway Report for 1909 and 
the special report furnished the writer 
by the Railway Department for these 
articles. Had it been possible to take 
either 1907 or 1909 in both cases the 
result would have been still more un- 
favorable to the conditions of Canada. 

These bare statements of fact should 
dispose of the "inability-to-pay" plea 
always put forth by the railway law- 
yers when it is proposed to make the 
railways pay a fair share of the taxes 
which the Dominion and Provincial 
Governments find it necessary to im- 



pose in order to carry on the affairs 
of the nation. 

But the above statements do not 
begin to show the wonderful gener- 
osity of the people — no, not the people, 
but the various Governments — of 
Canada to the railway corporations. 

The above-named three railways 
have received, in Dominion, Provin- 
cial and municipal bonuses, loans 
(never repaid) grants, etc., the en- 
ormous sum of over $88,000,000, as 
follows : 

G.T.R., $25,500,000. 

C.P.R., $62,120,000. 

M.C.R., $470,000. 

Land grants to the extent of over 
25,000,000 acres have also been given. 
On the other hand none of these rail- 
ways have, so far as can be ascer- 
tained, received any substantial aid 
from the United States. 

More than that, the G.T.R. and 
M.C.R., if not the C.P.R., as well, give 
lower rates to both freight and pas- 
senger traffic in the States than they 
do in Canada. 

Thrs. is not a question of the justice 
of taxation between the railways of 
Canada and the United States as a 
whole, but a question of the glaring 
injustice of three great railways doing 
an international business, with larger 
earnings in Canada than in the States, 
being allowed to escape taxation here, 
and apply the earnings taken from 
their Canadian patrons to pay taxes 
in the States. 

CANADIAN RAILWAY PROSPERITY. 

The following extract, printed in 
black type, from the current (Decem- 
ber) number of the Railway and Mar- 
ine World, the official railway organ 
of Canada, shows how well able the 
railways here are to bear their share 
of taxation: — (Page 1,025). 

"The relatively happy position of 
Canadian railways, as compared with 
roads in the United States, is shown 
by the earning statements for Sep- 
tember and three months of the year 
of 48 U.S. railways. These 48 U.S. 
railways show an average gain in 

43 



l-VRMER'S MAGAZINE 



gross for the month of only 5.70 per 
cent., and net shows a decrease of 
4.19 p.c., while for the three months 
these roads show an average gross 
gain of 6.59 per cent, and an average 
net decrease of 6.80 per cent. The 
showing of the Canadian roads, es- 
pecially the Canadian Pacific and t In- 
Canadian Northern, is vastly differ- 
ent. They show gains in gross for 
September of 18.86 per cent, for the 
C.N.R., and 11.92 per cent, for the 
C.P.R., and in net of 22.37 an ^ 1 3-97 
per cent., respectively, while for the 
three months the C.P.R. gained 19.87 
per cent, in gross and 24.92 in net, 
and the C.N.R. 31.18 and 33.11." 

The question naturally arises: — 
"Who is responsible for the great in- 
justice that is being done to the people 
of Canada under grossly inequitable 
taxation laws?" 

Certainly not the railway corpora- 
tions. The managers of the great 
railway lines in Canada are as cap- 
able, as energetic and as hop.est a 
class of men as can be found any- 
where. And they are devoting their 
energies and their time for the bene- 
fit of the corporations they serve, and 
not for the public interests. There is 
another class of capable men supposed 
to look after the public interests. 

It cannot be expected that the rail- 
way managers will voluntarily step 



forward and pay into the public 
treasury any more in the way of f axes 
than the law compels them to do. No 
citizen does. 

The responsibility rests mainly with 
the people themselves. Just so long 
as the electors condone the Dominion 
Parliament and the various Legisla- 
tures in pouring the people's meney 
into the coffers of the railway corpor- 
ations on the one hand, and in neglec- 
ting to pass equitable taxation legis- 
lation on the other hand, just sc long 
will the railway corporations be the 
masters of the situation. 

Under present conditions the rail- 
way and other favored and well- 
organized and ably-managed corpor- 
ations have more influence in fram- 
ing the legislation of both Dominion 
and Provincial Parliaments than have 
all the voters between the Atlantic 
and the Pacific, that is, north of the 
U.S. boundary line. 

Therefore, the electorate, and con- 
sequently the parliamentary bodies, 
are as clay in the hands of the potter, 
and the potter is molding, and will 
continue to mold, the clay to his own 
benefit. He would be a fool to do 
otherwise, and the railway manager 
in Canada is no fool. 

The people must act, or continue to 
suffer the consequences. 



VICTORY 

It is not life's brief tenure that I moan, 
Its many tears, its vanishing delights, 

Nor all the bitterness my heart hath known 
In the grim silences of wakeful nights. 

Nor doth my spirit in the battle quail, 
Dreaming of pleasure and inglorious ease; 

My arm would answer mighty flail with flail, 
And try results with mortal destinies. 

But this my prayer, and this my one request : 
That when my wrestle with the foe is done, 

It be but said of me, "He did his best," — 
Not that alone, but let them add, "He won." 
— Herbert Midler Hopkins, in Outlook. 



u 




Mag 

6y P.W Hodgetts 



A great revival is taking place in the fruit industry in Canada. 
The apple is receiving the first impulse. .It has been demonstrated 
that old orchards can be made, by proper pruning, spraying and cul- 
tivation, to yield excellent returns for the money and time invested. 
These returns have been so large that the apple has been dubbed 
King in Canada. 

Mr. Hodgctts is Secretary of the Ontario Fruit Grozvers' Asso- 
ciation and is in a good position to observe the trend of fruit grow- 
ing. He says that the consumption of fruit will be four times greater 
in Canada in the near future than it is at present. . This will depend 
on the growers. .If they properly grade ami pack the best it will 
find ready sale. 



AT this time when there is so much 
talk of Imperialism and loyalty, 
perhaps it would be well to draw 
attention to the real King in Canada. 
No fruit is so much sought for and 
relished as is the apple. No country 
is better adapted to the growing of 
this King than Canada. From Nova 
Scotia on the east to British Columbia 
on the west we can grow apples, and 
in every province the quality of the 
apples grown is better than can be 
found anywhere else. The first na- 
tional apple show was held recently 
in British Columbia. Such a success 
was the show that the apple has since 
been dubbed the Canadian King. 

Sitting at lunch recently with a 
prominent New York State apple 
grower I obtained some interesting 
figures. These had been gathered 
during many years' practical experi- 
ence with apple orchards. Returns 



for the past season from a full bearing 
orchard are worth recording: — 

Expenses — 25 acres. 

Labor $850.00 

Fertilizers 250.00 

Spraying 200.00 

Picking- and Packing . . . . 500.00 

Barrels 900.00 

Total $2,700.00 

or. per acre $108.00 

Gross Returns 2500 barrels @ $3.50= 
$8,750.00 

Net returns=$6,050.00, or $242.00 per 
acre. 

or 24% on a valuation of $1,000.00 
per acre. 

These figures proved attractive and 
I at once began some calculations. 
Ontario has within her boundaries ten 
and one-half million apple trees. Many 
thousands of these are now neglected, 
unpruned, unsprayed, the joy of the 

45 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE 



coddling moth and the fuzzy scab, the 
haunt of the Christmas turkey and the 
country Buster Brown. Suppose some 
good fairy would only transform 
these trees and their fruit, as was 
done to many poor orchards the past 
season. What a difference to the 
pockets of my fellow countrymen! 

Suppose we deduct from these mil- 
lions the trees in those counties not 
usually considered most suitable for 
the growing of high-class apples, the 
high inland counties, we would still 
find over nine millions left as a basis 
for our figures. Taking the average 
profit at $242 as given above, or on a 
basis of 40 trees to the acre, $6 per 
tree, we find the total income from 
our apple orchards to be $54,000,000. 
To be on the safe side and to satisfy 
all critics divide this by three and we 
will still have the splendid return of 
$18,000,000 to the farmers of Ontar- 



io, instead of half or a third of this 
amount as is the case to-day. 

But this is not in Ontario alone. In 
each of the nine provinces wherever 
the apple is grown we find orchards 
that are not kept as they should be. 
They are not looked after when it is 
spraying time. The soil is not cul- 
tivated. The trees are allowed to go 
to wood production instead of being 
trained to grow fruit. We do noth- 
ing to encourage the tree in its efforts 
at fruit growing. We believed that 
if the tree were set out it should be 
able to shift for itself and grow fruit 
without any trouble on our part. In 
every case of this kind we lose money. 
Where we spend time and money in 
the proper treatment of our orchards 
we will be repaid every time. 

Of course the doubter will shrug 
his shoulders and declare that New 
York conditions are not Canadian 





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A RECLAIMED TREE 
Results of One Year's Pruning. 



A REAL CANADIAN KING. 



conditions and that the case cited is 
an exceptional one. We can dupli- 
cate these figures with returns 
gathered from our own successful 
growers. At the recent Fruit Grow- 
ers' Convention held in Toronto, 
some statements were made showing 
average returns which are easily ob- 
tainable by the man who will adopt 
proper business methods in handling 
his orchard. 

Mr. R. R. Sloan, Huron County, Ont. 
Gross returns 35 old Spy trees=$560 
Expenses of care and harvestings 305 

Net returns $255 

Gross returns, 350 trees, 17 years Per 
old, 10 acres, average of 4 years, acre 
1907-1910' =$103 

Expenses of care and harvestings 27 

Net Returns $ 76 

I 
Mr. J. G. Mitchell, Grey County, Ont. 
Gross returns 2J acres old trees $540 
Windfalls and culls 20 

$560 

Expenses, pruning, spraying, etc $170 

Harvesting 67 

Barrels * 68 

Total $305 

Net Returns 255 

Rent of orchard 60 

Mr. Mitchell's Profit $195 

This small orchard had been totally 
neglected up to the spring of 1910, 
not having been cultivated for fifteen 
years. The showing is all the more 
pleasing because of the light crop 
everywhere this season. 

If further evidence is needed we 
can point with certainty to the results 
of work carried on this year in Sim- 
coe County, Ontario, in the demon- 
stration orchards there. These or- 
chards, in most cases neglected, and 
in all returning such small profits as 
to be considered practically useless, 
were taken in charge early in April 
by two experienced men. The trees 
were scraped, pruned and twice 



thoroughly sprayed with lime-sulphur 
and arsenate of lead. The old sod 
was broken up and the soil well tilled 
during the early summer, after which 
a cover crop was sown. The change 
of treatment was certainly complete 
and owners and neighbors watched 
incredulously to see if as complete a 
change in results would follow. They 
came without a shadow of a doubt. 
In place of the small, unshapen worth- 
less fruit of the past there were gath- 
ered big, red and green apples of un- 
precedented color, smoothness and 
beauty. These apples in competition 
with apples from all parts of Ontario 
at the Toronto show won prizes in 
every section entered. 

1st Orchard, 192 trees of 14 varieties. 
Gross sales 37 bbls. summer 

apples @ 2.50 $ 92.50 

129 bbls. fall and winter apples 

@ 3.00 387.00 

21£ bbls. culls @ 60c net. . . . 12.90 

30 bbls. -windfalls @ 1.25 net. . 37.50 

, $529.90 

Cost of picking and packing 
166 bbls. @ 75c 124.50 

Net returns $405.40 

2nd Orchard, 50 trees of 12 varieties. 
Gross sales 22^ bbls. summer 

apples @ 2.50 $ 56.25 

82 bbls. fall and winter apples 

@ 3.00 246.00 

15 1-6 bbls. culls @ 60c net ... 9.10 

$311.35 
Cost of picking and packing 
104J bbls. @ 75c 78.38 

Net returns $232.97 

This orchard had never brought its 
owner more than $50.00 in any previous 
year. 

3rd Orchard, 75 trees. 

Gross sales, 70 bbls. @ 2.75.. $192.50 

Cost of harvesting @ 75c .... 52.50 

Net returns $140.00 

With a certainty of such returns 
from old orchards, why wait many 
years for new orchards to come into 
bearing? Plant young orchards, cer- 
tainly for the future, orchards of 

47 




A BRANCH OF SPYS 
Should be Obtained from all Old Trees. 



standard varieties with the modern 
systems of training. You cannot err 
in so doing, hut why neglect the op- 
portunities of making good money in 
the meantime from your own or your 
neighbors' old orchards? If you have 
none on your own farm, lease or buy 
some near at hand. You are quite 
safe in investing your money and can 

48 



count on a much bigger profit than 
from Cobalts or other mining stocks, 
with the certainty that your silver 
mine will last long after manv of the 
best mines are played out and aband- 
oned. 

In many parts of Canada are thous- 
ands of acres of mature Spy. Baldwin 
and Greening orchards which can now 



A REAL CANADIAN KING. 



be obtained on very favorable terms 
and which require only the intelligent 
use of the pruning saw and the spray 
pump to be made into gold mines. 
Such conditions will not always exist. 
Already there is a great awakening in 
the business. Large companies are 
buying orchards and lands suitable for 
orchard planting. Others are plan- 
ning the leasing of thousands of trees, 
while wide-awake fruit growers are 
securing control of the older orchards 
before the rush begins. 

King apple presents many oppor- 
tunities at the present time. The de- 
mand for good fruit is increasing 
rapidly. Improved packing and qual- 
ity will further stimulate the activity 
of our markets. Who can say what 
would 'be the effect on the markets if 
in place of the small, scabby or wormy 
apples which are now displayed in 
too many of the shops, we could of- 
fer such fruit as was seen at the dif- 
ferent apple shows in Canada recent- 
ly? Our people naturally prefer the 
juicy apple to the imported orange or 



banana, but they have been driven to 
take the latter, by the class of home- 
grown fruit which we have been sup- 
plying. The consumption of apples 
will, I venture to predict, increase 
four-fold if we grow and supply what 
is wanted. As we contemplate the 
size of our cities and their suburbs, 
we can easily see that it would mean 
much to the fruit grower. 

The storm-driven prairies are not 
as well adapted to fruit-growing as 
are the other provinces. Hence they 
are taking a great deal of our fruit. 
Prices received this year compare very 
favorably with the big figures of the 
western real estate agent who deals 
in apple lands in the mountain-tops. 
Duchess and Astrachan have sold in 
standard bushel cases at from $2 to 
$2.75, with seconds at from $1.60 to 
$1.75, and heaped eleven-quart bas- 
kets as high as $1.05. One associa- 
tion has sold its entire pack at $1.60 
per bushel 'box f.o.b. shipping station 
for local consumption in Ontario, and 
this from the orchards of the Niagaga 




AN OLD ORCHARD 
It has Brought in Many Thousands of Dollars in Recent Years. 



49 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE 



district, the paradise of the peach 
grower. This famous tender fruit 
section is now realizing that the apple 
crop from their remaining orchards is 
well worth attention. Profits can be 
made therefrom, easily comparable 
with those from their famed peach 
orchards. Where but a few years ago 
the apple trees were being rapidly con- 
signed to the flames, we find no longer 
any doubt that the fruit can be kept 
clean of a scab and worm and sell at 
a high price, either on local or dis- 
tant markets. 

Many other sections are now reap- 
ing the reward of careful handling of 
their old orchards. The work of the 
associations in many parts of Ontario 
is too well known to need any com- 
ment. Many individual growers are 
also making money from orchards 
which a few years back were counted 
as practically valueless. But, taking in- 
to consideration the total acreage such 
well-cared orchards form but a small 
proportion. Figures from recent 
orchard surveys in Ontario show the 
opportunities that present themselves 
to the intelligent fruit grower. 
County. 

Acreage of apples in township 1,562 

No. of apple trees 78,698 

Acreage sprayed 580 

No. of orchards 222 

Orchards thoroughly cared for 2% 

Simcoe County — 

Acreage of apples 9,620 

No. of apple trees 374,800 

Shipments of apple 1908 143,691 

barrels. 

No. of bbls. evaporated, 49,121. 

Estimate of fruit left on ground, 
50,000 barrels. 

Lambton County — 

463 orchards examined with acreage of 
2,846. 

70% of trees in sod and usually neg- 
lected. 

Bis. 

Average crop, 3 years, in or- 
chards cultivated, sprayed and 
fertilized 44.5 

50 



Average crop, 3 years, in or- 
chards in sod, sprayed and fertiliz- 
ed 32. 

Average crop, 3 years, in or- 
chards in sod, unsprayed and un- 
fertilized 21.5 

Average crop, 3 years, in or- 
chards cultivated but cropped with 
grain 14.3 

The expert who completed the sur- 
very of this latter county comments as 
follows : "The old orchards are quite 
generally neglected. There is an im- 
pression that an orchard forty years 
old is not worth taking care of. In 
contradiction of this impression, some 
of the most remunerative orchards 
seen in the county are old, but are re- 
ceiving proper care and management. 
It is very unfortunate that this idea 
has got so firm a hold on the minds of 
the people, as where varieties are good 
there is no investment of money or 
time as will give such good returns as 
that necessary to prune, spray, culti- 
vate and fertilize these same old orch- 
ards. From results seen in Lambton 
County, these orchards will quickly 
return ioo per cent, on the time and 
capital invested in them, but improved 
methods of culture and management 
must be adopted." 

Similar experiences have been the 
rule in every province in Canada. 
Many good old orchards are neglect- 
ed, and are allowed to go to waste. 
They are not cared for to bring re- 
sults that should be, and that may 
be, obtained. With such abundant 
opportunities offered, and such evi- 
dence of the handsome returns to be 
won, may my plea for the older bear- 
ing orchards of Canada awaken some 
owners to their senses, and perhaps 
guide many of our younger fruit 
growers into this method of quick re- 
turns for little labor and outlay. From 
these millions of good old trees manv 
millions of dollars may yet pour into 
the treasury of Canada's agriculture. 
With proper care and attention the 
appie will be King in Canada. 



An Expert and a Plant 



By F. C. Carter 



From almost every Experiment Station has come 
records of the value of seed from the best plants that 
can be found of each crop. Yield depends a great deal 
upon cultivation and fertility of the soil, but it also de- 
pends upon good seed. In most of our farm crops we 
get natural cross-fertilisation. Therefore, the result 
must be from selection. This must be carefully done. 
One type and that the best is what we want in every 
field. Methods applied in Sweden with such excellent 
results should be of some value to Canadian farmers. 



NOT until this last year have the 
people of Canada known the 
first thing about Sweden. Very 
few tourists and travellers ever take 
in the sights of that little country 
when they are away from Canada. 
Even those interested in Agriculture 
stop when they get into Denmark, for 
they seem to have the impression that 
.little can be grown and few improve- 
ments made in a European country 
north of Denmark. Germans have al- 
ways received the name of being the 
best seed growers in the world. They 
are experts, and they sift any and 
every problem which they take in 
hand till they reach the fountain head. 
In science they are masters, but they 
will have to get into Sweden if they 
are to learn the best and most effec- 
tive way of improving farm crops. 

Sweden has hitherto been known 
as the country of rocks and moun- 
tains with their beautiful scenery, 
their rushing streams and rugged 
steeps. We have always been told of 
the small portions of the land which 
was cultivated and even then we were 
led to believe that cultivation was 



done in a slipshod manner. Perhaps 
it is on account of the small amount 
of land which is tillable that the 
Swede* have made such a success of 
seed growing. Their aim seems to 
have been and still seems to be, to 
make the country self-sustaining. Be- 
cause the greater portion of the land 
is not suitable for agriculture they 
have to make the very best use of 
what they have. The southern part 
of the country — the Province of 
Skane — has about one-quarter of the 
population and has also about 60 per 
cent, of its area under cultivation. 
This means that it must be well cul- 
tivated. 

The Government has assisted in the 
good work of better agriculture^ The 
experiment station is situat^tfc hi the 
village of Svalof, which iSr about due 
east of Copenhagen, in Denmark. We 
are told that it is only a small village 
in size, yet its works make it one of 
the largest places in the world. No 
wonder there are very few people in 
the village ! The land is so good and 
returns so large that it does not pay 
the people to live in the village — they 

51 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE 



work the soil. Four things are to be 
seen there — the Swedish Breeding In- 
stitute, the General Swedish Seed Co., 
Limited, Per Bondesson's farm and 
the Agricultural High School. Let 
us see how these work together for 
the good of southern Sweden. 

The Breeding Institute is the 
foundation of all the improvements 
in seed. This Institute was estab- 
lished in 1886, but for the first five 
years no outstanding results had been 
obtained by cross fertilization and 
selection. The method had evidently 
not been the best. In 1891, Dr. Nils- 
son took charge of the Institute and 
soon results were forthcoming. A 
new method was used. The first thing 
was to get as many new varieties as 
possible. To this end 1,000 samples 
of grain were collected and labelled 
in during the first year of the Doc- 
tor's directorship. Each plant was 
carefully described and recorded. The 
following year these were sown and 
each plant was carefully watched. 
Permanency of type was looked for. 
All plants that differed from the 
original stock in the smallest degree 
were cast aside — unless they in some 
way showed promise of being better 
than the type of the parent plant. 



Comparing these heads which were 
kept with previous records it was seen 
that all came from the same plant. 
This shows that heredity is a strong 
force in plant breeding the same as it 
is in animal breeding. The following 
year out of 422 oat plants, 397 were 
similar. The other 25 were cast aside 
because they were not like the parent 
plant and would not go to produce a 
uniform field. 

In the production of a new variety 
the Doctor works after this fashion. 
He goes carefully through his fields 
and experimental plots looking at 
every plant. His trained eye soon de- 
tects any plant which is different from 
its neighbors. If the plant is a poorer 
specimen he passes it by. If it shows 
qualities — not in the parent stock — 
that will go to make a better race of 
the crop, he carefully studies it and 
makes records of its growth, type and 
yield. Seed from this plant is sown 
and each plant grown is watched and 
recorded with the same care as is the 
original plant. All that are found to 
differ from the original "sport" are 
cast aside. He is aiming to perpetu- 
ate the same good qualities which 
were in the "new" specimen found in 
the field. One plant must stool as 




TWO DISTINCT TYPES 
Obtained from One Cross of Emmer and Spelt. 

Courtesy Ontario Department Agriculture 



AN EXPERT AND A PLANT. 



well as the others. It must have 
straw of the same stiffness. It must 
grow to the same height. It must 
have the same length of head. The 
head must be as well filled and of the 
same shape. In short the plants in 
every particular must be "as like as 
two peas." Will this give results? If 
we could stand at the edge of one of 
Dr. Nilsson's fields and see every 
stem standing like a soldier, and every 
plant the same height with heads 
identical in character, we would not 
doubt the efficiency of the work as 
carried on. 

This is the general principal which 
is used in the improvement of all 
crops. But the Doctor does not look 
after each crop personally. This 
would be more than he could do. 
Every crop which is grown to any 
extent in Sweden has an expert to 
look after its welfare. One man looks 
after the breeding of the oats and 
wheat, another the grasses, and no 
crop is allowed to suffer because of 
extra attention to another. This is 
continued till the new variety grows 
in the field as even as wooden soldiers 
cut from the same mold. Then the 
seed is turned over to the Seed Co. for 
further production and distribution. 



The Seed Co. is purely a commer- 
cial institution. Its objects are to 
grow the new varieties, which are 
given them by the Seed Institute, and 
sell them to the farmers. They own 
1,500 acres of land at Svalof and rent 
large areas in other portions of the 
country for the growing of the large 
amounts of seed which is sold by 
them every year. The new varieties 
are grown two years before they are 
given to the farmers. This insures 
the fixity of type which the Institute 
has been trying to obtain. Then ail 
the seed has to be examined by the 
experts before it is allowed to be sold. 
It is against the law to sell the grain 
unless it has the seal of the Institute. 
This is a guarantee to the farmers 
that they are getting the direct results 
of the expert of the Institute. Per- 
haps the work of the Institute and the 
Seed Company can best be summed 
up in the words of C. C. James : 

"Dr. Nilsson drove us over the big 
farm, when we saw one field of wheat 
over 100 acres in extent, Extra 
Squarehead No. 2, that promised a 
yield of 70 bushels to the acre and ail 
the product of one original plant. 
Professor Greig (Professor of Agri- 
culture in the University of Aberdeen, 




TWO VARIETIES OF WHEAT 

Produced by Cross-Fertilization. 

Courtesy Ontario Department Agriculture 



53 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE 




Marquis. Stanley. Red Fife. 

EARLY VARIETIES SPRING WHEAT. 

Courtesy Dominion Experimental Farm 



Scotland) took off his hat and paid 
his compliments to Swedish agricul- 
ture. The Doctor told us that in 
1906 a 75-hectare field of wheat 
yielded 6,300 kilogrammes per hec- 
tare 'by actual measurement. I did 
some figuring in my notebook. A 
kilogramme is 2.2 pounds; a hectare 
is 2.47 acres. Allowing 60 pounds to 
the bushel you will see that means 
over 94 bushels to the acre. We 
drove on, in silence for a time, to see 
a field of oats." 

The Bondesson farm is recognized 
as the best in the settlement if not the 
best in the country, and for that mat- 
ter, in the world. This is saying a 
lot, but when you consider that there 
are on the 375 acres, 2,114 pigs and 
50 milch cows, besides all the other 
stock, the statement will possibly not 

64 



seem so much exagger- 
ated. Ml*. Bondesson is 
a Knight ! He received 
the honor from his 
King. I fancy that he is 
the only farmer in the 
world who can claim 
this honor "for services 
to agriculture." Every- 
thing is made on the 
farm. The milk is turn- 
ed into butter and 
cheese ; the grain and 
f odder crops are turned 
into milk, pork, horses 
and other things which 
will sell and keep the 
fertility on the farm, 
whe re it is wanted. The 
pig!) are fed according 
to scientific principles 
and the records of the 
ratijns are kept where 
all visitors can see them. 
Cows are not allowed to 
ramble all over the field 
and tramp down as 
much as they eat. They 
are tethered and eat their 
way through the pas- 
ture, which is usually an 
annual crop, consisting 
of oats, peas and 
vetches. One of the best thorough- 
bred stallions is kept for the improve- 
ment of horses in the Svalof district. 
Everything which is conducive to the 
development of a farm that would pay 
the highest interest on the money in- 
vested is to be seen here. Results are 
such as would warrant the invest- 
ments made. The highest yearly 
average of the Holstein cows which 
were on the farm was 11,446 pounds, 
while the average for the past six 
years was 10,930 pounds. Mr. Bon- 
desson has solved the difficulty of 
keeping the boys and girls on the 
farm. When it got so that he could 
not manage it, or rather when the 
children became old enough, a com- 
pany was formed consisting of the 
father, five sons, three daughters and 
the two sons-in-law. This is the firm 



AN EXPERT AND A PLANT. 



that manages the farm and pays $10,- 
800 every year in wages. 

The Agricultural High School 
seems to 'be the right thing in the 
right place when it is near such in- 
stitutions as these. Here is not 
taught the things which will tend to 
take the boys and girls from the 
farms. After the pupils have left the 
public schools they can, in this school, 
put on the finishing touchs for an 
agricultural career. During the win- 
ter, courses are given to the young 
men of 18 and over. They are taught 
the scientific principles of agriculture 
and regular high school work. In the 
summer months the girls are given 
instruction in domestic science and 



high school work. This is really a 
technical school for the farmers. 

But what has this to do with Can- 
ada? Simply this. The farmers of 
Sweden have started all these things 
themselves. When the Government 
saw that the movement was destined 
to play such an important part in the 
advancement of agriculture they came 
to the assistance of the farmers. The 
farmers took the initiative, not the 
Government. I believe that every 
farmer in Canada would contribute 
his share towards placing an expert 
in charge of every crop grown if the 
Government would render a little 
assistance. 



Why Carefulness? 



By Dr. Helen MacMurchy 

To be able to identify the different diseases is a 
valuable qualification for the mother. A glance at the 
statistics in this article shows that contagious diseases 
are responsible for a great majority of deaths in child- 
hood. The information gathered by Dr. MacMurchy 
should be extremely valuable to all homes situated at 
a distance from the doctor. It is important to study 
the child in health and carefully note all symptoms of 
disease. Care and attention will save many lives and 
make children stronger than if they had the diseases. 



WE have already learned from the 
Report of the Registrar-Gen- 
eral that the fatal quartette, 
Diphtheria, Measles, Scarlet Fever and 
Whooping-Cough, cost the Province 
of Ontario, in 1907, eight hundred 
and sixty-two lives, most of them 
under the age of five years. And the 
Report for 1908, now in the hands of 
the King's Printer — (a little late in 
getting there, seeing that we are so 
near 191 1) will tell the same tale. 
We must consider more seriously 
these children's diseases. "Never dis- 
pise your enemy." There is some- 



thing else we must learn about these 
diseases. Let us take the figures giv- 
en for the United States in the Cen- 
sus of 1900, because when we study 
statistics, the larger the numbers we 
work with, the more accurate are the 
conclusions we can draw from these 
figures. 

CENSUS OF 1900 UNITED STATES OF 
AMERICA. 

Name of Disease. Average age in 
years at Death. 

Diphtheria 5.8 

Measles 4.4 

Scarlet Fever 5.9 

Whooping-Cough 1.8 

55 



FARMER'S MAGAZINE 



In every case the average age of the 
children, where the illness ended in 
death, is less than six years. So we 
learn the lesson. Keep the children 
From the danger of contagion? dis- 
- till they are six years old and on 
the average they will not die from 
them. And what is more, if yon will 
only take care of them and protect 
them from the danger of contagions 
diseases a few years longer, they will 
not take children's diseases at all. 

Children over 12 years are not 
nearly as likely to take contagious 
diseases as children under 12 years, 
and with every year that safety, or 
immunity, as we call it, grows more 
certain. Hence the great importance 
of watchfulness, both at school and 
at home, so that the earliest symp- 
toms of contagious disease may be 
recognized, the sick child cared for 
and the other children protected by 
being kept in another room, quite 
away from the sick one. This need 
for early recognition and consequent 
successful prevention of infection is 
one of the great reasons in favor of 
the medical inspection of schools. 

But let us return once more to the 
question of age. It is often said that 
children may as well have the measles 
and have them over. This is criminal 
stupidity and criminal ignorance. 
Anybody might know better than that. 
In the first place, one attack of mea- 
sles (or other disease) does not al- 
ways protect from a second. In the 
second place, you have no right to 
condemn the poor child to a serious 
illness and perhaps the life-long loss 
and pain of weak eyes, or a weak 
chest, or deafness, or something else, 
by your stupidity. In the third place, 
this easy willingness to let them have 
the measles may mean the loss of the 
child's life — and what is that but 
murder? Almost every disease has its 
favorite age. For typhoid, from 15 
t° 35 years of age. For cancer, not 
often before 40 — much more about 50 
years. And certain other diseases are 
called children's diseases, because 
their favorite time for attack is in 

56 



childhood. Take good care, not be- 
cause children must "have them 
over," sensible, intelligent, scientific 
(but not faddy) care of the children 
to protect them from infection. When 
they are older, they will be safe 
against attack of the diseases of 
childhood. 

Few diseases have a signal symp- 
tom. One does not see a red light 
appear or hear a warning bell ring. 
There is no label attached to an 
attack of measles so that you can tell 
it from every other disease. The ex- 
perienced physician is seldom mis- 
taken. But then that is just because 
he is experienced and a physician. 
It is better not to guess. If you do 
not know, send for someone who does. 
This would have saved many lives and 
many weary weeks of convalescence 
in other cases. 

All acute diseases begin in a very 
similar way. Grown-up people very 
often have a chill. A sensation of 
cold wanders briefly up and down the 
back-bone, draughts are felt where 
there are no draughts. Perhaps the 
patient shivers and even finds the 
teeth chattering. A child is apt to be 
cross and irritable, not so often cold — 
but sometimes what would in an adult 
be a chill, will in a child be a convul- 
sion. This is always an alarming 
symptom, but sometimes it is not as 
serious as it seems, especially in a 
young child. Still, medical aid should 
be summoned at once, and usually, 
till the doctor comes, undressing the 
child and immersing him in a hot 
bath (testing the water carefully with 
your own hand) will help. 

Measles seem at first like a severe 
cold in the head, but a careful mother 
will see the eyes infected, red and 
watery. She will notice that the 
child is more or less feverish and does 
not sleep well. Keep the child by 
himself. A cold is also infectious, and 
if it is anything worse, so much the 
more reason for care. Then on the 
fourth day — possibly late on the third 
day, the characteristic rash of measles 
appears and doubt vanishes. 




en 



By Mrs. C. N. Williamson 



EVERYBODY who comes to the 
Riviera visits Lord Hilary's 
wonderful garden, La Vista, 
and most people who do not come 
have heard of it, because it is world- 
famous. Lord Hilary is an old man 
now, and a bachelor, whose greatest 
joy is his Italian garden. Those who 
have slight acquaintance with him 
and his history speak of it laughingly 
as the "one love of his life" ; but we 
who are his neighbors know that there 
was another love once. If he had not 
lost her, he would never have turned 
his back upon his native land, and 
made this garden, to which for thirty 
years he has given most of his time 
and attention. But then, a man who 
had had no romance in his heart or life 
could never have imagined or created 
such a garden. 

There is a house in it, of course, 
a beautiful house, though it is of the 
garden that one always speaks in ask- 
ing strangers, "Have you been to La 
Vista yet?" It is a very old house, so 
old that there is a well in the big en- 
trance hall, made in case of a siege by 
Saracens. Lord Hilary lives at La 
Vista from October till June, or later, 
and then disappears, few of his 
friends guess where, except that he is 
never seen in England. But we know 
that he goes always to the same place, 
the place where the Romance began 
in joy, and that he avoids England 
because it ended there in sorrow. So 
we never say to him when he comes 
back, as the uninitiated do sometimes, 
"Where were you last summer?" 

He is one of the handsomest men 
you ever saw, though he is over sixty ; 
and certainly he is one of the kindest. 



He is "at home" to his friends every 
second Saturday all winter, and the 
garden is open to the public two days 
each week. One of the days is Sun- 
day, because those who work six days 
of the week can find peace and pleas- 
ure on the seventh at La Vista from 
morning till sunset; and though there 
are hundreds of visitors, each one 
who asks is given a rose, or some 
other flower to carry away. 

You need only murmur to Lord 
Hilary "such and such a person ?j 
very poor, or in trouble," for him ta 
exclaim instantly, "Eh? What can I 
do for him?" 

It was owing to this pleasant pecu- 
liarity — I am afraid it is a peculiarity 
— that I had the courage to try 
and interest him in Betty McNaught- 
en. "A charming girl, and so clever 
about gardens," said I. I knew that 
would strike the right note ! Then I 
went on, as we walked up and down 
under the famous pergola curtained 
with banksia roses, and told him all 
about her. How she was twenty- 
four, and had left school at sixteen to 
take care of her father, Major Mc- 
Naughten, when her mother was 
killed and the Major had his back 
broken, in that dreadful railway ac- 
cident which everybody in England 
must remember, between seven and 
eight years ago. How the girl's de- 
sire, ever since she was a child, had 
been to grow up and be a "lady gard- 
ener.